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Commander-hi-Chie! in Scotland at the Restoration 

{From mi Engraving at the liritixh Museum") 


.. . 1661-1688 / '_. 

TOtb Memoirs of tbe 




Editor of " English Army Lists and Commission Registers, 1661-1714," 

" Irith Army Lists, 1661-1685 " ; " The Blenheim Roll," 

" The Waterloo Boll Call," d-c. 








IN the attempt to fill a manifest void in Scottish military history, 
I have received much courtesy and help which I wish to gratefully 

Major-General the Hon. Barrington Campbell, C.V.O., C.B., 
kindly brought to my notice, in January, 1905, the two folio 
volumes of type-written Records relating to the early history of 
the Scots Guards, which he presented to the Regiment when he 
was Colonel. General Campbell employed Mr. Andrew Ross, 
Ross Herald, to compile the Records in question from original 
documents in H.M's. Register House, Edinburgh, and from other 
reliable sources. I am much indebted to Major-General Inigo 
Jones, C.V.O., C.B., for his courtesy in permitting me to see, and 
make extracts from, these Scots Guards' Records, when he was 
Colonel of the Regiment. I wish to add that the extracts I made 
were entirely confined to the lists and dates of commissions of 
officers serving in the Scots Guards from the year of the raising 
of this Regiment to the Revolution. A few of the names I 
extracted were those of officers whose commission registers are 
conspicuous by their absence at the Register House or elsewhere. 
To Mr. Ross belongs the credit of having unearthed these same 
officers by patient research among old Scottish deeds, where, but 
for him, they might have lain dormant until the crack of doom. 

Many extracts from, and not a few copies of, unpublished 
letters in that rich mine of wealth known as The Laudenhile 
Papers, preserved at the British Museum, are given in the following 
pages, and throw fresh light on the services of Scottish officers 


during a momentous period. Mr. G. T. Longley, of the MS. 
Department at the British Museum, has been of great help to me, 
not only by his successful researches among The Lauderdale Papers 
on my account, but for his reliable transcripts of letters and 
documents. And Mr. Henry Paton, M.A., has also rendered 
valuable assistance by the thoroughness of the work he did 
for me at the Eegister House, Edinburgh. 

Among others who have given me information of one sort or 
another, I wish to mention Mr. A. 0. Curie, W.S. ; Mr. W. K. 
Dickson, Curator of the Advocates' Library ; Mr. L. H. E. Taylor, 
one of the Assistants (1st Class) at the British Museum; and 
Mr. Francis Grant, Kothesay Herald. 

As to the illustrations, my best thanks are due to Mr. Morkill, 
M.A., of Newfield Hall, Bell Busk, Yorkshire, for his kindness in 
permitting me to reproduce the plate giving photographs of 
Montrose's forearm and hand ; also the great Marquis's sword, 
showing the shield with the arms of Montrose. The aforesaid 
relics, which are in Mr. Morkill's possession, are fully described 
in a scholarly and deeply interesting paper contributed by this 
gentleman to The Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, 1896. As Montrose is only incidentally mentioned in 
the following pages, it may be thought irrelevant to give illus- 
trations of these relics. But having referred on page 5, Part I., 
to the interment of the great Marquis's scattered limbs in 
St. Giles's Church, on 14th May, 1661 ; and having given a 
footnote on same page to the effect that Montrose's withered 
arm had been preserved by a Mr. John Graham, a landowner 
in Hemingbrough parish, I feel bound to impart the fresh 
information on such an interesting subject which has reached 
me, at the eleventh hour, thanks to the courtesy and help of 
the Rev. William C. Murray Clarke, Vicar of Monk Fryston, 


FIGS, i AND 2. Back and front view of Montrose's hand and forearm. 
FIG. 3. Sword showing shield with arms of Montrose. 

( Reproduced by kind permission of J. \V. .Workill, />y., M.A. See Preface.) 


Lastly, I am indebted to Mr. Scargill-Bird, Secretary Public 
Eecord Office, for kindly allowing me to have the Duke of 
Monmouth's cancelled commission as Captain-General of the 
English Army, in 1678, photographed, as well as the Order, in 
the English Council of State's Entry Book, for the apprehension 
of Major-General Dalyell on his escape from the Tower of London, 
1652. In this connection I must, as on previous occasions, 
acknowledge the courtesy and assistance I have received from 
Mr. Salisbury, Superintendent of the Literary Search Rooms, 
Public Eecord Office. 




1st January, 1909. 



PREFACE - iii-v 

INTRODUCTION xiii-xxvii 

CHAPTER 1. The Personnel of the Scots Army - 1-4 

CHAPTER II. The Earl of Middleton, Captain-General of the Forces, 

1661-1663 - - 5-10 

CHAPTER III. The Earl of Rothes, Captain-General of the Forces, 

1664-1667 - 11-16 

CHAPTER IV. Lieut.-General Thomas Dalyeli, Commanding the Forces 

employed against the Covenanters, 1666-1667 - ... 1728 

CHAPTER V. Colonel the Earl of Linlithgow, Acting Commander-in- 

Chief, 1667-1674 - 29-34 

CHAPTER VI. Sir George Monro, Major-General Commanding the Forces, 

1674-1677 - 35-42 

CHAPTER VII. The Earl of Linlithgow, Major-General Commanding the 

Forces, 1677-1679 - 43-51 

CHAPTER VIII. James, Duke of Buccleuch aiid Monmouth, Captain- 
General of the Forces in England and Scotland, 1679 52-59 

CHAPTER IX. Lieut.-General Dalyeli, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, 

1st November, 1679 23rd August, 1685 - 60-66 

CHAPTER X. George, Earl of Dumbarton, Commander-in-Chief of the 

Forces, May-June, 1685 - 67-69 

CHAPTER XI. Lieut.-General Wm. Drummond, Commander-in-Chief of 

the Forces, 7th October, 1685 23rd March, 1688 - 70-77 

CHAPTER XII. Lieut.-General James Douglas, Commanding the Forces, 

24th March, 1688 llth December, 1688 78-87 


His Majesty's Troop of Guards, 1661-1684 - 3-9 

Troop of Life Guards, commanded by the Earl of Rothes, 1664 10-12 

His Majesty's Foot Guards (raised September 1662), 1662-1684 13-30 

Garrisons, 1661-1683 - ... 31-39 

Artillery, 1661-1685 - - - - 40-45 

Commissions to General Officers, 1666-1684 - 46-47 

Lieut-General Wm. Drummond's Regt. of Horse, August, 1666 March 

1667 - 48 

Lieut.-General Dalyell's Troop of Horse, August, 1666 - 49 



The Duke of Hamilton's Troop, August, 1666 

Lieut-General Dalyell's Regt. of Foot, August, 1666 

Non-Regimental Appointments, 1666-1684 

Muster Roll of the Gentlemen of his Excellency General Dalyell's Troop, 

1667 - 

Muster Roll of Lieut.-General Drummond's Troop, 18th September, 1667 - 
Muster Roll of the Duke of Hamilton's Troop, 1667 
Muster Roll of the Earl of Atholl's Troop, 16th September, 1667 
Muster Roll of the Earl of Airlie's Troop, 17th September, 1667 
Muster Roll of the Laird of Halton's Troop, 18th September, 1667 - 
Muster Roll of the Earl of Annandale's Troop, 18th September, 1667 
Muster Roll of the Earl of Kincardine's Troop, 16th September, 1667 
Muster Roll of the Earl Marischal's Troop, 20th September, 1667 
Muster Roll of the Earl of Dundee's Troop, 17th September, 1667 - 
Muster Roll of Lord Drumlanrig's Troop, 18th September, 1667 
Lord Carnegie's Troop of Horse, raised in March, 1667 
Muster Roll of Sir Wm. Bannatyne's Company, 18th September, 1667 
The Garrison of the Forts in Shetland, 1667 - 
Appointments made by Lieut.-General Dalyell in 1667 

Laws and Articles of War for the Government of his Majesty's Forces in 
Scotland, 4th January, 1667 - - - 

Commissions to ten Companies of Foot to be levied in Scotland for service 
with the Fleet or elsewhere, 13th March, 1672 

Lists of Three Troops of Horse raised in August, 1674 - - - 

List of Major-General Sir George Monro's Regt. of Foot, raised in 
August, 1674 - 

List of Lord James Douglas's Regt. of Foot, raised in February, 1678 

Troop of Horse levied in Scotland by the Marquis of Montrose, March, 1678 

Two "Companies" of Dragoons raised in May, 1678 

Additional Company of Dragoons raised in September, 1678 

Two Highland Companies raised in September, 1678 

Three new Troops of Horse raised in September, 1678 

List of Charles, Earl of Mar's new-raised Regt. of Foot, September, 1678 - 

Troops of Horse and Dragoons sent to Scotland in June, 1679, to join the 
Duke of Monmouth 

Members of the Duke of Monmouth's Suite, when he came to Scotland in 
June, 1679 - 

List of his Majesty's Regt. of Dragoons [Scots Greys], 25 November, 1681 

Muster Rolls of the Companies in the Earl of Mar's Regt. of Foot, June, 

List of the King's Regt. of Horse, December, 1682 - ... 




















JAMES VII., 1685-1688. 


List of the Troop of Life Guards, March, 1685- 141 

List of the Royal Regt. of Horse, March, 1685 - 142-143 

List of his Majesty's Regt. of Dragoons, March, 1685 - - 144-146 

List of the Regt. of Foot Guards, March, 1685 - 147-150 
List of the Earl of Dumbarton's Regt. of Foot (2nd Battalion), May, 1686- 151-153 

List of the Earl of Mar's Regt, of Foot, March, 1685 - 154-158 

" New raysed Scots Regt. under Colonel Wachop, March, 1688 " - - 159-161 

Garrisons and Independent Companies, 1685-1688 - - 162-164 

Commissions to General Officers, 1685-1688 - - 165 

Artillery Warrants and Commissions, 1685-1688 - 166 

Non-Regimental Commissions, 1685-1688 - - 167 

Special Service Officer sent to Scotland, 1685 - 167 

Commissions for Brevets, 1688 - 168 



Petition of James Wemyss, General of the Artillery in Scotland - 171-172 

Declaration by the Earl of Lauderdale relative to James Wemyss - 172 

Demission of his Office by James Wemyss, General of Artillery 173 

Leather guns in the possession of the Countess of Wemyss, 1685 - 173 

Resignation of his Offices by the Earl of Middletoii, 1664 - 174 
Letter from Major Sir James Turner of the Foot Guards to the Earl of 

Lauderdale, 1664 - 175 
Establishment of his Majesty's Forces, October, 1667 - 176-177 
Testimonial (in Latin) of nobility to Sir John Urry's children from 

Charles II., 31st October, 1658 178 

Translation of above - 179 

Orders to Major Wm. Cockburn from the Council, 1668 - - - - 180 

Letter from Lieut.-Colonel Sir George Curror to the Earl of Linlithgow, 1670 180 

Establishment for the new-raised Forces, 1674- 181 

Pay Lists of the King's Troop of Life Guards, 1676 182 
Letter from James Murray, Clerk to the Life Guards, to Lord Strathmore, 

1678 - 182 

Certificate by the Duke of Buccleuch and Monniouth, 1680 - 183 
Establishment for the Troop of Life Guards aud the Garrison of Edinburgh 

Castle, 1684 - 183 

Will of Sir Wm. Ballantyne (sic) - ... 184 

Will of Dame Janet Balvaird, widow of Sir Alex. Thomson - 184 

Will of Colonel Wm. Urrie - 185 

Will of Lieut.-Colonel George Winraham 185 

Will of Lieut.-Colonel John Windram (sic) - 186 

Will of Captain Robert Straiton ... .. . 187 

Will of Dame Christian Hamilton, widow of Sir Mungo Murray of Blebo - 187 

Will of Major John Montgomery, son of the Earl of Eglinton - 188 

Will of Captain Thomas Winraham - ... 188 

Will of James Douglas of Skirling - .... 189 

Pass (in Latin) for Major-General Wm. Drummoud, dated Cologne, 

17th August, 1656 - 190 

Do. for Lieut.-General Thos. Dalyell (same date) - - - 191 
Translations of above Passes - - ... 190-191 
Translation of the letter from the Czar Alexis to Charles II., 3rd February, 

1665, testifying to the bravery and services of Generals Thomas Dalyell 

and William Drummond - 191-192 



Major-General Sir Thomas Morgan, Commander-m-Chief in Scotland 

at the Restoration - Frontispiece 

Back and front view of Montrose's hand and forearm ; sword showing 

shield with arras of Montrose - - Facing page iv 

Blank Commission signed by Charles II. at Paris, 30th December, 
1652, and given to Lieut.-Geueral Middleton to fill in when 
raising troops in Scotland - 

The Earl of Rothes, Captain-General of the Forces, 1664-1667 12 

Major-General John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee 12 

General Thomas Dalyell 17 

Facsimile of the Order for apprehending Major-General Dalyell after 

his escape from the Tower - - ,,18 

Facsimile of letter from General Dalyell to the Earl of Lauderdale, 

15th January, 1667 - Between pages 26 and 27 

George Livingston, 3rd Earl of Linlithgow - - Facing page 29 

Facsimile of letter from the Earl of Linlithgow to the Council, 

12th December, 1667 - 30 

Facsimile of title-page to n Civil War Tract, 1648 - ,, 36 

Facsimile of letter from George, Lord Ross, to the Earl of Linlith- 
gow, 1st June, 1679 47 
Facsimile of letter from Claverhouse to the Earl of Linlithgow, 

1st June, 1679 - Between pages 46 and 47 

Factimile of Order, signed by the Marquis of Atholl, announcing to the 

Earl of Linlithgow the end of his services, 14th December, 1688 Facing page 51 
James Scott, Duke of Buccleuch and Monmouth - ,. 52 

The Duke of Monmouth's Commission as Captain-General of the 
Forces in England, 27th April, 1678, showing how this Commis- 
sion was cancelled by the King cutting out part of his Royal 
signature, &c. - Between pages 54 and 55 

The Battle of Bothwell Bridge - Facing page 57 

Facsimile of letter from the Earl of Dumbarton, when Commandei-- 
iu-Chief in Scotland, to the Earl of Linlithgow, 31st May, 
1685 - - Between pages 68 and 69 

Facsimile of letter from the Czar Alexis to Charles II., 3rd February, 
1665, testifying to the bravery and services of Generals Thomas 
Dalyell and William Drummond - - Between pages 70 and 71 

Miniatures of Count Schonberg, William III., and Lieut.-General 

Douglas - - Facing page 79 


Facsimile of letter from the Earl of Airlie to the Earl of Linlithgow, 

5th June, 1680 - Facing page 12 

Facsimile of the Earl of Linlithgow's Commission from Charles II. as 
Colonel of the King's Regiment of Foot (the present Scots 
Guards) - - Between pages 16 and 17 

Medal John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale - - Facing page 31 


Part II., p. 55. Muster Roll of General DalyelPs Troop. Words in brackets, 
such as " Generall," " Quarter-master," " L.", signify that the troopers named after 
the said brackets were servants to the General, the Quarter-master, and the 
Lieutenant respectively. 

Pages 125 and 133. Muster Bolls of two Companies in the Earl of Mar's 
Begt. The prefix of " Mr." before " Captain-Lieut. Charles Fleeming " and 
" Lieut. John Bell " denote that the Officer had been to a University. 

Page 125. "North p.", in brackets, after a soldier's name, is either to denote 
that he was on duty with a " party " at a northern garrison, and so absent, or else 
that he was under orders for the north. 


Page 71, line 6; also note 1. Principal Alex. Monro's reference in his funeral 
sermon for General Visct. Strathallan to this commander having covered the retreat 
of the Russian Army, on one occasion, with his musketeers, and to the preacher's 
remark that " the Army had been saved by the Swans' Feathers " was thought by 
the writer to mean that the musketeers had worn swans' feathers iu their hats. 
The following note by Major-General Sir Frederick Maurice, K.C.B., to his interest- 
ing article on " The Battle of Agincourt," in the Cornhill Magazine for December, 
1908, explains what the "Swans' Feathers" really were: "Each archer carried 
a stick or staff, pointed at the end, which when firmly planted in the ground was 
about a yard high. These stakes were connected with forage cords, or other cordage, 
and formed a kind of chevaux-de-frise. Such stakes were afterwards called ' Swedish 
Feathers ' in Gustavus Adolphus' time." 


IT is an indisputable fact that Scottish writers have, with two 
notable exceptions,* fought shy of compiling and publishing 
works bearing on the military history of Scotland's first Standing 
Army. And few compilers of Scottish biographical dictionaries 
have thought fit to include notices of certain eminent leaders 
who fought with distinction in the troublous times, between 
1638-1655, and subsequently held high military commands in 
Scotland. Take for instance Chambers's Biographical Dictionary 
of Eminent Scotsmen, which may be termed a standard work of 
reference. Why are Generals John Middleton and William 
Drummond omitted therein ? Let us pass on now to Conolly's 
Eminent Men of Fife. We search in vain through this book 
for information concerning Colonel James Wemyss, a Fifeshire 
celebrity (son of Sir James Wemyss, of Caskieberrie) who was 
for nearly twenty years General of the Artillery in Scotland, as 
well as Master-Gunner of England for a longer period. Here 
we have a soldier and a scientist of the first order who had 
made himself necessary to all the commanders he had served 
under, including the fastidious Earl of Essex ; f and yet, mirabite 
dictit, this same great artillerist has been passed over by Mr. 
Conolly, Mr. Chambers, and Mr. Anderson the learned editor of 
The Scottish Nation. Without entering into the controversy as 
to whether Wemyss's uncle, Colonel Robert Scott, of the Bal- 
wearie I family, was, or was not, the first inventor of leather 

* Mr. Andrew Ross, Ross Herald, brought out in 1885, Old Scottish Regimental 
Colours, a sumptuous work of great value ; and the Marchioness of Tullibardine's 
Military History of Perthshire, 1660-1902, is a splendid addition to local history. 

I After Wemyss had been taken prisoner at Cropredy Bridge, Lord Essex wrote 
to the Parliament oil Wemyss's behalf and said : " A man of his abilities is not to be 
lost." Cat. S.P. Dom., 15 July, 1644. 

} The arms of Scott of Balwearie, Fifeshire, are : " Arg. 3 lions' heads erased 
gules." Sctou's Scottish Heraldry, 1863, p. 116. .. . 



ordnance, it may be briefly stated here that James Wemyss 
(p. 40, Pt. II.) improved on his uncle's guns, and this light 
artillery was extensively used under Wemyss's personal direc- 
tion, by the English Parliamentary army, and subsequently in 
Scotland by the Royalist forces.* Let us quote the words of 
an experienced Artillery officer of the present day on the subject 
of leather ordnance : 

In shooting power the leather guns -were confessedly inferior to metal ones ; 
but it was only when they appeared in the field that soldiers first realised, how- 
ever imperfectly, the importance of another attribute of Field Artillery, mobility. 
These guns were short-lived, it is true ; but when they disappeared their work 
was done. They had afforded the first faint indications of what might be 
achieved by a Field Artillery that could move quickly as well as fire effectively. 
Owing to the backward state of chemistry and metallurgy, the construction of 
such a system was impossible in the time of Gustavus Adolphus ; and it was 
not, in fact, accomplished for more than a century after his death. The creation 
of Horse Artillery in the eighteenth century by the great King of Prussia was 
the counterpart of the introduction of the leather guns in the seventeenth cen- 
tury by the yet greater King of Sweden.! 

There are few subjects relating to Scotland's past which have 
not been thoroughly investigated by what we may term literary 
searchlights. There must, therefore, be some cogent reason 
why the Scottish Army of the latter part of the seventeenth 
century has not received a fair share of attention. We are 
convinced that the obloquy cast upon the officers, as well as 
the rank and file, of this early Standing Army, by contemporary 
and subsequent ecclesiastical writers, has had a deterring effect 
on would-be military historians and biographers. In his preface 
to Old Scottish Regimental Colours the author says : " The details 
of the military history of our country from 1660-1707 have 
hitherto been left to the tender mercies of the ecclesiastical 
historian." In a subsequent chapter we have expressed the 
opinion that Bishop Burnet's charges against General Dalyell 

* Notably at Dunbar. And at the battle of Killiecrankie we are told that Dundee, 
by a desperate and successful charge on the artillery, which consisted of three pieces 
of light leather ordnance, captured the same. Macpherson's Original Papers, Vol. I., 
pp. 369-72. 

t Who invented the Leather Guns, by Lt.-Colonel H. W. L. Hime, late R.A. See 
Proceedings, Royal Artillery Institution, Vol. XXV., No. 12. 


were too severe, and that this Bishop "ran with the hare and 
hunted with the hounds " as suited his own convenience. There 
is a divergence of opinion among literary Scotsmen as to whether 
Gilbert Burnet was, or was not, a reliable authority on " The 
Scottish Troubles." An able writer in The Scottish Historical 
Review * draws attention to " Burnet's employment of hearsay " 
and characterises the Bishop's first great work The Memoirs 
of James and JVil/iam, Dukes of Hamilton as "a one-sided and 
frequently distorted source for the events it describes." Another 
Scottish writer, who holds a brief for the Covenanters, assures 
us in his review of a recent life of Bishop Burnet (which article 
appeared in The English Historical Review t) that the Bishop's 
"low estimate of the Scots episcopal clergy ... is proved 
beyond cavil" by the "recently accessible Lauderdale MSS. 
and Wodrow MSS.," thus testifying to Burnet's trustworthiness 
as a writer. For the sake of argument let us endorse the last- 
named writer's opinion. There is a very remarkable letter from 
Bishop Burnet to the third Duke of Hamilton, written very soon 
after the re-establishment of Presbyterianism in Scotland, in 
which the former " inveighs against the furious temper of the 
Scots Presbyterians, and their continued acts of violence to the 
Episcopal clergy ; which in all appearance, as he apprehended, 
would engage both the King and the English nation to re- 
establish episcopacy in Scotland when the state of the kingdoms 
should be settled," which he specially laments, inasmuch as he 
had counselled the King to make the change in religion recently 
adopted in Scotland. J 

If the worthy, but credulous, Mr. Wodrow ever saw this 
condemnatory letter, he kept its contents to himself. It is only 
fair that it should be quoted here as a set-off against some acts 
of violence, and oppression, said, by various ecclesiastical writers, 
to have been frequently committed by Scots officers and soldiers 
against the Covenanters and their faction. 

* July, 1907. P. 398. 
t July, 1908. P. .581. 

J First Report of the JRoyal Commission on Historical MSS. (London, 1874). 
Appendix, p. 113. 




The unfortunate dearth of military records among the Scottish 
archives, between the years 1660-1667, and the total absence of 
commission registers relating to the Standing Army prior to 
December, 1670,* has been severely felt by those interested in 
the military history of the Restoration period. We all know 
how difficult it is to make bricks without straw. Historical and 
biographical mis-statements are often caused by inability to find 
official documents throwing light on the particular time, or 
persons, we wish to write about. It has been our earnest 
endeavour in the following pages not only to supply additional 
facts, unearthed by careful research, but to correct divers errors 
which have been persistently repeated in all good faith by writers 
in the past. Mr. Wodrow starts his magnum opus with an 
anachronism as to the date of the Cromwellian Army's departure 
from Scotland.! The tradition is that the said troops cleared 
out in the autumn of 1660. This was not so. It is true that 
by Lauderdale's representations to the King a great part of 
the English forces were recalled to England a few months after 
the Restoration,} and the citadels were ordered to be dismantled ; 
but Sir Thomas Morgan, with an infantry regiment 1,000 strong, 
occupied Leith Citadel until May 1662, as set forth in the 
Mercuric Publicus of that date (p. 3). Politic, as well as 
financial, reasons delayed the raising of the five companies which 
formed the nucleus of the corps now known as the Scots Foot 
Guards till August, 1 662. With the exception of one writer, a 
well-known Scottish novelist, it has been universally stated that 

* The valuable set of Warrant Books for Scotland, at the Public Record Office, 
London, only start from Dec. 1670. The preceding volumes have been either irre- 
vocably lost or have found their way into private hands and remained there. 

t Under date of 1661 Wodrow chronicles : "Last year the kingdom was delivered 
from the English army." Sufferings of the Church of Scotland (edit. 1828), Vol. I., 
p. 212. 

J Nicol in his Diary mentions, under date of Sept. 1660, that the Cromwellian 
army was recalled. 

The late James Grant. See his account of the early history of the Scots Foot 
Guards given at the end of his book entitled A Constable of France. Mr. Grant was 
the happy possessor of some early Muster Rolls of the Foot Guards which cannot now 
be trncd. 


the Earl of Linlithgow was appointed Colonel of the Foot Guards 
at its first formation. We have it under Linlithgow's own hand 
(pp. 13, 14, Pt. II.) that he was appointed Lieut.'Colonel of the 
companies raised at Edinburgh in August, 1662, and that he 
had no Company and no Commission. This anomalous state of 
things continued till the beginning of 1664 when Linlithgow 
memorialised Lauderdale on the subject, and the King was 
pleased to appoint the former Colonel of his Foot Guards. 
When the Scots Army was reduced, and remodelled, in October 
1667, the leading officers received fresh commissions ; * but owing 
to the King's natural indolence, Linlithgow's renewed commis- 
sion as Colonel was not signed till 19th August, 1668. t 

Mr. Wodrow is palpably in error when he asserts that the 
Earl of Newburgh was in command of the cavalry at Rullion 
Green. Newburgh, in the absence of the Earl of Eothes, com- 
manded the latter's Troop of Life Guards, as well as the King's 
Troop, and took precedence of all other commanders of horse 
excepting Generals Dalyell and Drummond. The new-raised 
troops of horse, to which Mr. Wodrow refers, were not inde- 
pendent troops, but formed part of General Drummond's 
regiment and were under this Major-General's immediate com- 
mand. Happily for our readers, complete muster-rolls of the 
six new troops (pp. 55-65, Pt. II.) raised for Drummond's corps 
in August, 1666, as well as the rolls of five additional troops 
(pp. 68-76, Pt. II.) raised for the same regiment, early in 1667, 
are preserved at the Register House, Edinburgh, and are as 
welcome to those in quest of military records as is an oasis in 
the desert to the weary traveller. A search among the unpub- 
lished Lauderdale MSS. at the British Museum, has unearthed 
information concerning Lord Carnegie's Troop (p. 78, Pt. II.) 
which was the twelfth and youngest troop of General Drum- 

* In his letter to the Privy Council, dated Oct. 29, 1667, the King writes : " We 
shall speedily send them Commissions." Treasury Records, Vol. I., Register House, 

t The original Commission is in the Editor's possession. See facsimile in this 


mond's aforesaid regiment. This same troop, up to the present 
time, has, apparently, been entirely lost sight of. Lord Carnegie's 
cornet was Sir James Hume of Eccles. Within a week or two 
of joining this troop, Hume got mixed up in a quarrel with the 
Master of Ramsay ; William Douglas, brother to the laird of 
Blaikiston, and the laird of Spot, acted as seconds. All four 
fought on Leith links. This internecine conflict resulted in 
Sir James Hume receiving a mortal wound; and the three other 
combatants did not come off' scatheless. William Douglas was 
tried for the murder of Sir James Hume and found guilty. He 
was executed at Edinburgh. An eye-witness writing from Edin- 
burgh, 9th May, 1667, reports that : " William Douglas, a sweet 
and stately youth, not 21 years, a brave scholar and spirit, was 
beheaded at the Market Cross and died very penitently." * 

An interesting letter from Lord Bellenden to Lauderdale, 
now for the first time printed (p. 81, Pt. II.), brings to light the 
new fact that an Independent Company, under Colonel Ludovic 
Lesley, was raised to garrison the forts in Shetland during the 
first Anglo-Dutch war (1665-1667) and was disbanded before the 
close of 1667. The up-keep of the Shetland garrison seems to 
have been a heavy burden to the Scottish treasury. " We have 
not one farthing money left for dispatch of the most uecessarie 
and urgent occasion," wrote Lord Bellenden to Lauderdale, 
1st December, 1666, "so are we keept emptie handed for sup- 
plying that cursed garison of Zetland." f 

We have referred elsewhere (p. 56) to the misleading descrip- 
tion given in Old Mortality of the Duke of Monmouth's forces 
at Bothwell Bridge. Scott's brilliant, though imaginary, account 
has insensibly affected present-day historians when writing about 
the easily-won victory of 22nd July, 1679. Here is an example. 
The author of A Scots Earl in Covenanting Times, referring to 
the proposed despatch of English troops under Monmouth, to 
reinforce the Scots Army, writes : " In a very short time three 
regiments of foot, three of horse, eight hundred dragoons, and 

* Robert Mein to Williamson. S.P. Dom. 
t Laiiderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 253. 



three troops of grenadiers, together with cannon and ammuni- 
tion sufficient, were on their way to the scene of insurrection." * 
It is quite true that a strong force of horse, dragoons, and foot 
was ordered to be raised to accompany Monmouth to Scotland, 
and commissions were issued lOth-llth June, 1679, f to certain 
officers in aforesaid contingent, but for political, as well as 
financial, reasons the levy of the greater part of the troops in 
question did not take place at all ; and the English troops which 
crossed the Scottish border did not exceed five troops of cavalry 
(p. 56). The cannon promised by the English Government never 
reached Scotland, and the " complete train of field artillery " 
which Sir Walter Scott tells us "accompanied Monmouth's 
army " was non-existent ! We have it on the authority of 
Lieut. John Slezer (pp. 44-45, Pt. II.), who commanded Mon- 
mouth's artillery at Bothwell Bridge, that he "obtained only 
one Gunner to go along with four pieces of Canon (sic) besides 
three men that were pressed from Leith who proved very unfit 
for that service." J 

Whilst on the subject of the engagement at Bothwell 
Bridge we may record, as new and interesting facts, that Sir 
Thomas Armstrong (p. 121, Pt. II.) and James Vernon (Ibid.) 
accompanied Monmouth to Scotland. Armstrong was the 
Duke's jidus Achates and Vernon was Monmouth's secretary. 
It was at Bothwell Bridge that Vernon met Sir James Mont- 
gomery of Skelmorley. Nearly fifteen years later Montgomery 
was arrested in London on suspicion ; he might have escaped, 
for his captors were uncertain of his identity, had not Mont- 
gomery been immediately recognised by Vernon, then Under- 
secretary of State, when the plotting baronet was brought 
before him. 

* P. 235. 

t See Lists of Regiments ordered to be raised in Juno, 1679, given in English 
Army Lists and Commission Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. I., pp. 255-6; also three 
Troops of Horse Grenadiers " new raised forces for to go to Scotland." Ibid., p. 261. 

I See Slezer's report to the Privy Council on " Artillery Concerns " given on 
p. 56. 

Alexander Johustone, brother of the Secretary, to the Earl of Annaudalc, 
9th January, 1693-94. Hist. MSS. Commission, Report XV., Appx. Pt. IX., pp. 62-63. 


Of the nine general officers who respectively commanded the 
Scots Forces from 1661-1688, eight are included in the Dictionary 
of National Biography. We may say that the condensed memoirs 
of these eight Scottish generals are, with one exception,* excellent, 
and have been more or less utilised in this present work. The 
scissors and paste which reviewers always look for, and generally 
find, on the littered-up writing tables of those who compile 
historical works, have been freely used by us, and their results 
are not concealed in the following pages, but openly pointed out. 
We have spared no pains, however, to add fresh information from 
reliable sources, documentary and otherwise, to the memoirs of 
the eight generals in the Dictionary of National Biography as well 
as to amplify the details, necessarily cut short, given therein. Let 
us give as an example the memoir of General Thomas Dalyell of 
Binns. No previous biographical notice of this remarkable soldier 
has, so far as we know, recorded the fact that when the Scots 
officers serving at Carrickfergus, in April, 1643, were required to 
subscribe the Covenant, Major Thomas Dalyell was the only one 
who refused to comply (p. 19). Five years later, Dalyell served 
with Major-General George Monro's Scottish and Irish contingent 
in Duke Hamilton's Army of " Engagers." Where is this fact 
mentioned in any previous memoir of Dalyell ? This commander 
is spoken of by the Earl of Angus, in a letter to the Laird of 
Guthrie, 10th May, 1651, as the "stiff Irish Engager." There 
was a double reason for this happy expression. Dalyell had not 
only come over from Ireland in the summer of 1648 to join the 
" Engagers," but in August, 1650, he left Erin and landed with 

* General Drummond's memoir in the Dictionary of National Biography is inade- 
quate, and misleading in several essential matters. First, Drummond was not 
appointed Major-General in Scotland in Jan. 1666, and the references given to the 
Cul. S.P.D., 1666-7 (pp. 18 and 575) do not bear out the biographer's statement. 
Secondly, Drummond was not restored to his post as Major-General after his release 
from prison in Feb. 1675-6 ; but he did resume his Militia command in last-named 
year. Thirdly, Drummoad did not receive knighthood between 1678-1681. It was 
Wm. Drummond of Hawthorndeu who was knighted by Charles II. Fourthly, the 
two references to the Egerton MSS. are misstated; for " Egerton MS. 15856, 
f. 69\>,"read "Add. JfS. 15856, f. 69b," and "Egerton MS., i. 368" refers to 
"Uuruet's Hist, of His Own Time, Vol. I., p. 368." 


Sir George Monro on the West Coast of Scotland to cast in his lot 
with General Middleton, and the Eoyalists, who had signed the 
" Northern Band and Oath of Engagement " (p. 37). Both 
Dalyell and Monro were taken prisoners shortly afterwards in 
Galloway, and having been forbidden to return to Scotland were 
considered by the General Assembly to have forfeited their lives. 
We now give, and for the first time, we believe, contemporary 
evidence of the aforesaid incident in the careers of two Com- 
manders-in-Chief of the Scots Army : 

" Aue Collonel Daliel and Sir George Monrowe (*ie)," writes Sir Edward Walker 
in his Journal of Affairs in Scotland, 1650, "being taken in Galloway, coming 
out of Ireland, were only saved about the dispute of the place of their execution, 
Sterling being held the fittest, where they had defeated ArgyleV men, * but they 
are siuce happily escaped." t 

Again, no writer in the past appears to have referred to the 
description of General Dalyell's person, sent by order of the 
Council of State to the authorities at certain English seaports, 
with a view to Dalyell's apprehension after his escape from the 
Tower of London in May, 1652. We have thought it well to give 
a facsimile of the " Order " in the Council of State's Entry Book 
for June, 1652, relating to this officer. The description of 
Dalyell's appearance is meagre, but it goes some way to disprove 
the often-repeated tradition that Dalyell never shaved his beard 
after Charles I.'s execution. Beards do not appear to have been 
in vogue with military men at the period in question. If Dalyell 
had a beard when imprisoned in the Tower, it is very certain this 
distinguishing appendage would have been named in the descrip- 
tion furnished to officials at various seaports. And it goes with- 
out saying that when once clear of the Tower Dalyell would have 
shaved his beard so as to add to his disguise. One at least of 
Dalyell's biographers. % in the past, does not endorse the beard 
tradition, as he points to the fact that there are two portraits of 
the General in existence, one of which " painted probably in 1675, 

* On 12th Sept. 1648 ; see p. 36. 

f Printed in Sir Edward Walker's Historical Discourses, p. 182. 

{ Mr. T. F. Henderson. 


by Reilly, for the Duke of Rothes, and now in Leslie House, 
Fifeshire, is without the beard." * 

Among the flotsam and jetsam in the manuscript department 
of the British Museum is a neatly written MS. (20 small pages) 
entitled, " Laws and Articles of War for the Government of his 
Majestie's Forces within the Kingdom of Scotland." This MS. 
bears the date, at the end, of " 4 Jan. 1667." Many searchers, his- 
torical and antiquarian, must have turned over the pages of these 
"Articles of War " (pp. 84-94, Pt. II.), but no one, to our know- 
ledge, ever hazarded a statement in print as to who drew them 
up. We are firmly convinced that they are the "Articles " which 
General Dalyell refers to in several letters (p. 94, Pt. II.) to the 
Earl of Lauderdale from 2nd October, 1666 to 15th January, 1667. 
Under the first-named date Dalyell writes : " I shall send a draft 
of articles so soon as I have communicated it to the Commissioner 
who is at present in Fife." In the last-named letter (loth Janu- 
ary, 1667) Dalyell acknowledges receipt of the "Articles," and 
promises to have them printed. It was customary for the 
General commanding the forces in each of the three kingdoms to 
draw up his own " Articles " on appointment, f As regards 
Scotland, we find that when Sir George Monro was appointed to 
the chief command of the Scots Army, in 1674, he followed 
Dalyell's example and sent a draft of the "Articles" he had 
drawn up to London to be ratified by the King, who returned the 
same in due course. J We get a clear insight into Dalyell's 
character by reading the " Articles " he framed for the Scots Army, 
and for this reason alone they have a distinct historical value. 

In a subsequent chapter we have referred to the reprehensible 
system of torturing prisoners ; but we did not touch upon the 

* Memoir in the Dictionary of National Biography. An engraving from the 
beardless portrait is given in Wodrow's magnum opus, edit. 1828. 

t The Duke of Albemarle drew up his own " Articles of War " when appointed 
Captain-General in 1660 ; he also framed the "Articles" for the army in Ireland, 1661, 
being then nominal Commander-in-Chief in that kingdom. Cat. S.P. Ireland,lG60-l662. 

I The Duke of Lauderdale in a letter to Sir George Mouro, Major-General of the 
Forces in Scotland, writes on 20 Oct. 1674 : " As soon as you send up the Articles 
of War they shall be speedily dispatched." Cat. S.P.D., 1673-1675, p. 381. 


punishment inflicted upon the unfortunate Spence, a follower of 
Argyll, by order of the Privy Council. We are in accord with 
the author of A Scots Earl in his condemnation of the painful 
ordeal to which Spence was subjected, but we cannot agree with 
Mr. Wilcock in his remark that " General Dalziel ... is surely 
the most cold-blooded and revolting personage of that evil time." * 
Mr. Wilcock's words seem to imply that Dalyell, to whom the 
odious task of superintending Spence's torture had been assigned 
by the Chancellor, was the inventor of the cruel expedient 
employed. t Perhaps Mr. Wilcock is unaware that it is a common 
form of torture in China to keep prisoners awake and to rouse 
them up just as they are dropping off to sleep. This special 
torture is doubtless of great antiquity, and Dalyell must have 
been well acquainted with this mode of extracting confessions 
when serving " at the back of Europe." It is difficult for present- 
day historians and armchair critics to fully enter into the strong 
party spirit and dominating passions which swayed the actors in 
the historical events which we so calmly discuss. Those writers 
who denounce Dalyell for his cruelty to Spence do the General 
injustice, as they omit to record the fact that Dalyell sickened of 
the torture to which Spence was subjected, never thinking that 
this civilian prisoner would have shown such Spartan endurance. 
Here is Dalyell's own letter to the Earl of Mar written on 
" 3 Aug. 1684," at the very time Spence was undergoing his 
trying ordeal : 

" Since the Chancellor and Treasurer went to the Shank yesterday, I have Lad 
the phisician and chirurgion with him [Spence] who say if he be not eas'd 
with some sleep he will go mad ; and then all hopes of confession is gone. 
But I mind to make myself quitt of this employment, since they have rob'd me 
of a more honorable one as the enclosed paper will show your Lordship." \ 

The gentleman who prepared the Earl of Mar and Kellie's 
MSS. for publication refers, in his Introduction, to Spence's 

* A Scots Earl, p. 315. 

t Bishop Burnet wrote : " A new species of torture was invented ; he was kept 
from sleep" (Hist, of my own Time, Edit. 1823, Vol. II., p. 417). We do not believe 
that any torture made use of in the 17th century was new ! Ed. 

J MSS. of the Earl of Mar and Kellie at Alloa House, p. 216. 



torture, and remarks that General Dalyell's letter " indicates the 
disgust of that soldier at some of the work he was engaged on." * 
It has been said that the lines on Dalyell in Lag's Elegy, repre- 
senting the General 

" Wringing the bluid frae aff his hands, 
And gconrin' them in brumstane " 

afford a very fine example of Scottish writing ; f but, taken as a 
whole, the elegy itself is far inferior as a poetic production to the 
beautiful elegiac verses to Dalyell, written by an anonymous 
hand, at an unknown date, and quoted in this volume (pp. 65-66). 
Fate decreed that on the death of Lieut.-General Wm. Drum- 
mond (Viscount Strathallan) in March, 1688, the command of 
the Scots Army devolved on the Hon. James Douglas (pp. 78-87), 
Colonel of the Foot Guards, who, as Master-General of the 
Ordnance, had the rank of Lieut.-General. Douglas's appoint- 
ment was far from popular with either the officers or the rank 
and file. He was brave and patriotic ; also a hard-worker who 
never spared himself. But Douglas's over- weening pride, coupled 
with his fussy and fidgety ways, marred everything. Had 
Lord Strathallan's mantle fallen on Claverhouse's capable 
shoulders there would, in all probability, have been fewer 
deserters from the Foot Guards to the Prince of Orange's camp 
(pp. 82-83). We have purposely omitted in this volume to 
descant on Claverhouse's minor services with his Troop and Regt. 
of Horse. Indeed we have nothing new to add to Professor 
Sandford Terry's admirable biography of Viscount Dundee, whose 
life story may be summed up in the words : " This was a man." J 
The biography in question throws new light on incidents in 
Claverhouse's career which have been purposely exaggerated and 
distorted by acrid writers. Take as an example the shooting 
of John Brown, of Priesthill, by Claverhouse's orders, on 
1st May, 1685. Professor Terry's research into this case has 
disclosed the fact that the "Christian carrier" was not the 

* MSS. of the Earl of Mar and Kellle at Alloa House, p. xxi. 
t Memoir of Sir Robert Grierson of Lag, by Lt.-Colonel Alex. Fergusson. 
\ Napoleon must have had this quotation from Shakespeare in his mind's eye when 
he said to Goethe : " Monsieur Goethe vous files un homme." 


guileless Nathaniel as portrayed by Wodrow. Brown had to use 
arms against the Government, and when captured would not swear 
to keep the peace in future. " Bullets and match " were found 
in his house, also " treasonable papers." He was a rebel in every 
sense of the word. There is some slight analogy between the case 
of John Brown the Christian carrier and that of his American 
namesake, John Brown the Abolitionist. Each knowingly, and 
wilfully, broke the laws of the country to which he owed allegiance, 
and each suffered an ignominious death. Each was, speaking 
metaphorically, canonised by those of his own party who were in 
search of a battle-cry to stimulate popular feeling. It may be 
truly said of both these so-called martyrs that 

"John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave, 
But his soul is marching on." 

When James VII. ascended the throne he issued fresh Com- 
missions to all the officers of the Scots Army. Argyll's rebellion 
gave the King an excuse for adding a new Company to the Foot 
Guards (p. 147, Pt. II.), and also to the Earl of Mar's Regiment 
(p. 154, Pt. II.). Three special service officers were sent from 
England in May, 1685, with the Earl of Dumbarton (pp. 67-69), 
who was appointed Commander-in-Chief in Scotland. The three 
officers in question were Captain George Barclay, Lt.-Colonel 
Thomas Maxwell, and Captain Charles Carney. The first, who 
had seen service in France, was appointed " Inspector of the 
Forces throughout Scotland," and had two Commissions of same 
date (2nd May, 1685) : " to be Governor of James Fort,* appointed 
to be built near Stirling Bridge," and " Captain of an Independent 
Company to garrison James Fort" (p. 162, Pt. II.). Barclay 
became notorious, in 1696, as the instigator of the plot to 
assassinate William III. Maxwell (p. 167, Pt. II.), who was sent 
to serve under the Duke of Gordon in the Highlands, as A.D.C. 
and " adviser," had a more honourable career. He served King 
James in Ireland as a general officer, and after the capitulation 

* This fort was never built, and the Independent Company to garrison the same 
was added to the Foot Guards, Major Robert Middleton taking Barclay's place as 
Cuptaia of the Company.- 


of Limerick he passed over to France with two regiments of 
dragoons. In 1693 General Maxwell was killed at the battle of 
Marsaglia, in Piedmont. Captain (afterwards Sir Charles) Carney, 
who had also seen service in France, was given command of the 
newly-raised Company of Guards. On the 31st December, 1686, 
Sir Charles Carney was appointed Lt.-Colonel of the Scots 
Dragoons (p. 145, Pt. II.), also Inspector of the Forces in 
Scotland, " excepting our Royal Regiment of Horse Guards and 
our Royal Regiment of Horse." His pay as Inspector was 100 
per annum.* Sir Charles Carney commanded King James's Re- 
serve at the Battle of the Boyne, where he held the rank of 
Major-General. He was attainted of high treason, 2nd July, 1696. 
It may be truly said of James VII. that he had the real interest 
of his Army at heart, and knew a good soldier when he met one. 
Claverhouse had been the King's protege" from the time that the 
former joined the Scots Army as a Captain of Horse. And John 
Churchill, the great Duke of Marlborough, owed his advancement 
in the Army to the monarch whom he deserted at the Revolution. 
There is something very pathetic in the letter which King 
James wrote to the Privy Council of Scotland from Whitehall, 
29th November, 1688 : 

" Wee have sent this Express to inform you that on the 24th of this instant 
the Duke of Grafton & the Lord Churchill t went off from Us at Salisbury, 
& on the 25th Prince George of Denmark left Us at Andover, when Wee were 
deserted by the Duke of Ormond, the Earl of Drumlanrig, and several others. 
All which Wee had reason to wonder at. But above all, when at Our arrival at 
this place, on Monday night, Wee found Our dearest Daughter the Princess Aim 
of Denmark was gone likewise though as yet Wee know not whither nor on what 
pretext." J 

At the commencement of November, 1688, the whole Scots 
Army (excepting the small train of Artillery which had returned 
to Edinburgh from Carlisle in October), numbering 3,763 officers 

* Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XI. 

I " The Earl of Middleton writes in indignant terms to Visct. Preston of Lord 
Churchill's defection, and tells his lordship, by the King's command, to seize his 
goods and furniture, both at the Cockpit and at St. A\b&ns"flist.MSS.Commissioti, 
Report VII., Pt. II., p. 261 b. 

} Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XIII. 


and men, was quartered in London.* This force included Colonel 
John Wauchope's Eegiment of Scots Foot (p. 158, Pt. II.), raised 
in March, 1688, and chiefly officered by Scotsmen who had thrown 
up their Commissions in the Scots Brigade, in Holland, to serve 
their lawful Sovereign at home. Wauchope served King James 
in Ireland as a Major-General, and fell at Marsaglia in 1693. 

The ^Revolution brought about a change in the British Army 
both as regards Scotland and Ireland. The Standing Armies of 
these two kingdoms ceased to exist as purely Scottish and Irish 
defensive forces. From 1689 there was but one Army for the 
British Isles. England, Scotland, and Ireland had each its own 
Establishment ; but the Eegiments composing the British Army 
were stationed indiscriminately in each of the three kingdoms 
regardless of nationality. It is a noteworthy fact that the Scots 
Foot Guards, which saw service in Flanders under William III., 
and then returned to Scotland, came on the English Establishment 
in 1708, and has never since been north of the Tweed. 


* Marching Orders, 1st November, 1688. War Office MS. at Public Record 





" Soldiers have an undoubted right to claim 
The greatest honours and the most lasting name." 

SCOTLAND'S Standing Army consisted of a mere handful of Troops from 
1661 to 1666. In the summer of the latter year the exigencies of circum- 
stances necessitated a material increase to his Majesty's forces. 

The officers appointed to the new-raised levies during the early years 
of the Restoration were mostly veterans who had served in the Civil 
Wars of Charles I. Some had fought with Montrose, while others 
had served against him. In this same little army were to be found 
" Engagers " who had marched into Lancashire under the Duke of 
Hamilton, and had suffered defeat at Preston by Cromwell. There 
were also not a few devoted Royalists who had fought at Dunbar and 
Worcester. Nor must we omit those tried soldiers who had shared in 
the hardships of Lord Glencairn's expedition and in General Midilleton's 
defeat at Loch Garry. Lastly, there were representatives in Charles II.' a 
Scots Army of some of the oldest and noblest families north of the Tweed 
who had served with the Scots Brigade in Holland and with the old Scots 
Regiment (the present Royal Scots) in France. 

It is an indisputable fact that the Scots Army from the Restoration to 
the Revolution has received scant justice at the hands of Scottish writers 
in general. We may go still further and say that both officers and soldiers 
have been handed down to posterity by Covenanting writers, and 
apologists, as cruel and relentless persecutors. Take for instance the 
Rev. Robert Wodrow's magnum opus on The Sufferings of the 
Church of Scotland. This labour of love, which was not published till 
1726, was chiefly founded on hearsay evidence and the contemporary 
works, and pamphlets, of Covenanters who w^ll knew how to blacken 
their enemies' characters. As a literary compilation, Mr. Wodrow's book 
is entitled to our respect, for every page bears witness to conscientious 
labour and research ; nay more, the mass of documents quoted at length, 
such as Royal Proclamations and Acts of the Privy Council, are of great 
historical value ; but many of the " military atrocities " which are detailed 
at length in the aforesaid work must be taken, in many instances, as gross 
exaggerations. Of course there are some well-authenticated cases of 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

barbarity. It was a cruel age and the Scots as a people were by no means 
behind other nations in this respect. It has been truly said that " war is 
the outcome of the bitterest of man's passions." The guerilla warfare 
carried on in the West of Scotland during the reigns of Charles II. and 
James VII. had a very demoralising effect, not only on those in open 
rebellion against their King, and his Government, but on the troops to 
whose unhappy lot fell the odious task of hunting down, capturing, and in 
some cases executing by martial law those who had voluntarily placed 
themselves outside the pale. 

Before leaving the subject of the so-called military atrocities, we must 
remark on the misleading description of Scots officers given in many of the 
contemporary epitaphs to those Covenanters, and Cameronians, who had lost 
their lives either in, or after, action, or on the gibbet. It is only natural 
that the men who suffered death for conscience' sake should have been 
dubbed martyrs by their own party ; and certain it is that they met their 
deaths, in whatever form it might take, with unflinching courage. But 
for the friends and relatives of these martyrs to compose doggerel epitaphs 
which, in many cases, heap abuse on the heads of the officers who only 
carried out their instructions from the Privy Council, was not in accord 
with the tenets of the Sermon on the Mount which it behoved these hill- 
preachers to practise. 

The sanguinary adjective prefixed to the names of Scots officers, from 
the rank of Commander-in-Chief ' to Subaltern, 8 on some of the tombstones 
to martyred Covenanters, is as puerile as the challenge which children 
were wont to call in at the keyhole of the gate to Sir George Mackenzie 
of Rosehaugh's massive monument in Greyfriars Churchyard : 

" Bluidy Mackinyie, come oot if ye daur, 
Lift the sneck and draw the bar ! " 


It has been asserted that the Cromwellian forces cleared out of Scot- 
land a few months after the Restoration. 8 This is erroneous. An undated 
petition to Charles II., in 1660, from " the Noblemen, Gentlemen and 
Burgesses of Scotland, met at London," prayed his Majesty " that all the 
English forces may be removed out of Scotland, before the sitting of the 
Parliament, and that your Majestie employ such of your Scots subjects as 
you sail (sic) thinke fit for securing of the garisons and the peace of the 
kingdome." * In reply, the King promised to remove the forces as soon as 

1 In the parish of Mauchline is a tombstone thus inscribed : 

" Bloody Dumbarton, Douglas, and Dundee, 
Moved by the Devil and the Laird of Lee, 
Dragg'd these five men to Death with gun and sword, 
Not suffering them to Pray nor Read God's Word ; 
Owning the Work of God was all their crime, 
The Eighty-Five was a Saint Killing Time." 

3 Avondale parish churchyard has a tombstone with this epitaph : 

" Here lie two martyrs severally who fell 
By Captain Inglis and by bloody Bell ; 
Posterity shall know, they're shot to death 
As sacrifices unto Popish wrath." 

' See Wodrow's Sufferings of the Church of Scotland, Vol. I. (1828 edit.), pp. 85 and 242 ; 
also the memoir of Sir Thomas Morgan in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. 
* The Lauderdale Papert (edited by Osmund Airy), Vol. I., p. 33. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

possible. 1 It was owing to the Earl of Lauderdale's influence with the 
King that the four citadels built in Scotland by Cromwell, viz. Ayr, 
Perth, Inverness, and Leith were ordered to be dismantled. The citadel at 
Ayr was given to Hugh, Earl of Eglinton as a reward for past services; 
Perth to the magistrates of the town ; Inverness to the Earl of Murray ; 
and Leith to the Earl of Lauderdale in May, 1662. The garrisons of the 
three first citadels were removed about September, 1660 ; but in conse- 
quence of the large arrears of pay due to the English forces, 2 two Regiments 
of Foot and a Troop of Horse* were retained in Scotland, mostly at Leith, 
till the spring of 1662. The Mercuriua Publicus of 8th-15th May, 1662, 
contains the following notice: 

" Leith Cittadel ' in Scotland May 3. 

" Yesterday Major General Morgan drew forth his regiment of Foot consisting; 
1 ,000 proper men besides officers from the Cittadel of Leith, and made a short 
speech to the Officers and Souldiera, acquainting them how great a value his 
Majesty hud of them, and what care was taken for their present supply both of 
money and clothes, with assurance of speedy payment of their Arrears ; that his 
Majesty had been graciously pleased to design them for honourable service abroad, 
and that he himself (who had so long commanded them in that Country) resolved 
to ship with them, and made no doubt of their readiness to so honorable an 
expedition. Whereupon not one man expressing the least unwillingness, they all 
with great acclamations of joy, both Officers and Souldiers cried out All, All, All, 
to follow him to serve their King and Countrey and so marcht back again into 
the Cittadel where he gave the Souldiers money to drink his Majesties Health." 

Before taking leave of General Morgan it will not be irrelevant to give 
a few details regarding the military career of this distinguished soldier, 
who was Commander-in-Chief of the English forces in Scotland for two 

Thomas Morgan was second son of Robert Morgan of Llanrhymny., 
He served in the Low Countries and under Bernard of Saxe Weimar in the 
Thirty Years' War. In March, 1644, we find a Major Morgan in Fairfax's 
Army who is described as " expert in sieges." And " one Morgan, one of 
Sir Thomas Fairfax his colonels, a little man short and peremptory " took 
part in the siege of Latham House in 1644. On 18th June, 1645, Morgan, 
who is described as " Colonel of Dragoons late under the command of 
the Lord Fairfax," was appointed by Parliament, Governor of Gloucester. In 
1645, Morgan took Chepstow Castle and Monmouth ; the same year he 
took part in the surprise of Hereford and personally led the Horse. In 
conjunction with Colonel Birch and Sir W. Brereton, Morgan defeated, on 
21st March, 1646, at Stow-on-the-Wold, the last Army which the King had 
in the field. He served also at the siege of Raglan Castle in June and July 

1 The Lauderdale Papers (edited by Osmund Airy), Vol. I., p. 33. 

9 " Proceedings in the House of Lords, 20 May, 1661, on the reading by the Lord Chan- 
cellor of a letter from the Parliament of Scotland to the King, when his lordship explained 
that the letter was referred to them because the English Troops not yet disbanded in 
Scotland are 30,000 in arrears, on which a conference with the Commons was ordered to 
consider some speedy mode of paying the same " {Lords' Journals). " Order for a Warrant 
to pay to Sir Thomas Morgan, Commander of the forces in Scotland, 13, 161 fora month's 
pay for 100 horse and two regiments of foot, 21 Feb. 1662. Cal. S.P. Dom. 

3 Under date of December, 1666, is the Petition of Francis Kelly "for payment of 
264 14s. 2d. due to him for service in Scotland as Capt. Lieut, of Sir T. Morgan's Troop 
of Horse which at his Majesty's command he transported at great expense to Portugal." 
Cal. S.P. Dom. 

4 Sir Andrew Ramsay, Lord Provost, was induced by Lauderdale to buy the site of Leith 
Citadel, for the town of Edinburgh, for 5,000. 


THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

same year. In 1651, Morgan was with Monk in Scotland, who requested 
Cromwell to send down a commission for Morgan to be Colonel of Dragoons. 
Morgan took Dunottar Castle after a three weeks' siege, 26th May, 1652, and 
was actively employed against Lord Glencairn and General Middleton in 

Early in 1654, Morgan took the strong castle of Kildrummie, and on 
19th July signally defeated Middleton at Loch Garry. Morgan was promoted 
Major-General and returned to London in the spring of 1657 whither he 
had been summoned by Cromwell to take part in the expedition sent to the 
assistance of the French in Flanders. Major-General Morgan was second 
in command of the English contingent at the taking of Mardyke from the 
Spaniards in 1657. Was wounded at the storming of St. Venant. At the 
battle of the Dunes, 4th June, 1658, Generals Lockhart and Morgan captured 
Dunkirk. Morgan subsequently served in Turenne's Army and was 
wounded at the taking of Ypres. He was knighted by the Protector 
Richard Cromwell 25th November, 1658. Rejoined Monk in Scotland and 
reorganised the English Cavalry in that kingdom. When Monk commenced 
his famous march from Coldstream to London, in 1660, Morgan accom- 
panied his chief as far as York. In the list of the Troops which accom- 
panied Monk from Scotland, we find General Morgan's Regiment of Horse 
and Regiment of Foot. Monk's chaplain, Gumble, thus refers to Morgan's 
Regiments : " Major-General Morgan's Horse : this had been sinful 
dragoons, but now converted into troops ; yet some turned apostates." 
" Major-General Morgan's Foot, which had been Daniel's, now given him 
for his service at this time." 

From York, Morgan returned to Scotland with his two Regiments. As 
Commander-in-Chief, Morgan took a conspicuous part in celebrating 
Charles II's birthday at Edinburgh, 19th June, 1660, and fired off Mons 
Meg with his own hand. 1 On 1st February, 1661, Charles II. created 
General Morgan a baronet. And when the Anglo-Dutch war broke out 
in 1665, the King appointed Sir Thomas Morgan Governor of Jersey, in 
which post he displayed the same military science and energy that had 
distinguished him during his long and eminent career. He is believed 
to have died in 1679, and was succeeded by his son Sir John Morgan, who 
became Colonel of the Welsh Fusiliers in 1692. 

1 The account of General Morgan is chiefly taken from Professor Firth's scholarly memoir 
of the General in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. The following Civil War Tracts have also fur- 
nished information, viz. " Colonel Morgan's Letter concerning his taking the strong Gar- 
rison of Kildrummie from the Highlanders in Scotland ; with his Letter and Summons 
sent to Major Drummond, Major Drummond's Answer thereunto .... And a great Fight 
at Dunkill .... By J. Hill, Secretary to Collonel Morgan, 1654." " The Bloudy Field, or 
the Great Engagement of the English and Scottish Forces beyond Stirling ; with the manner 
how Major Gen. Massey's Lieu, colonel led on the Forlorn Hope against Col. Morgan and 
charged each other with abundance of Courage and Resolution .... 1654." "A true 
Relation of the Routing of Middleton's Army in Scotland, as it was presented to His 
Highness the Lord Protector in two Letters, one from General Monck, and the other from 
Col. Morgan, 1654." General Morgan's Memoirs for the years 1657 and 1658 are printed in 
the Harlr.ian Miscellany (Vol. III.) but in some parts are considered apocryphal. Morgan's 
account of the taking of Ypres reads like truth three half-moons covered with cannon had 
to be taken by assault, two were carried by the English red-coats " who threw the enemy 
into the moat and turned the cannon upon the town." The French were repulsed in their 
attack on the other half -moon. Morgan ordered his officers and men to assist their French 
allies. The soldiers cried, " Shall we fall on in order, or happy-go-lucky ? " Their General 
said, " In the name of God, go at it happy-go-lucky," and " immediately the red-coats fell on 
and were on the top of it knocking the enemy down and casting them into the moat ; " the 
counterscarp was speedily captured, and next morning Ypres surrendered. 





PARLIAMENT was opened in state by the Earl of Middleton on 1st January, 
1661, and on Friday the 18th "it was agreed that a Troop of Horse be 
raised for guarding the Lord Commissioner and Parliament, to assist the 
Parliament in putting their Acts in execution against disobedient persons, 
which the Commissioner was desired to acquaint his Majesty with." In 
the Mercurius Publicus of 21st-28th March, 1661, is this notice : " Edin- 
burgh, March 21. On Tuesday next the Troop which is now levying 
under the command of the Lord Newburgh will make their appearance at 
Edinburgh consisting of 120 men of good experience and known Loyalty." 

Thus was formed the Troop of Life Guards which eventually became 
the 4th (Scots) Troop of Life Guards and survived till 25th December, 1746, 
when it was disbanded. One of the first notable ceremonies in which the 
Life Guards took part was on 14th May, when the scattered limba of 
Montrose The Great Marquis were honorably interred in St. Giles's 
Church. " The Militia of the City and Life Guard of Horse attended the 
Lord Commissioner at that solemnity." * The cynicism of fate decreed 
that Middleton should be the chief mourner at the obsequies of his 
quondam foe, a party of whose soldiers had, in 1645, killed Middleton's 
old father when the latter was sitting by his own fireside. But no one 
knew better than Middleton that the commander is not responsible for 
outrages committed by stray soldiers when out of sight of their officers. 

The protracted stay in Scotland of Sir Thomas Morgan, and his 
soldiers, delayed the levying of the Foot Guards till the summer of 1662. 
Sir James Turner, in his Memoirs, describes the origin of the Regiment: 

"In August, 1662, My Lord Commissioner, the Earl of Middleton, by his 
Majesty's express command ordered Colonel Urry and myself to raise each of us 
a Company of Foot. The third the King has ordained for my Lord Clermont ; ' 
but his father taking it upon him to be his tutor gave the companie to Major 
Thomsone. Shortly after, the Duke of Lenox raised a companie for Dumbarton, 
and the Earl of Mar another for Stirling Castle. All five marched in September 
to Glasgow." 

In addition to the five Companies of Foot Guards, Edinburgh Castle 
was garrisoned by an Independent Company, and Lord Middleton had his 
own Troop of Horse which took rank after the King's Life Guards. The 

1 Mercurius Publicus, 16th-23rd May, 1661. It is recorded in the History of Hemingbrotigh, 
that one of the withered arras of the gallant Montrose, which had been exhibited, in 1650, 
over the gate of Perth, or Stirling, but had probably been stolen, was, circa 1748, in the 
possession of Mr. John Graham, a landowner in Hemingbrough parish. P. 206. 

Son and heir of the Earl of Middleton. Succeeded his father in 1673 as 2nd Earl. 
One of the Principal Secretaries of State for Scotland 26th September, 1682, and one of the 
Extraordinary Lords of Session 15th July, 1684. Adhered to James VII. and was outlawed. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Military Establishment for Scotland under Lord Middleton's rlgime is not 
forthcoming but is thus referred to, among matters of more weighty 
import, in " Privat Instructions to Sir Robeit Moray, which he is desired 
to represent humbly to the King himself," 1 as follows : " There stand 
charged [on the revenue] two troups of hors and 6 companies of foot : 
Secondly, we are informed that his Majestic signd ane establishment for those 
troups much greater than ever Scotland knew ... It is also informed 
that the pay of this Establishment will exhaust 32,000 lib stlin by year." 

The " instructions " to Sir Robert Moray, Scottish Secretary in London, 
were framed and written by Lauderdale, but signed by the Earl of Rothes 
who had been appointed the King's High Commissioner to the Scottish 
Parliament in June, 1663. The document in question made grave charges 
against Lord Middleton as a statesman, and culminated in his dismissal 
from all his high posts. The why and the wherefore of Middleton's 
disgrace are narrated in the following sketch of this great soldier's 
checkered career. 8 

John Middleton, born 1619, was the eldest son of Robert Middleton of 
Caldhame, Kincardineshire. He began his career as a pikeman in Hep- 
burn's Regiment in the service of France. This fact in no way proves 
that he was, as has been asserted, of mean birth ; it was a common thing 
for young men of good family to enter the ranks of a crack Corps and 
work upwards. In 1639, Middleton became a Captain in Montrose's Army 
which made a triumphant entry into Aberdeen, 30th March, 1639. " Upon 
the morne," writes a contemporary chronicler, " being Saturday, they 
came in order of battell, well armed both on horse and foot, ilk horseman 
having five shot at the least, with ane carabine in his hand, two pistolls 
by his sydes and other two at his saddell toir (sic) ; the pikemen in their 
ranks with pike and sword ; the musketiers in their ranks with musket, 
musket staffe, bandolier, sword, powder, ball and match ; ilk company, 
.both on horse and foot, had their Captains, lieutenants, ensignes, Serjeants, 
and other officers and commanders, all for the most part in buff coats and 
in goodly order. They had five colours or ensignes : whereof the Earl of 
Montrose had one, having this motto, ' For Religion, The Covenant, and 
the Countrie.' They had trumpeters to ilk company of horsemen, and 
drummers to ilk company of footmen . . . Here is to be notted, that few 
5r none of this haill army wanted ane blew ribbin hung about his craig, 
downe under his left arme, which they called The Covenanters' Ribbin. 
But the Lord Gordon, and some others of the Marquess' 8 bairnes and 
familie, had ane ribbin, when he was dwelling in the town, of ane reid 
flesh cullor, which they wore in their hatts and called it The Royall 
Ribbin as a signe of their love and loyalltie to the King. In despyte and 
derision thereof, this blew ribbin was worne and called The Cavalier's 
Ribbin be [by] the haill souldiers of the army and would not hear of the 
royall ribbin ; such was their pryde and malice." 4 

1 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 170. The document in question is dated from " Holy- 
rude hous, last July, 1663." 

1 The chief authorities for this sketch are : " Memoir of the Earl of Middleton " in 
the Diet, of Nat. Biog. ; A. Biscoe's Lives of the. Earls of Middleton ; Burton's History of 
Scotland ; A. Cameron's Fettercairn ; Douglas's Peerage of Scotland ; Cromwell's Scotch Cam- 
paigns, by W. 8. Douglas ; Professor Firth's Scotland and the Protectorate ; The Lauderdale 
Papers, edited by Osmund Airy ; Sir George Mackenzie's Affairs of Scotland ; John 
Nicoll's Diary ; Pepys's Diary ; The Spoltiswoode Miscellany, Vol. II. 

1 George, 2nd Marquis of Huntly. Beheaded 30th March, 1649. 

4 John Spalding's History of the troubles and memorable transactions in Scotland, 1624-5. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Viscount Aboyne had blockaded the Bridge of Dee to prevent the 
Covenanting Army entering Aberdeen. A fight took place in which the 
Royalist Troops were worsted. Sir John Seton of Pitmedden is said to 
have been slain by Middleton. 

" His name was Major Middleton 
That manned the bridge of Dee ; 
His name was Colonel Henderson 
That dung Pitmedden in three." * 

In 1642, Middleton entered the English Parliamentary Army and was 
made Major-General after Edgehill. Commanded a large body of cavalry 
at the second battle of Newbury and by his bravery contributed to the 
King's defeat. In 1644, when Middleton resigned his commission, in 
consequence of the " Self-denying Ordinance," he held the rank of Lieut. - 
General in Sir William Waller's Army. He then joined the Covenanting 
forces and was second in command to Sir David Leslie at the battle of 
Philiphaugh where Montrose was routed. The Estates rewarded Middleton 
with 25,000 merks and the command of the forces in Scotland. He pur- 
sued Montrose, burnt the latter's castle of Kincardine, and carried fire and 
sword through Aberdeenshire and parts adjacent. When Charles I. 
ordered Montrose to disband his forces, Middleton negotiated terms with 
the Great Marquis and is said to have granted better conditions than were 
approved of by the Assembly. In 1647, Middleton repressed a Royalist 
rising under the Marquis of Huntly. On llth May, 1648, he was com- 
missioned Lieut.-General of Horse by the Committee of Estates, in that 
army composed of " Engagers," under the Duke of Hamilton, raised to 
rescue Charles I. from the Cromwellians, " but to keep up the Covenant." 
Middleton was wounded at Mauchline Moor, in June, 1648, while dispersing 
2,000 extreme Covenanters who resented the Government's " Engagement " 
policy. He distinguished himself in action at Preston, Lancashire, where 
he was wounded and taken prisoner. Sent to Newcastle and imprisoned 
there, but made his escape. After the execution of Charles I., Middleton 
headed a Royalist rising in the Highlands which was unsuccessful. The 
General Assembly threatened Middleton with excommunication, " but 
having pleaded his own cause in person was allowed to sign the ' declar- 
ation and acknowledgment ' presented to those who had taken part in the 
Engagement." 2 In July, 1650, Middleton joined Charles II. in Scotland, 
but the former, resenting the humiliating conditions imposed upon the 
young monarch by the Committee of Assembly and the Estates, raised 
a Royalist force in the north of Scotland known in history as " The 
Northern Band and Oath of Engagement." This force was joined by 
several of the most powerful Scottish nobles with their adherents, but 
Cromwell's victory at Dunbar over Leslie called for united action against 
the invader, and the " ostracised Royalists " returned to the Covenanting 
fold. Charles bowed to his fate and was crowned King on the basis of 
the Covenants, 1st January, 1651. Middieton was "banned for Malig- 
nancy." He was excommunicated by James Guthrie 8 Minister of Stirling, 
against the advice of influential Covenanters, and did penance in sackcloth 
in the Church of Dundee, llth January, 1651. 

1 Scottish Ballads and Songs, edited by James Maidment, Vol. I., p. 290. 
1 Diet, of Nat. Biog. 

' James Guthrie was beheaded at Edinburgh, 1st June, 1661. His execution has been 
considered an act of revenge by Middleton. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

As Major-General of the Horse, Middleton distinguished himself at the 
battle of Worcester by driving back a wing of Cromwell's Army and was 
wounded. He was taken prisoner and sent to the Tower. Cromwell 
destined him for execution ; but Middleton escaped from the Tower, in his 
wife's clothes, and joined Charles II. at Paris in the autumn of 1652. The 
exiled monarch appointed Middleton Commander-in-Chief of the Royalist 
forces to be raised in Scotland. He left Paris in January, 1653, and 
took with him a number of blank Commissions signed by King Charles 
which he (Middleton) was authorised to fill in with the names of officers 
who joined the Royal Standard. One of these exceeding rare documents, 
on vellum, is still in existence. 1 Before proceeding to Scotland, Middleton 
went to The Hague to try and raise money from the States of Holland 
for his master's cause. It was not till January, 1654, that Middleton left 
Holland for Scotland with sixty Scots officers, ammunition, and a small 
supply of ready money. On his arrival, Middleton found a goodly 
Royalist force in arms under the Earl of Glencairn whom Middleton 
appointed his second in command. The combined forces fought with 
Monk's Troops on several occasions. But on 19th July, Middleton was 
defeated at Loch Garry by Colonel Morgan with the loss of his " white 
charger, gold, papers, and all his baggage." Middleton endured many 
hardships in the fastnesses of the Highlands, and in the Western Islands, 
before making peace overtures to General Monk in January, 1655. 
Monk's conditions were so hard that Middleton would not accept them for 
himself, and in April, 1655. succeeded in escaping to Emden on board a 
friendly ship. He joined Charles II. at Cologne. In 1656, and 1657, 
Middleton was employed by the exiled monarch on a mission to the town 
of Dantzic where he was to try and raise troops, arms, and the sinews of 
war. In this difficult task he had the co-operation of Major James Turner 
and other Scots officers some of whom had been in the service of Poland. 
We are told that " Middleton was well received at Dantzic and raised a 
few men, but the want of money reduced him to great straits, and he was 
obliged to disband them again." a 

At the Restoration Middleton returned to England on the same ship 
with Charles II. On 1st October, 1660, the King created this faithful 
soldier Viscount Clermont and Fettercairn, and Earl of Middleton by 
Letters Patent. The same month, Middleton was appointed Governor of 
Edinburgh Castle and a few weeks later Captain-General of the Forces in 
Scotland, also Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament. A con- 
temporary Scottish diarist thus refers to Middleton's rise to power : 

"And heir is to he observit the singular respectis that the Kingis Majestie 
haid to this Erie of Middletou for his service done to the Kiug in his troubles in 
raising him from a sodjer and maid him a Major [General], thairefter maid him a 
Lord called Fettercairne, thairefter ane Erie and now preferrit him to be his 
Commissioner in Parliament, quhair he wes honored of all his Majesteis subjectis 
for the tyme to his down cuming and attending the Parliament there wes great 
provision and allowance of money and apparell, horses, kotches, and other 
furnitour allotted. Besides he had allowit to him for his table per diem nine 
hundred merk Scottis." s 

1 A fac-simile of this Commission is given as an illustration. The original is in the 
Editor's possession. 

' Scotland and the Protectorate, p. 342 note. 
1 John Nicoll'a Diary, 1650-1667, p. 311. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1638 

In the autumn of 1662, Middleton made a "progress" to the West of 
Scotland accompanied by the Scottish forces. 1 His popularity was gone. 
In the exercise of his high office as Lord Commissioner, Middleton had, 
with the aid of his faction, engineered through Parliament the Acts of 
Indemnity, Billeting, and Fining. The Duke of Lennox, the Earl of Dum- 
fries, and Lord Tarbut were sent to the King with these Acts. Charles is 
said to " have thrown the Act of Billeting into his Cabinet declaring he 
could not follow their advice but at the same time would not betray their 
secret." s The Act in question was " a clause to the Indemnity Act by 
which twelve persons, to be selected by Ballot, should be excepted from 
public service." 8 Middleton had devised this plan for shelving some of 
his political rivals " and by unsparing corruption had succeeded in placing 
Lauderdale, Sir Robert Moray, and Lord Crawford among the twelve." * 
Lauderdale was too astute for Middleton. The former explained the 
purport of the Act to the King and said, " What if they billet me, sir ? " 
Charles answered that the billeters could not meddle with his servants. 
But Lauderdale told the King that he was actually billeted, and the Act 
was passed by the Commissioner without consulting his Majesty. 6 This 
was the real cause of Middleton's disgrace and not, as has been supposed, 
his arbitrary measures for re-introducing Episcopacy into Scotland 
particularly the Act passed by him and the Privy Council at Glasgow, 
1st October, 1662, " by which the clergy who refused to conform to 
episcopacy were deprived of their benefices." 6 This meeting of Council 
was named by the Glasgow citizens " The Drunken Parliament " and is 
thus referred to by Sir Walter Scott : 

" When the Scottish Parliament met the Members were, in many instances, 
under the influence of wine, and they were more than ever obliged to adjourn 
because the Royal Commissioner (Middleton) was too intoxicated to behave pro- 
perly in the Chair." ' 

The Sequel to the Act passed by the Drunken Parliament will be told 
in a subsequent chapter. 

Middleton resigned his Commission as Captain-General 8 5th January, 
1664, and went to reside at Guildford with his friend Thomas Dalmahoy 
who had married the widow of William, Duke of Hamilton. Middleton 
was too good a soldier to be kept long unemployed. On 30th June, 1666, 
he was appointed Lieut.-General of all the Militia Forces in Kent and was 
given a Troop of Horse in 1667. The following May, Middleton was made 
Governor of Tangier and Colonel of the Tangier Regiment. He died at 
Tangier in 1673, the result of a fall downstairs. 

1 " Edinburgh Agt. 4, 1662. The Lord Commissioner is gone hence towards Glascow 
attended with three Companies of Foot, his Guard of Horse and the Earl of Newburgh's 
Troupe." Mercurius Publiats, 9th-15th October, 1662. 

" The Cromarty Book, Vol. I., p. Ixxxviii. 

1 " Memoir of Lord Middleton " in Diet, of Nat. Bioa. 

4 Ibid. 

1 The Cromarty Book, as before. On 9th September, 1663, an Act was passed by the 
Scottish Parliament rescinding two Acts passed the second session of the Parliament ; the 
one for excepting persons from public trust and the other for voting the same by 
billets. Thomson's Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, Vol. VII., p. 471. 

* Burton's History of Scotland. 
7 Tales of a Grandfather. 

* See copy of Middleton's letter to Charles II. resigning his military posts, in the 

10 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Intemperance, during the latter period of his life, ruined Middleton's 
career and occasioned his end. He was patriotic and brave. His soldiers 
loved him as a commander and his officers had perfect trust in his general- 
ship. Captain Peter Mews, who served under Middleton in Scotland, thus 
refers to his General in a letter dated 4th June, 1654 : " I do not think ever 
any man tooke up a game at so great disadvantage, yet he hath hitherto 
managed it so well, that I do not doubt the success." l This was not the 
verdict of an ordinary soldier but of one who had a talent for war, not 
only as a young man, but in his old age, when he occupied an Episcopal 
throne. 2 Lord Clarendon who was no mean judge of soldiers in general 
and commanders in particular says of Middleton : " He was a man of 
great honour and courage and much the best officer the Scots had." Pepys 
records seeing Middleton at Rochester, with other officers, in 1666 : " By 
and by came my Lord Middleton well mounted. He seems a fine soldier 
and so everybody says he is." Baillie, the Scottish chronicler, speaks in 
great praise of Middleton soon after the latter's return to Scotland as 
High Commissioner. And Sir George Mackenzie shrewdly observes in his 
remarks on Middleton as a statesman, that this nobleman's "greatest 
weakness was that he preferred such to offices of trust as were unfit to 
serve him in them, regarding therein rather their interest than his own." 

Sir Hugh Cholmley, 8 who was Surveyor-General for the construction 
of the famous " Mole " at Tangier when Middleton was Governor, has left 
a very appreciative account of the good work done by the latter during his 
term of Government : 

" My Lord Middleton found Tangier very uneasy, because of the heats and 
disputes that were daily happening ; but being great in his quality, and accus- 
tomed to command, tempered his power with so equal a hand, that in a little 
time there was a public harmony and peace. The markets were not only left 
free, but with all encouragement to the traders. The castle which was almost 
falling his Excellency repaired so as, at an easy charge, to make it a house 
convenient and honourable for the character he had of Governor and General . . . 
He repaired York Castle, which was exceedingly ruiuous, though in itself the 
chief magazine for powder and all stores of war, and caused the quay to be made 
at the water-side, for the convenient unlading of vessels and which gives an 
intercourse between the City and the Mole." 4 

1 Scotland and the Protectorate, p. 123. 

a In 1685, Peter Mews, then Bishop of Winchester, offered his coach horses and traces 
for bringing the Royalist guns into position at Sedgemoor ; and what is more, he assisted 
the commander of the King's Artillery in looking after the gunners, and directed their fire. 
In this service Bishop Mews was wounded in his face. At Farnham Castle is to be seen a 
portrait of Bishop Mews in his robes and wearing the badge of the Garter, as Prelate of 
the Order, with a black patch over one cheek. 

3 This Yorkshire baronet visited Edinburgh in August, 1672, and was entertained at 
Holyrood by Lauderdale then High Commissioner. In October following, Cholmley 
entertained the Duke and Duchess of Lauderdale at Whitby, also the Earls of Athol and 
Kinghorn. Memoirs of Sir Hugh Cholmley, pp. 234-5. 

4 Ibid., Part II., p. 78. 




JOHN LESLIE, 7th Earl of Rothes, succeeded Lord Middleton as Captain- 
Qeneral of the Forces. The Governorship of Edinburgh Castle, which had 
been temporarily bestowed on Alexander, Earl of Kellie, when Middleton 
left Scotland in 1663, was conferred on the Earl of Lauderdale by Com- 
mission under the Great Seal dated 8th June, 1664. Rothes had been 
appointed Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament, 29th May, 1663, and 
Captain-General early in 1664. Reference has already been made to Lord 
Middleton's own Troop of Horse, raised in 1661, which took rank after the 
King's Life Guards. Middleton's Troop was disbanded at Stirling, 8th Oc- 
tober, 1663, by the Earls of Linlithgow and Aboyne. 1 A fortnight later, two 
squadrons of the Life Guards and some Foot were sent to quarter " in the 
parts most suspected in the West country." 2 In 1664 Rothes, in virtue 
of his high offices, was allowed to raise a Troop of 80 Horse. The original 
" Establishment " for this Troop is preserved among the family papers of 
the present Earl of Rothes, 8 and has been printed. 4 This Troop was 
designated "Troop of Life Guards under his Majesty's High Commissioner 
the Earl of Rothes." It is interesting to know that when this same Troop 
was disbanded, in 1676, the Royal Company of Archers of Scotland was 

The Earl of Rothes, who was born in 1630, was not what military men 
of the period termed " a man of service," id est an officer who had seen 
much war service. It is true that when Charles II. landed in Scotland, 
in 1650, Rothes was appointed in December of that year Colonel of the 
Fife Regiment of Horse, 6 and that he commanded this corps at the battle 
of Worcester. But he was too young to have learnt much from this short 
period of soldiering, and being taken prisoner at Worcester he was sent to 
the Tower. Rothes was a state prisoner till the spring of 1660, when he 
was finally released ; but for several successive years he was allowed, on 
giving heavy security, to repair to Scotland for several months at a time 
to look after his own affairs there. 6 Rothes joined Charles II. at Breda, 
a few weeks before the Restoration became an accomplished fact, and 

1 Cal. S.P. Dom. 

* The Newts, 29th October, 1663. 

1 The Editor is informed by the Earl of Rothes that he has no other documents relating 
to the Troop of Guards. 

4 Hist. MSS. Comn., 4th Eeport, p. 505. 

5 Bal four's Annals. 

' " Memoir " in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. 

12 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

accompanied the King to England. The King and Rothes were about the 
same age, and the former found the latter a pleasant boon companion. 
Notwithstanding the fact that Rothes's father (the 6th Earl) had been a 
hot Covenanter, the 7th Earl was a strong Episcopalian. On the forma- 
tion of the new Ministry, in Scotland, Rothes was appointed President of 
the Council. 1 In 1662, he was sent to London " to press for the immediate 
establishment of episcopacy."* We must now refer back to the Act 
passed at Glasgow, 1st October, 1662, " by which the clergy who refused to 
conform to episcopacy were deprived of their benefices." Middleton and 
the King were at one in their religious views, and the former, at a meeting 
of the Privy Council in London, expressed to His Majesty, then present, 
" a decided opinion that the Scottish nation, with the recovery of royalty, 
would accept Episcopacy as its natural accompaniment." 8 In this conclu- 
sion Middleton was egregiously mistaken. It is stated that 350 Presby- 
terian ministers abandoned their benefices. 4 This may seem a small 
number for the whole of Scotland ; but as these outed ministers were 
followed by a portion of their respective congregations, who naturally 
resented the change of pastors, the disaffection was more widespread than 
the framers of the Glasgow Act had foreseen. To make matters worse, an 
Act was now passed " compelling people to attend their parish churches." ' 
Fines were imposed, according to rank, on absentees from public worship. 6 
" The Mile Act " required that " no recusant minister should reside within 
twenty miles of his old parish, six miles of Edinburgh or any cathe- 
dral town, or three miles of any royal burgh." 7 These ill-advised 
Acts paved the way for sedition and rebellion, particularly in the 
West of Scotland, where the outed ministers and their followers mostly 

In the summer of 1665 we find Lord Rothes writing to Lauderdale on 
the " disarming the West." This was ostensibly for getting a supply of 
arms, war having broken out between England and Holland. But as 
Rothes was against calling in arms over the kingdom 8 it was obvious 
enough why the western shires were selected for disarmament. In Novem- 
ber of this year, Rothes made a " progress " to the West, the two Troops 
of Life Guards and some infantry attending him. He wrote to Lauderdale 
on 24th November, and gave him a somewhat sanguine view of the disaf- 
fection in the West. 9 

" As to the dispositions of the pipill in the countrie I dear not say thay ar 
woull inclaynd, hot most acnoulidg 1 thinck thay ar uors then I did imagin, had 
thay anie operteunatie, I dear not answier but I judg it mor then probabell thay 
wold underteack [it] tho it wear desperatt anuff, bot as thay ar I du ashour you 
I have not the least aprehensiou of anie furder trubell from them then ther ciping 
[keeping] conventickiels, and prayfit [private] mitings . . . the treuth is, the 
cause of most of this trubell wie [wee] reseffe [receive] in this caynd [kind] is 
ocasioned by sum outlet! ministers against whom both counsill [Council] and 

1 "Memoir" in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. 

* Bishop Burnet's History of his own Time. 

3 Biscoe's Lives of the Earls of Middleton, p. 114. 

4 Burton's Scotland. 
1 Ibid. 

* Ibid. 

7 Ibid. 

8 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 222. 

* Bee Lauderdale Papers, edited by Osmund Airy, Vol. I., pp. 233-4. Rothes's orthography 
is terrible, and even his printed letters need a translation sometimes. 





H ^ 



THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 13 

commission l has proved aganst, and thay have put thomsolffs in disgays [disguise] 
so as when thay preathe thay ar in greay clos 3 and long pediuicks, and it is 
alegied sum of them preathies in masckea, and thes roges stirs up the uimin so as 
thay ar wors than deivils, yay I dear say if it wear not for the uimin uie should 
have litill trubell with couventickils or such caynd of stuff . . . Nou to prevent 
all thes trubell I have dispersed partis throu the cuntrie on[e] of hors I have sent 
... to quartir in the toun of Macklien [Mauchline], and in the neu mills which 
is nir to it ; an other partie hot of ffut [foot] I have sent to ouruien [?] ther 
being no ackomodasione for hors in that pleas, and on[e] I am to send to Galaway 
bothe of horse and fut which I will meack als considerabell as I can, hot I delay 
it till I speak with the bishoup." 

Writing to Lauderdale on 20th March, 1666, on the subject of conven- 
ticles in the western shires, Rothea reports : 

" I have now so separated parties up and doune through thos shyers that it will 
be hard for them to sture and not be catched, and I have heir sent you the doubill 
of the instructions which I have given to the officers commandeinge the parties."* 

Major Sir James Turner of the Foot Guards, had been appointed by 
Rothes to the command of the Troops in the West. There .is no evidence 
that Turner exceeded the " instructions " he received from Rothes. 4 But 
certain it is that his plan of quartering his soldiers on obstinate Cove- 
nanters, and extorting fines from them for nonconformity, hastened the 
outbreak of the insurrection in November, 1666, and nearly cost Turner his 
life when taken prisoner at Dumfries by a party of rebels. 

In view of the continuation of the Anglo-Dutch War and increasing 
disaffection in the West of Scotland, the Government found it necessary to 
increase the Standing Forces in the summer of 1666. Six Troops of Horse 
and ten Companies of Foot were ordered to be raised. The former were to 
compose a Regiment under Lieut.-General Wm. Drummond, and the latter 
were to form a Regiment under General Thomas Dalyell. These two dis- 
tinguished officers had been recalled from the Russian Service by Charles II. 
aoon after the outbreak of the war with Holland. Dalyell was now 
appointed Lieut.-General of the Scottish Forces, and Drummond was given 
the command of Major-General. Rothes as High Commissioner retained 
his post of Captain-General till September, 1667, but the sole command of 
the forces in the field was given to Dalyell, of whom more hereafter. In 
addition to the new levies, three Companies from Lord George Douglas's 
Scots Regiment (which had been recalled from France by Charles II. and 
placed on the English Establishment), were transferred to the Scots 
Foot Guards, and a Company was raised to garrison the Forts in 
Shetland 6 under command of Colonel Ludovic Leslie. 

I " The restoration of the Court of High Commission that institution abhorred and 
dreaded both in England and Scotland intended to attack the Covenanters." Burton's 

II " At this period," writes the biographer of the Grahams, " the dress of the clergy was 
anything but uniform ; they dressed as was convenient, some wearing a green cloak, some 
a blue with a broadsword by their side, and some in grey." The Grahams of Inchbralcie, by 
Frances Graham, p. 169. 

1 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 235. 

4 Sir Robert Moray in a Letter to Lauderdale of 7th November, 1667, thus refers to 
the Commission given to Turner : " It is in general termes ; one article being to exact the 
20 shillings for being absent from Church, and to take such information as he thought Jit when 
ministers did not give it." Ibid., Vol. II., p. 83. 

" These forts were built against the Dutch " (Lauderdale Papert, Vol. I., p. 216 note). 
Before the Pentland business Rothes suggested to Lauderdale that some of the conventicle 
holders should be sent to Shetland to build forts. 

14 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

The six Troops authorised for General Drummond's Regiment were 
raised in August, 1666. These appear to have been Drummond's own 
Troop, Dalyell's Troop, Duke Hamilton's Troop, and the three Troops com- 
manded respectively by Charles Maitland of Halton and the Earls of 
Airlie and Atholl. Between January and May, 1667, six additional Troops 
were raised. 1 Muster Rolls of eleven Troops, at their disbandment in Sep- 
tember, 1667, are given in the body of this work. Only a few of the 
officers who composed Dalyell's Foot Regiment are known, as there are no 
lists in existence of the Companies therein with the exception of Sir Wm. 
Bannatyne's 8 Company, taken when about to be disbanded, in September, 

Passing over for the present the engagement between the Royalist and 
Covenanting forces at Rullion Green, we find Rothes (who had returned 
post-haste to Scotland from London) leaving Edinburgh for Glasgow and 
the West 8 on 7th December, 1666, to take measures with General Dalyell, 
and the Council of War, 4 for crushing out the smouldering embers of 
rebellion. At Glasgow, Rothes received a letter and instructions from 
Charles II., and the former, writing to Lauderdale, promises a strict 
obedience to his Majesty's orders. 6 There is ample evidence from 
Rothes's letters despatched from Glasgow and Ayr, in December, 1666, that 
he showed no mercy to the prisoners taken after the late engagement. 
Some of the severities attributed to Dalyell in Ayrshire by local historians 6 
were really instituted by Rothes himself. " I haipe eeveratie agaynst them," 
wrote Rothes to Lauderdale from Ayr, " and carfull uathing over them 
uill prevent all dangler uhich I am shur I shall go about uith all the 
phaculties of my soull." 7 

From the end of April to the beginning of July, 1667, the Scots Forces 
were encamped on the north and south of the Firth of Forth in view of 
attempted Dutch descents. General Dalyell had the supreme command of 
the Troops till the latter end of June, when a fresh scare, off the East 
Coast, so alarmed the citizens of Edinburgh and Leith, that Rothes left his 
important duties in the capital, and joined the Troops encamped at 
Cockenzie as their commander. Under date of 2nd July, 1667, the 
post-master at Edinburgh sent the following news to Lord Arlington's 
secretary : 

" Sir Jeremy Smith and the privateers have taken many more prizes. The 
trained bands rendez voused at Edinburgh, and the magistrates were especially 
careful to see them well armed, and ordered all to be ready on the first beat of 
the drum. There were two well appointed companies of 1,000 each called mer- 
chant and trades' youths besides 20 companies. Leith is being fortified by 

1 Under date of 2nd April, 1667, General Drummond informs Lauderdale that " The 
fyve new levied troops ar to be mustered and receid in pay at Kirkliston upon the 15 
instant." Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 280. 

8 For reasons best known to himself this officer always spelt his name Sallantyne, and is 
so noted in contemporary letters. See copy of a letter from this officer to Lauderdale in 
Part II., p. 80. 

'. ".Edenburgh, Dec. 8. Yesterday in the morning the Lord Commissioner according 
to his intentions went for Glasgow, the forces having marched two or three days before, 
for their better disposal into quarters." London Gazette, 1666. 

* According to Wodrow, Hamilton, Rothes, and Linlithgow were on Dalyell's Council 
of War. Vol. I. (edit. 1829), p. 81. 

* Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 256. 

* Notably Archibald McKay, author of History of Kilmarnoclc. 
1 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 265. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 15 

planting guns. The Lord General with 2,000 foot and 500 horse lies on the 
watch at Cockency, between Dunbar and Leith, and the Earl of Linlithgow with 
like number the other side of the Forth." l 

On the 10th July, 1667, Peace was signed between England and 

In June, 1667, Rothes was appointed Lord Chancellor for life. This 
step was preliminary to his being deprived of all his other offices. The 
Scots Forces raised in the summer of 1666, were ordered to be disbanded 
in September. The Captain-Generalship was to be abolished. Dalyell 
and Drummond were to be relieved of their commands, there being no 
further occasion for their services. The Scots Army was to be reduced to 
its former strength ; while 20,000 Militia were to be raised as soon as 

On 24th September, 1667, Rothes received the Royal commands to lay 
down his Commission. 2 Before the close of the year he repaired to London 
to give an account to his Majesty of affairs in Scotland. If Rothes had 
any lurking hope that the King would reinstate him in the civil' and 
military offices, of which he had been deprived, he was quickly deceived. 
Under date of 7th March, 1668, Sir James Turner records the arrival in 
Edinburgh of the Earl of Rothes, who said " he had been deprived of his 
Commission as Captain-General." Rothes retained the command of his 
Troop of Guards till February, 1676, when it was disbanded by the King's 

On 29th May, 1680, through the instrumentality of the Duke of York, 
he was created Duke of Rothes. Dying without male issue in July, 1686, 
his dukedom became extinct, but the earldom of Rothes descended to his 
elder daughter Lady Margaret Leslie, who became Countess of Rothes in 
her own right. 

The Duke of Rothes never had the advantages of education when young. 
His talents were of no mean order, and had they been properly cultivated 
he might have left the name of a great statesman behind him. Like 
Middleton he was too fond of his bottle, but, if all accounts be true, he had 
" an extraordinary power of withstanding the effects of liquor." Sir 
Robert Moray has left it on record that " Earl Rothes told me hee lyked 
sogeris above all other wayes of living. That he would be well pleased to 
have none other employment but the command of a Troop of Horse or so 
and that he had rather have 500 a year as a soger than 2,000 any other 
way." 8 Dying in office, as Lord Chancellor, Rothes was buried with great 

" His Grace died in July at his lodgings at Holyrood and the body 
followed by a train of coaches, was taken up to St. Giles' Church ; on the 
23rd August, the great ceremonial took place when the remains were 
removed to the Abbey Church at Holyrood, the procession including the 
Nobility, Officers of State, Lords of Session, Gentlemen and Barons, the 
Clergy, Provost and Magistrates and Council of Edinburgh, and others too 
numerous to specify ; the Guards, the Earl of Mar's Regiment, and other 
Troops, and the whole heraldic establishment of Scotland, six Heralds, six 

1 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1667. 

* Rothes to Lauderdale, 24th September, 1667. Has received the order to lay down his 
commission . . . Bequests Lauderdale to express to the King his " passionat desayr to ciss 
his hands." Ibid., Vol. II., p. 71. 

* Lauderdale Papers, Vol. II., p. 19. 

16 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Pursuivants, and the Lyon King of Arms in person, in his coat bearing 
Defunct's coat of arms, with the assistance of Sir Robert Sinclair of 
Stevenston and Sir Charles Erskine of Alva, Baronets. 

" One little hitch occurred, namely a quarrel for precedence between 
the surgeons and apothecaries which caused the withdrawal of the former, 
the decision being against them. 

" A line of soldiers on each side kept off the crowd. 

" The body was next day taken to Leith, the hearse followed by 
a train of coaches, and across to the church of Burntisland. Its next and 
final stage was to the family burial place at Leslie, attended to the last by 

a procession." 1 

The Genealogist, Vol. I., p. 140. 


(See Memoir, pp. 17-28) 




To any student of Scottish history it must be patent that the Covenanters' 
Rising in November, 1666, had nothing in it of a national character. 
Compare it with the popular movement in 1638 when the great majority 
of Scotland's inhabitants signed the National Covenant, which was the 
precursor of The Solemn League and Covenant of 1643. In 1639, an Army 
of 26,000 men, under General Alexander Leslie, took the field to uphold 
the form of religion which Scotland had adopted in opposition to the 
English liturgy that had been violently thrust upon the Scots by Charles I. 
This Army, which marched to Dunse Law, near Berwick, has its parallel in 
English history viz. " The Pilgrimage of Grace " consisting of an Army of 
40,000 determined men (among whom were many Scots veterans) 1 who 
had risen, in the North of England, in defence of the old Faith against 
which Henry VIII. and the Reformers had dealt sledge-hammer blows. 
The Army of 1537 and that of 1639, carried banners with mottoes uphold- 
ing their respective religious tenets which were of an entirely different 
character. But each Army was alike in being induced to disperse by the 
futile promises of Henry VIII. and Charles I. Here the simile ceases, for 
whereas the Pilgrimage of Grace came to a sudden end, the Covenanting 
Army reassembled, in 1640, stronger than ever. What this Army accom- 
plished in England is too well known to recapitulate. 

From 1643 to 1651 Scotland was under the curse of ecclesiastical rule. 
In order to escape the thraldom of Episcopacy the Scottish nation, almost 
unanimously, declared for the most extreme form of Presbyterianism. 
The Church fabric which had been erected with infinite pains by James VI. 
and Charles I. came toppling down. Bishops were sent packing. Let us 
see what the Scots gained when they achieved the longed-for change of 
Church government. " Every parish had a tyrant," wrote Drummond of 
Balhaldy, " who made the greatest Lord in his district stoop to his 
authority. The kirk was the place where he kept his court ; the pulpit 
his throne or tribunal from whence he issued out his terrible decrees ; and 
twelve or fourteen . . . enthusiasts, under the title of Elders, composed 
his council. If any, of what quality so ever, had the assurance to disobey 
his orders, the dreadful sentence of excommunication was immediately 
thundered out against him, his goods and chattels confiscated and seized, 
and he himself being looked upon as actually in the possession of the 
devil, and irretrievably doomed to eternal perdition, all that convened 
with him were in no better esteem." 2 

1 See chapter on " The Pilgrimage of Grace and its Sequel " in The Noble House of 
Howard, Vol. I., pp. 195-226. 

2 Memoirs of Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel, printed for the Abbotsford Club, 1842, 
pp. 87-88. 


18 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Besides assuming the Church power of Pre-Reformation days, the 
Covenanting ministers forestalled the doctrine of infallibility and conducted 
themselves as men who could do no wrong. Royalists who were termed 
" Malignants " were not only excommunicated when in Scotland, but 
forbidden to return, if out of the Kingdom, by the all-powerful General 
Assembly. We have already seen how Middleton was excommunicated 
and obliged to do penance in sackcloth. And there were officers of high 
rank and birth in the Scots Army of 1666 who had been banned and 
outlawed during the Covenanting reign of terror. Viscount Kingston, 
who was present at Rullion Green, had been excommunicated, in 1643, by 
Mr. Robert Balcanqual (who was deposed from the ministry, in 1650, for 
being " accessorie to the divisive supplies") inTranent Church, along with 
his wife, his mother-in-law, and his sister-in-law, because they would not 
" subscryve the Scots rebellious covenant." 1 On 18th May, 1650, an 
Act " excluding divers persons from entering within the Kingdome from 
beyond seas, with his Majestic, until they give satisfactione to the Churche 
and Stait." (sic), was passed by the Scottish Parliament. 2 The names of 
" Thomas Dalzell of Binns " and " Sir George Monro " stand out in bold 
relief in the aforesaid Exclusion Act. 8 

We must now trace the military career of General Thomas Dalyell who, 
at the age of sixty-seven, had been selected by his Sovereign to command 
the Scots Forces in the summer of 1666. 

This distinguished officer was son of Thomas Dalyell of Binns, Linlith- 
gowshire. He served as a Captain in the Earl of Morton's Regiment at 
the siege of Rochelle in 1628.* For the next eleven years we have no trace 
of him. In 1640, Dalyell was serving under Major Robert Monro at 
Aberdeen. The Irish Rebellion broke out in 1641 and Dalyell accom- 
panied Monro to Ireland, in 1642, where the former was subsequently given 
the command of 2,500 Scots with the rank of Colonel. 6 The chief strong- 
hold of the Scottish contingent in Ulster was at Carrickfergus and this 
town was Dalyell's head-quarters from 1643-1648. But it is highly 
probable that he served under General Robert Monro in the field against 
Owen Roe O'Neil and at the battle of Benburb, 5th June, 1646, when the 
Scots were defeated by the Irish forces. 

A letter from Dalyell to Sir John Stirling of Keir is still extant 6 and 
is interesting as it records the state of the Scots Army and the punish- 
ment inflicted on some home-sick soldiers, at Carrickfergus, who attempted 
an escape to Scotland in an open boat : 

" Carrickfergus, 

" February, 1643. 


" YOUERS of the 23 of Januar I reseuit confessing that I am not able to requyt 
the smalist of youer inumerable fauoris, not forgeting youer fauorable sensor (sic) 
you haue on the resons aledgit be me, for not cuming to Scotland this winter, 

1 Tranent and its Surroundings, p. 65. 

"Balfour's Annals, Vol. IV., p. 14. 

'Ibid., p. 42. 

4 Cal. S.P. Dom., 1628. 

'The copy of the King's Warrant dated "8 Feb. 1642 " authorising the Scots Privy 
Council to appoint a Scottish officer Colonel over 2,500 men for the Irish Service, is among 
the Dalyell Papers (Hist. MSS. Comn., Report IX., Pt. II., p. 236) but it does not appear 
when Dalyell received the appointment. 

8 MSS. of Sir John Maxwell Stirling Maxwell. See Hist. 3fSS. C'omn.. Report X 
Appx. I., p. 78. 

<* r 1 * 

V^r^L St^ J \ 

T5* r/HKr* : ^- 

* i n 1 1\ i ^ 

^S { 




~ u 

5 2 a I a = | 

o ^ 

- "- u? o. u * 

I I 1 I I ^ I ' 

(J rt 3 LW 

u O 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 19 

aledging I can ouer cum deficoltayis vhair I heve a mynd [to] try ; onlay I 
maist ingeniusle confes that if their be not a griter kair had of this arme in tymig 
to cum nor hes bein hitherto, nather tempist nor ane thing elis vil lock us ane 
loinger in ignorens and nessessate. For this laist night six of the Lord Genoralis 
soiers did steil a boit from the pier, and resoluit to expois thamseluis to the 
mersay of the sies (who ver after aprehendit in regaird non of them could rone) 
who in this poister intendit for Scotland and ar nou gum of them to be hengit. 

" Thair is laitle sum prouision of meil cum in, so that the General Major 
intends shortlay to the fieldis, and as the euent promis I sal aquent you ; but be 
all apirans ve are not able to stave out aboue eight dayeis, in regaird ve vaint 
horsis for carieng our prouision. So loith to truble you, I rest, youer moist 
oblidgit Seruant UT DAL YELL." 

In March, 1643, four " Kirk ministers " arrived from Scotland " to press 
and tender the Covenant." " On the 4th April," writes the historian of 
Carrickf ergus, " these ministers held a meeting at Carrickfergus, in the 
church of St. Nicholas, at which meeting the Covenant was taken by 
General Munroe, and all his officers, save Major Dalzael, and on the two 
following days by his soldiers and many of the inhabitants. These minis- 
ters preached up the Covenant to be as necessary to salvation as the 
sacrament, hence it was taken with much zeal as if it was the only means 
of preserving both their souls and bodies. On these events being known 
at Dublin, on the 15th, the Government issued an order against taking the 
Covenant, a copy of which was sent to the mayor of this town, and to all 
colonels of the army, ordering them no longer to delay publishing their 
proclamation to that effect." * The adoption by the Scottish forces in 
Ulster of the Covenant caused great disquiet among the Supreme Council 
at Dublin who wrote to the Marquis of Ormonde to this effect : 

" . . . . Wee are informed very many within your quarters . . . have of 
late, by the incitement of fower ministers sent out of Scotland, taken an oath or 
covenant full of treason and sedicion which is destructive to his Majestie's royall 
authority and the freedome and libertie of his Majestie's good subjects in this 
Kingdome." 2 

The next notice we have of Dalyell is contained in a letter signed by 
him and other leading Scots officers addressed : " To his Excellency the 
Lord Marquess of Ormonde," and dated " Carrickfergus 10 November, 
1646." 8 "... For we consider ourselves to be so weakened by our send- 
ing of men into Scotland, and our loss received in the fields, as without 
the conjunction of the British in those parts we cannot be assured of our 
maintenance here . . . and therefore we think it necessary that your 
excellencie would (in case they, the Scots, were sent) give them Drogheda 
for their garrison to be commanded by our officer who shall receive your 
excellence's orders only. 

" Signed Geo. Monroe, Jo. Hamilton, G. Gordon, William Cunningham, 
Geo. Barclay, John Maxwell, T. Dalyell, Robert Kenedie, Da. Monroe, 
Da. Fergussone, Samuel Hamilton, McClellome." 4 

I History and Antiquities of Carrickfergus, by Samuel McSkimin, 2nd Edition, Belfast, 
1823, pp. 51-52. 

II History of Confederation and War in Ireland, 1641-1(549, Vol. III., p. 179 

3 Ibid., Vol. VI., p. 34. 

4 A certain Captain Sir Robert Maclellan commanded a Troop of Horse, in Ulster, in 
1646. He may have been illegitimate son of Sir Robert Maclellan created Baron Kirkcud- 
bright in 1633. This nobleman's ancestor is said to have presented Mons Meg to James II., 
to help him to batter down Thrieve Castle in 1545 ; and the family used as a crest a mortar 
piece with the motto " superba frango." 

B 2 

20 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Irish jealousy in high quarters put an effectual stop to the plan 
promulgated by the Scots officers that their Troops should garrison 
Drogheda, which was considered the strongest place in Ireland. Knowing 
the story of the " Drogheda Massacre," when the town was taken by 
Cromwell in September, 1649, it was fortunate that the request made by 
the Scots officers was refused. There is such a thing as the curse of a 
granted prayer. 

What the Scots officers had foreseen, in 1646, came to pass in less than 
two years. Carrickfergus was taken by Colonel George Monk at day- 
break on 13th September, 1648 ; but Dalyell was not there having 
accompanied Colonel George Monro, in the summer of 1648, to Scotland 
to take part in Duke Hamilton's Expedition into England. The next 
summer, Dalyell served under George Monro (who was knighted by 
Ormonde in 1649) and Viscount Montgomery of the Ards at the capture 
of Carrickfergus 4th July, 1649. On the 29th June, prior to the surrender, 
we find the Presbytery of Carrickfergus thus addressing Lord Montgom- 
ery : l " We must be faithful in warning your Lordship, though the Lord 
knows what heaviness it is to us that the Lord will reward you if you 
repent not for such a betraying of the faithful servants of God, who 
could have plucked out their eyes for you, and the Lord will visit your 
family with sudden ruin and irreparable desolation for that you have 
been so great an instrument to destroy the work of God here." 2 

Dalyell was appointed Governor of Carrickfergus and, on the 1st August 
following, Sir George Monro, Governor of Coleraine and Major-General of 
the Scots forces in Ulster, signed the following Commission : 

" Colerain. 1st August 1649. Thease are giving full power and authority 
unto Collonell Thomas Dayell to lett and dispose of the whole customes henceforth 
growing due out of the severall ports and creekes of Carrickfergus, &c., .... 
Hee the said Collonell Thomas Dayell makeing a perfect accompt unto me 1 of the 
whole profiitt of the said Customes whensoever he shal bee thereunto by me 
called or required." 8 " Sir George Munro." 

Cromwell's victories in Ireland encouraged the Parliamentarians in 
that country to besiege Carrickfergus the end of October, 1649. Dalyell 
made a stubborn defence with his small garrison. He sent word to Ormonde 
that he could only hold out for six weeks if not relieved. We find the 
Irish commander Owen O'Neil (who was a zealous Royalist) writing to Lord 
Ormonde on 26th October, 1649, as follows : " My Lord, the gaineing of 
the Castle of Carrickfergus would highly conduce to the advantage of the 
Enemy, and redownde to the irrecoverable losse of the Province, therefore 
I represent to y oc Ex cies iuditious consideration that a place of such conse- 
quence ought to be relieved, if it possibly may be done." 4 The exigencies of 
circumstances prevented Carrickfergus being relieved. On 4th November, 
Cromwell wrote to Speaker Lenthal : 

" From Sir C. Coote I had a letter that he in conjunction with Colonel 

1 Hugh Montgomery, 3rd Viscount, was born about 1623. His mother was Lady Jean 
Alexander, eldest daughter of William Earl of Stirling (which lady married secondly General 
Robert Monro). As a child, Lord Montgomery had, as a result of a fall, an abscess in his 
left side and when this disappeared it left a large cavity through which the working of the 
heart was plainly visible. Charles I. heard of this phenomenon and sent for Montgomery 
to Oxford that he might see it. Lord Montgomery was a distinguished Koyalist leader in 
Ireland, and at the Restoration was created Earl of Mount Alexander. 

2 Complaints of the Beauti-feu, scorched in his own kindlings. 
8 Hist. MSS. Comn., Report IX., Pt. II., p. 236. 

4 Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland, Vol. II., p. 310. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 21 

Venables hath besieged Carrickfergus which, if through the mercy of God 
it be taken, I know nothing considerable in the north of Ireland but 
Charlemont that is not in your hand." 1 On the 13th December, Dalyell was 
compelled to deliver up the town and castle. The honours of war were 
granted to the garrison and their brave commander. 2 

When the Royalist Troops in Ireland had lost all the strongholds they 
held in that country, Dalyell obtained a pass from Sir Charles Coote to 
leave Ireland (15th August, 1650). He had, as already stated, been forbid- 
den to return to Scotland ; but he did so and was taken prisoner in 
Galloway. He effected his escape. 8 The defeat of the Covenanting Army 
at Dunbar, 3rd September, 1650, was a foregone conclusion. Four thousand 
soldiers had been withdrawn from the Scots Army because they had been 
" Malignants." We are told by a contemporary writer 4 that the men who 
were rejected " were all experienced soldiers, the best in the army." Not 
satisfied with this " purification " the Covenanters deemed it expedient 
that their young King should not accompany their godly host. This was 
not from any regard of his sacred person but due entirely to his unregener- 
ated condition, coupled with " the sins of his father and the idolatry of his 
mother." Thus it came to pass that the King was not present at Dunbar ; 
and three of the most experienced Royalist officers, viz. Middleton, Monro, 
and Dalyell were debarred from offering their services. Many of the 
subordinate officers in General David Leslie's polyglot Army were (accord- 
ing to an English Royalist onlooker of Dunbar Drove) " ministers' sons, 
clerks, and such other sanctified creatures who hardly ever saw or heard 
of any sword but that of the Spirit." 5 These were not the men to try 
conclusions with Cromwell's Army fresh from the conquest of Ireland. 
Leslie took up a splendid strategic position on Doon Hill. Had he kept his 
troops there all might have gone well ; but " yielding to the impetuous 
demands of the Committee of Church and State by whom he was accom- 
panied, and who controlled all his movements, he rashly descended from 
his commanding position." 6 It is said that when Cromwell saw the Scots 
Troops coming down into the plain, he exclaimed : " Now let God arise 
and let His enemies be scattered." He then gave orders for his Army to 
advance and a second Flodden was the result. 

The vast number of prisoners taken at Dunbar, in addition to those 
killed in action and the subsequent surrender of Edinburgh Castle, necessi- 
tated a change of tactics by the heads of the Scottish Government. A new 
Army was formed under David Leslie in which the young King, who had 
signed the Covenants and been crowned at Scone, 1st January, 1651, was the 
centre of attraction. Common soldiers, who had been hitherto debarred 
by " malignancy " from serving, were allowed to join the Royal Army. 
And at the eleventh hour Middleton was appointed Major-General of the 
Horse ; while Dalyell the " stiff Irish Engager " as a Scottish nobleman 

1 Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland, Vol. II., pp. 319-320. 

" The end of the " Articles of Surrender " runs thus : " It shall be lawful for the 
said governor, with the rest of his officers and soldiers to march out of the town with flying 
colours, drums beating, and all the marks of honour whatsoever, and that no soldier of what 
nation soever, though he had been formerly in the enemy's service shall be questioned by 
any cause or pretext whatsoever." History of Carrickfergus. 

3 See Introduction. 

* Sir Edward Walker. See his Journal of Affairs in Scotland. 1650. 


6 Extracted from the "Memoir of General David Leslie (Viscount Newark)" in The 
Scottish Nation. 

22 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

termed him l was chosen one of the two Major-Generals of Foot, 6th May, 
1651. 2 

Charles II's presence with the Scots Army brought many desirable 
recruits to swell David Leslie's forces. This leader showed good general- 
ship in the position he took up on the height between Stirling and Falkirk. 
There the Scots fortified themselves. Cromwell failed to draw Leslie from 
his coign of vantage. After watching the enemy for some months, 
Cromwell crossed the Forth and marched to Perth. This was not accom- 
plished without an engagement with a Scots force at Inverkeithing in 
which the latter were beaten. When Cromwell and his Army had occupied 
the Fair City, Leslie and the King determined to march into England 
where they expected to be joined by many Royalists. In this hope they 
were disappointed ; but having a good start the Scots reached Worcester 
before Cromwell, who by dint of forced marches, came up with the Royalist 
Forces. A battle ensued in which, after a brave resistance, the Scots, who 
were greatly outnumbered, were defeated. Many of the Scots officers 
were killed ; while others who escaped were subsequently captured. 
Among the latter were Middleton, Rothes, Leslie, Drummond, Dalyell, and 
Wemyss the General of the Artillery. The King wandered for six weeks, 
a proscribed outlaw, with a reward of 1,000 offered for his capture, 8 
before he effected his escape to France. Dalyell was sent, with other 
notable prisoners, to the Tower and his estate forfeited. It is on record 
that " an allowance of five shillings per week was given to this officer 
for his maintenance." 4 Dalyell escaped from the Tower in May, 1652. 
The Council of State issued a warrant for his apprehension, on 1st June 
with a description of his person. 6 Dalyell succeeded in reaching the 
Continent and joined Charles II. He accompanied Middleton to Scotland, 
in January, 1654, and was Lieut-General of the Infantry during the 
Highland campaign. Dalyell captured the castle of Skelbo and did other 
good service for the Royal Cause which the exiled monarch acknowledged 
in the following letter : 


" Though I need say nothing to you by this honest bearer, Captain Mewes,. 
who can well tell you all I would have said, yett I am willing to give it you 
under my own hand, that I am very much pleased to hear how constant you are 
in your aifectiou to me. and in your endeavours to advance my service. We have 
all a harde work to do : yet I doubt not God will carry us through it : and you 
can never doubt [fear] that I will forgett the good part you have acted; which trust 
me, shall be rewarded whenever it shall be in the power of your affectionat frind. 

"Colen, 30th December, 1654."* "CHARLES R." 

'Archibald Earl of Angus to the Laird of Guthrie, 10th May, 1651. The Douglas Book, 
Vol. IV., p. 260. 

* 1 : il four's Annals, Vol. IV., p. 297. Dalyell's Commission was signed by Charles II. : 


"Trustie and wellbeloved, wee greete you well ; you have beane represented a person 
of greate abilities and very worthy of charge in our Annies : Therefor wee have apoynted 
youe to be one of the Generall Maiors of Our Army for the Poote . . . Given att Our 
Court att Sterline the tenth of May, 1651, and in the third yeare of Our raigne." 

"To Our Trustie and wellbeloved Colonell Daliell of Binns." Hist. MSS. Comn., 
Eeport IX., Pt. IL, p. 234. 

8 One of the original " Proclamations " is in the Editor's possession. 

4 Cat. S. P. Don., 1651. 

4 S. P. Don. Interregnum, I. 67, f ol. 184. Fac-simile of the " Order " in the " Council of 
State's Entry Book " is given as an illustration. 

6 Hitt. MSS. Comn., Eeport IX., Pt. II., p. 234. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 23 

In May, 1655, Generals Dalyell and Drummond obtained passes from 
General Monk " to go beyond seas," upon their giving security of " 2,000 
a piece for their peaceable living." Dalyell rejoined King Charles at 
Cologne. At his own request, the exiled monarch gave Dalyell letters of 
recommendation to the King of Poland and Prince Radziwill. The Czar of 
Muscovy appointed Dalyell a Lieut-General in the Russian Army and in 
that capacity he fought against the Poles and Turks with distinction l 
In 1665, when Charles II. re-called Dalyell to England this Scots officer 
had the full rank of General in Russia. 

The sudden rising of the Covenanters in the West completely took the 
Scots Privy Council by surprise. They wrote on 27th November, 1666, to 
the Earl of Rothes, who was then in London, informing him of the marck 
of the rebels to Lanark, and from thence to Colinton, " and some parties 
advanced to the eist of Pentland hills, so that in effect this place [Edin- 
burgh] is surrounded. They report their number about 3,000 Horse, and 
their chief commanders to be Collonell Gray, Lieut. Collonell Wallace, 
Major Lermouth, and^some others. . . . Wee are resolved to stay here and 
mantane the King's honor and authority with the forces of the toune and 
such gentlemen of the neighbour shyres as shall resort to us." 2 

Colonel Urry's and Major Thomson's Companies of Guards had been 
left in Edinburgh by Dalyell ; and to these Regulars were added 500 
Volunteer Horse and a like number raised by the College of Justice. 8 In 
the meantime, Dalyell had marched from Glasgow on 23rd November in 
search of the Rebels, " sending out Lieut-General Drummond with a party 
of 200 Horse, and 100 Dragoons, to discover their number and posture 
but met with no opposition." * It was not till 28th November that the 
Royalist forces came up with the Rebels who had succeeded in getting 
within five miles of Edinburgh. Owing to privations, and the disappoint- 
ment caused by the non-appearance of expected sympathisers from the 
East Coast to swell their numbers, many Covenanters had deserted. It is 
computed that when Dalyell engaged the Rebels at Rullion Green their 
force did not much exceed 1,000 men. 5 The official account of the action 
that followed gives the disposition of the Royalist Troops : 

" On the right wing of our Body were placed the Kings two 

Troops of Guards, and the Major Generals Troops, making four Squadrons. On 
the left, the Lieutenant-General, Duke Hamilton, the Earls of Athol and Ayrly, 
each in the head of their Troops, in which serve divers other Noblemen, of prin- 
cipal Note as Volunteers. Who all behaved themselves with much gallantry in 
the action more eminently the Lieut-General Deyel and Major-General 
Drummond." 6 

The best account of the action itself is contained in General Drummond's 
despatch to the Earl of Rothes dated " Pentland 29 November, 1666." 

" May it please yo r Gr" 

" I beg you be not offended for my soe long silence, for I had noe resolucon to 
write that w ch would only have vexed you ... 1 shall begin at our March and 

1 On leaving the Russian Service the Czar gave Dalyell a certificate to the effect that 
" he was a man of honour and great experience in military affairs." Hist. MSS. Comn., 
Report IX., Pt. II., p. 236. 

t Lauderd<de Papers, Vol. I., p. 246. 

3 London Gazette, 24th November, 1666. 

4 Ibid. 

'Drummond's letter gives 1,500 ; while Burton, in his History of Scotland, says only 900 

'London Gazette. 

24 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688. 

give you a short ace' of all passages untill this day ; Upon Sunday the 18th inst. 
Our march began from all our severall Quarters and upon tuesday the 20th wee 
met att Glasco, wee spent Wednesday in preparacons for what wee wanted . . . 
and in consultacons with my Lord Glasco and y e other Noblemen who com- 
anded ; Thursday the 22th the horse watched kilmarnock and the foot upon 
friday at much adoe, there we understood that the rebells were convened at 
Machlin with all their force and a resolucon to fight us, they had been in Air and 
taken about 200 Armes of all sorts out of the tolbooth ... all the Gentlemeus 
houses they searched for horses and armes And (I beleive) found diverse ready to 
their hands, w ch must bee judged as taken by force ; Saturday the 24th wee came 
to Machlin, the rebells were gone to Comnock and from thence to the Moor Kirk 
of Kyll and to Douglas, wee judged and not amisse that they designed for Cits- 
dale [Clydesdale] Hanylton and Glasco and there upon Sunday took aneerer 
way to stop that course and marched through Evendal to Streven [Strathaven] 
where wee had notice they were at Lethmahago but 4 miles from us ; that Sunday 
they knowing of us as they used to have quick Intelligence of us of our motions 
in a Countrey of their owne friends disaffected to us, they passed the river Glyde 
to Lenricke [Lanark] their foote in 2 boates w ch imediately they sunk and forded 
w th their horses not without danger the river being great. Upon Monday the 
26th Our fore partie had a view of y m on the rivers side over ag st us, as if 
they meant to forbid our passage, but when our body of horse began to appeare, 
they marched off and kept a lusty rear guard with more order then could 
have been hoped from then ; wee past the ford instantly deep and strong, w ch made 
us very doubtfull whither it was wadable by the foot and followed them 4 miles 
on their reare, but in regard of the distance from our foot and approach of y e 
night, could not with any reason engage with them ; wee got over the foot that 
night with much danger but not one lost ; tuesday wee followed the rebells track 
for 8 miles through a black mosse and marking their way to make for huhghgour 
(?) ; wee were affrayed of Edenburgh and bent our course to tarfichens [Torp- 
hicken] bather, the rebells had marched on Monday from Lenrick to Bath kt. Huth- 
goar [Bathgate . . . ? ] and were at Collintone 2 myles from Edenburgh, on 
Tuesday the 27th by midday to our admiration whatever their designe or invitacou 
was for soe desperate a march they found their plot p'vented ; wee judged rightly 
they would gett of to Bigger and betook us to fall in their way going over the 
Pentland Hills at Currie, our fore party of 100 horse discovered them on their 
march towards Linton the bigger way near a place called Glencors Kirk and with 
great boldnes sett upon them, and endured the danger to face all their strength, 
horse and foot, untill our cavalry far behind came up and that spent near 2 houres, 
soe had God blinded these fooles to neglect their advantage, our party being in a 
ground whence they could not come of [f] ; some sharpe charges past in this 
time, w ch the rebells gave and received with desperate resolucon to our prejudice, 
at last our horse comes on and gave breathing to that weary party, but our foot 
was yet 4 miles from us, wee found it convenient to draw from that ground very 
advantageous for their foot w ch they after much consideracon began to employ 
ag 5 ' us but wee prevented them and got of [f] a little to a better ground where 
they made a fashion to annoy us without any gaine ; so soon as our foot came up 
wee put ourselves in order and embattled in a faire plaine upon their noses ; they 
upon the hill above did the like but gave us noe disturbance tho well they might ; 
by this time the sun was sett, wee must make haste and advanced a partie of horse 
and foot from our right hand to assault then- left wing of horse w ch instantly came 
doune and met them, and there the work began, wee fought obstinately a long 
time w th swords until they mixed like chessmen in a bag ; wee advanced our right 
wing and they their left to give reliefe ; there againe it was disputed toughly ; 
then came a strong party of foot from their body and forced our right wing back 
to the foot in some disorder, but this was instantly rectified, their right wing of 
horse came from their ground foolishly and crosses their foot, apprehending their 
left wing to be in distresse, wherein they were mistaken and soe gave our left 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 25 

wing their slack, w ch opportunity wee had hold on and there went their cavalrie 
in disorder ; our whole body then advanced and beat in their horse upon their 
foot ; then confusion and flight followed ; wee pursued in the dark, killed all the 
foot and but for the night and steep hills had wholly destroyed them. Some 
prisoners there are fitt for examples, I know not how many, but I conjecture not 
above 140, for there was sound payment. Our losse I cannot tell, but it is 
greater then many of their skins were worth. Their number was about 15 or 
1600 and would without doubt have encreased if God had not confounded their 
Imagmacons and rebellious dispositions. Upon Monday the rebells swore the 
Covenant at Lenrick, and all to die in defence of it ; most of these who led their 
troupes were cashiered preachers. 

" Now I trust yo' G ce is at ease 
" I am yo r G ces 

" Most obedient & most humble Serv' 


The King's letter to General Dalyell when news reached Court of the 
defeat of the Rebels, is still in existence and runs as follows : 

" LIEUTENANT-GENEBAL DALYELL, having received a full account of the 
happy success you have had against the rebells in Scotland, and the great care 
and diligence you have used in the suppressing of it, I could not but give my 
hearty thanks for it myself, by letting you know how well I am satisfied with 
your conduct and zeal in my service, assuring you that you shall always find 
by the effects the sence (sic) I have of those who serve me so well as you have 
done, and that you shall have reason to believe that I am your very loveing friend 


"Whitehall, 5 December [16]66." 

On 3rd January, 1667, Dalyell and Drummond were sworn in Members 
of the Privy Council. 8 

Turning our attention now to the Covenanters captured after their 
defeat at Bullion Green, we cannot fail to remark on the absence of men 
of note and position among the prisoners. The military leader of the 
insurrection, Lieut-Colonel James Wallace, 4 had a name to conjure with 
and was a professedly good officer. So also was Captain John Paton 6 of 

1 This letter (from the " Carte MSS " in the Bodleian Library) is printed in the Scottish 
History Review for July, 1906, pp. 451-2, and is thus endorsed : 

"Letter from Major Genrll Drummond to the E. of Rothes of the defeat 
of the Rebells in Scotland 29 Nov. [16] 66. Kec. 4 Dec. 1666 in a letter from the Lord 

2 Letter addressed : " Our Right Trusty and Wellbeloved Generall T. Dalyell, Our 
Levtenant Generall of all Our Forces in Scotland." Hist. MSS. Comn., Report IX., Part II., 
p. 235. 

" Edenburgh Jan. 5. 

8 On Thurday last, by virtue of his Majesties Orders, Lieutenant General Deyel was 
admitted and sworn one of his Majesties most Honourable Privy Council, and accordingly 
took his place : the same Honour, being likewise to oe conferred on Major General 
Drumond at his arrival here." London Gazette. 

4 Served in the Civil Wars and with Lord Lome's Foot Guards in 1650. Escaped to 
Ireland after Rullion Green and from thence made his way to Holland. " He was an elder 
in the Scotch Church at Rotterdam some years before his death in 1678." A Scots Earl, 
p. 149. 

5 Fought under Gustavus Adolphus. Was with Cromwell at Marston Moor and with 
Charles II. at Worcester. Served at Bothwell Brig with the Covenanters. Executed 
9th May, 1684, at the Grassmarket, Edinburgh, when about 80 years of age. " The Cove- 
nanters said the Bishop of Edinburgh deliberately held back a reprieve obtained from the 
King by Dalyell." Paton's Bible is preserved at Lochgoin. 


26 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Meadowhead who had fought under Dalyell at Worcester. But there 
were very few others of the same calibre. We are told that 
outed ministers served as captains and lieutenants under Wallace ; 
but it is very certain that the bulk of the rebels consisted of men who 
were not entirely new to soldiering. We have it on Sir James Turner's 
authority that when he was a prisoner in the Covenanters' hands, at their 
tirst outbreak, he was astonished at the martial appearance of the Cov- 
enanters, who went through their drill like old and disciplined soldiers. And 
Turner's opinion of their fighting qualities was amply borne out by the 
stubborn resistance of the rebels, both Horse and Foot, at Rullion Green. 
It leaked out, after the rising had been crushed, that the insurrection was 
not to have taken place till the following March, or April, and then to 
have been on a much larger scale. Turner's harsh measures with the 
Western Covenanters, coupled with a natural anxiety to capture him and 
take over the large sum of money which he had collected in fines, had 
precipitated matters. 1 But there is no evidence to show that any influential 
Scotsmen would have joined the insurrection had it not been forestalled. 

Bishop Burnet, in his Memoirs of my own Time, has made charges of 
cruelty against Dalyell in the latter's treatment of his prisoners. Burnet's 
charges were made on hearsay evidence. In 1666, Burnet was the Episcopal 
minister of Saltoun and it may be said of him that " he ran with the hare 
and hunted with the hounds " as suited his own interest. He qualifies his 
remarks on Dalyell's cruelty to prisoners by recording how this old cam- 
paigner forced people, in the Western shires, to go to church. Dalyell 
did not fine them for non-attendance, as Turner had done, but he quartered 
soldiers on them till they resumed their church duties, in order to get quit 
of their unwelcome boarders. " The clergy," says Burnet, " were so 
delighted that they used to speak of that time as the poets do of the 
golden age." 

Dalyell made no secret of his hatred to the Covenanters and their 
cause. He styles them " a damnet crue," and suggests "extirpation" as 
the only way to stamp out the rebellion. 2 By "extirpation" Dalyell 
meant transportation to Barbados, Virginia, and New England. Writing 
to Lauderdale from Kilmarnock on 27th December, 1666, Dalyell says : " It 
simis this laist [rebellion] if it had not been mistymd had bein muth moir 
terible, and no piple heve with moir egernes soight after rnarterdom then 
thir Roigis [rogues] to karay thair desyn or deye ; mane of the vimin 
upbraden thair husbends and children for not deyen on the pleis. " a 

In another letter from Kilmarnock dated 15th January, 1667, Dalyell 
says there will be no peace in Scotland till all the " non conform Minesters 
be baniched and the puretan laidays sent to beir them cumpane." 4 

In the 17th century the Scottish peasantry were very ignorant, super- 
stitious and credulous. They were ready to believe any cock-and-bull 
story spread by local agitators to serve their own end. It was commonly 
reported among the Covenanters that Dalyell had roasted prisoners when 
serving with the Russian Army. He had been openly called " a Muscovy 
beast who roasted men" by a prisoner who was being examined by the 

'Robert Mein, the Edinburgh post-master, writing to Joseph Williamson (Lord Arling- 
ton's secretary) on 20th November, 1666, says " the money which the rebels took from Sir 
J. Turner they gave to their troops." 

2 Dalyell to Rothes, 29th December, 1666. Lauderdale Papers. Vol. II., Appx. p. Ixxv. 

3 Ibid., Vol. I., p. 266. 

4 See fac simile illustration. The original letter is in the Editor's possession. 



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THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 27 

Privy Council. A sample of Scottish credulity regarding Dalyell's 
supposed cruelty may be quoted here : " The building adjoining Binns 
called ' The Oven ' is said to have been used by General Dalyell to roast 
Covenanters there ; but the oven was really required for baking bread for 
the Regiment of Scots Greys raised by him." 1 

Many of the cruelties attributed to Montrose were libels spread by the 
Covenanters when the Great Marquis turned Royalist. And when Crom- 
well invaded Scotland it was reported that his savage soldiery would cut 
off the breasts of all married women. To the peasantry Cromwell was an 
avenging power, second only to God Almighty, and the records of a Kirk 
Session, in Fifeshire, contain a proof of this assertion in an awful curse 
by a Scotswoman against her own parish : " God or fire," said the blas- 
phemer, . . . . " and ridd lows come upon the haill town as it did before, 
and God and Cromwell come and tak' all the town upon his back, if she 
were out of it," for which she had to do severe penance. 

Sir John Lauder (Lord Fountainhall) tells us in his interesting Historical 
Notices that Generals Dalyell and Drummond are popularly supposed to 
have introduced torture by the thumbscrew " having seen it in Moscovia." * 
Lauder's statement is an anachronism which other writers have repeated. 
But the learned editor of a nineteenth century edition of Wodrow's 
magnum opus proves that the thumbscrew was known in Britain long 
before Dalyell's time : " The Council are wrong in calling the ' thumb- 
kins ' ' a new invention ; ' they are the same as the thumbscrews which 
were found on board the Spanish Armada, specimens of which are shown 
in the Tower of London." s 

The old saying that " it is easy to find a stick when you want to beat 
a dog " is exemplified in the case of another unpopular Scotsman, in a 
high position, whose memory has been equally traduced, with Dalyell and 
Drummond, in the matter of the thumbscrew : " James, 4th Earl and 1st 
titular Duke of Perth is especially notorious as having added to the re- 
cognised instruments of torture the thumbscrew." 4 

The system of torture to which the Covenanters, and other prisoners, 
were subjected in the reigns of Charles II. and James VII. was barbarous 
in the extreme and utterly inexcusable. In this respect the sufferings of 
the Covenanters and Cameronians are entitled to the commiseration of all 
true Britons. 

In April, 1667, Dalyell marched to Leith with his Regiment, and some 
Troops of Horse, a Dutch Fleet having been descried on the East Coast. 
Captain John Strachan, in a letter to the Navy Commissioners dated 
" Leith, 30 April, 1667," writes : 

"Sixteen Holland men of war came to the road yesterday evening . . . The 
Hollanders never discovered any colours until 8 o'clock when our three men of 
war went up the Forth near Dungarve. The town of Leith was in a pretty 
labyrinth, but by good luck General Dalzell't regiment came to Leith. Mean- 
time the Hollanders sent in two small vessels, sounding about the bar and beacon 

but the wind proving southerly they went off to the road. About 8 next 

morning the rest, above twelve sail, were discovered turning up the Forth, but 
did not come above the island of Inchkeith ; the other sixteen ships went over 
against the town of Burntisland and played their cannon against the forts, the 

1 The Annandale family Book, Vol. I., p. ccxxxix, note. 

2 Historical Notices, Vol. II., p. 557. 

"Dr. Robert Burns's edition. Glasgow, 1829, Vol. IV., p. 33. 
4 See " Memoir " of this nobleman in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. 

28 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

castle of the town bravely answering them with the petty force they had. This 
continued until 5 in the evening. Think they shot above 700 pieces of ordnance 
but the damage is not certain. ... no man killed. These men of war seeing 
they could not prevail set sail to their consorts like so many dogs that want the tail, 
and are driving with the tide and wind down the Forth with their foresail on the 
mast." ! 

Robert Mein, Post-master at Edinburgh, reported to Lord Arlington's 
secretary (Williamson) on 30th April, that : 

" Thirty two Dutch men of war sounded the coast but General Dalzell cut the 
beacon at the extreme of Leith harbour so that they were confused and battered 
Burntisland with a thousand shot. The town returned it with twenty pieces of 
cannon and in less than two hours, 10,000 men were in arms at Burntisland and 
many at Leith." s 

The bombardment of Burntisland is humorously referred to by Captain 
John Strachan in a letter to the Navy Commissioners dated from " Leith, 
4 May, 1667 " : " All the damage done by the Hollanders was that they 
killed a hen and a rat that had built in an old chimney." 8 

The disbandment of the Scots Forces raised in 1666 was followed by 
Rothes, Dalyell, and Drummond, being relieved of their commands. The 
handful of Troops which composed the Scots Army was left without a 
general officer for seven years. During that time the Earl of Linlithgow, 
as senior officer, acted as commander. 

In the autumn of 1667, Dalyell went to London. The outcome of his 
appearance at Court was a " Letter under the Great Seal by Charles II. 
referring to the appointment of General Dalyell in 1666, and that he had 
satisfied the King by his fidelity. Therefore the King grants a full 
exoneration to the General of all his offices and frees him from all action 
and all omissions made by him while executing his Commission. Signed 
at Whitehall, 8 April, 1668." * 

Daly ell's sword remained in oil till July, 1679. 

1 Col. S. P. Dom., 1667. 

3 Ibid. 

4 Hist. MSS. Comn., Report IX., Pt. II., p. 236. 

George Livru^flon E ail of Linhtk^cnr 

From an Original t>n R\Vhite. 

(See Memoir, pp. 29-34.) 




WHEN the Scots Forces, raised in 1666, and early in 1667, were disbanded, 
the Privy Council ordained that " the field officers of the Foot Guards 
should command in chief, and give orders in camp, or garrison, both to 
horse and foot, at home and abroad, wherever they are." 

George Livingston, 3rd Earl of Linlithgow, who was born in 1616, had 
suffered severely during the supremacy of Cromwell. At the Restoration 
he was made a Privy Councillor and in September, 1662, was appointed 
Lieut.-Colonel of the Foot Guards : then newly raised. 1 It is recorded 
that " Lord Linlithgow was forward in the attack at Pentland," a and he 
was one of the Privy Councillors at the Court of Commission held at 
Glasgow, 17th December, 1666. In May, 1667, we find Linlithgow, with 
part of his Regiment and some other Troops, guarding the north shore of 
Firth of Forth, a Dutch Fleet having been sighted off the coast. While so 
engaged an English frigate entered the mouth of the Forth, and landed 
80 musketeers. These new-comers were found pressing Scots seamen for 
service on English war-ships. Lord Linlithgow, with his Company of 
Guards at his back, demanded from the English soldiers by whose authority 
they acted ; and getting no satisfactory answer sent them back to their 
ships without any Scots sailors. 8 

In September, 1667, the three Companies which had been transferred, 
in the summer of 1666, from Lord George Douglas's Regiment to Lord 
Linlithgow's Guards were struck off the strength of the last-named corps, and 
were under orders to rejoin Douglas's Scots Foot in France. In consequence 
of not having been paid their arrears, a mutiny broke out in the ranks of 
these three Companies. The men refused to give up their arms or embark 
at Leith. Hearing of this Sir James Turner of the Guards took immediate 
steps to restore order. " I sent Lieut. Leviston 4 of West Quarter," writes 
Turner in his Memoirs, "who belonged to these mutinous Companies to 
tell the mutineers I was coming to hear and redresse their grievances." 6 
When Turner appeared on the scene he harangued the men and promised 
that they should receive their pay. This had the desired effect. The 
three Companies were disarmed and disbanded at Burntisland. 6 The 

1 See List of the Foot Guards for 1662 in Part II., p. 13, and notes thereto. 

2 Robert Mein to Williamson, 28th November, 1666. Cal. S.P. Dom. 

3 Capt. John Strachan to the Navy Commissioners, Leith, 9th May, 1667. Cal. S.P. 

* James Livingston of West Quarter (eldest son of Wm. Livingston styled of West 
Quarter from his wife's estate) who married Lady Mary Hamilton widow of Alex. 2nd 
Earl of Calendar. James Livingston was created a Knight Baronet by William III., 
30th May, 1699. Died in November or December, 1701. Scottish Notes and Queries, 
Vol. II., p. 81. 

5 Memoirs, p. 198. 6 Ibid. 

30 THE SCOTS AKMY, 1661-1688 

ringleaders were imprisoned by order of the Earl of Linlithgow until 
7th November, 1667, when the Privy Council issued a warrant to his 
lordship directing him "to cause sett to liberty the persons imprisoned by 
him for their accession to ane late mutiny and that immediately after 
the departure of the French officers with the companyes levyed be [by] 
them." 1 

On the 8th August, 1667, the Privy Council brought about a new 
method of paying the Troops. " Wee have this day altered the methode of 
paying the old troopes and companies," wrote Sir Robert Moray from 
Edinburgh to Lauderdale in London, " which was such a one as since 
Cesar's dayes was never practised in Europe, Africa, nor Asia. It was in 
a word this : The whole 2 troops and six old foot companies at the 
beginning of every quarter, used constantly to get assignments up on 
selected shires for three moneths pay to come. So that they were alwise 
so far from being in arriere that they were still payed a full quarter of a 
year by advance. The fitness of changing it was so represented to the 
officers that they acquiesced easily, being assured of good pay monethly 
as their pay falls due." 2 

Let us see how this new system worked, and what advantage the Scots 
Troops derived therefrom. 

Two thirds of the soldiers in Colonel Borthwick's Company of Guards 
mutinied the beginning of November, 1670, and deserted. Captain 
Wishart, with a Company of the Guards, was sent in pursuit of the 
mutineers. 8 The outbreak was a very serious one. The Duke of Hamilton 
in his letter to Lauderdale, on 14th November, 1670, only voiced public 
opinion when he wrote : " Its generally said that the Foot have great 
provocations being so ill payed that they ar naked and starving." 4 The 
Privy Council made a searching enquiry into the why and the wherefore 
of the Guards' mutiny, and on 17th November, 1677, " upon consideration 
of the examination and declaration of the whole persons, the Committee 
finds that the whole Company hes bein ingaged by oath to the said mutiny, 
albeit 34 of them did not goe out with the rest, and these that went out did 
renew their oath to stand by the colours. They find that since March was 
a year the company hes only receaved two shillinges a weik, and that the 
eightein pence they want weikly of the King's pay, will amount to ten 
monethes pay or therby which will be resting to them." B 

The King wrote to the Privy Council : " 22 Nov. 1670. You 
are to publish such of the articles of war as you think necessary to be the 
rules of martial law for the Foot regiment, the 2 troops of Horse, and 
the garrisons of Edinburgh, Stirling, and Dumbarton that mutiny may be 
punished and military discipline preserved." 6 

Is it surprising that when ill-paid, ill-fed, and ill-clothed soldiers got 
the chance of pillaging and extorting money they did not always let the 

1 Acts of (he Privy Council, 1661-67, p. 737. 
" Lauderdale Papers, Vol. II., pp. 31-2. 

* Warrant from the Privy Council, dated 13th November, 1670, to Captain Wishart " who 
is to aid in pursuing the mutineers." This Warrant (which was recently sold at an Edinburgh 
auction room) was signed by the Earl of Morton, Earl of Caithness, Lord Halkerton, Lord 
Bellenden and Sir Robert Murray. 

4 Add. JUS. 23134, f ols. 142-143. Lord Linlithgow's letter to Lauderdale, 29th November, 
1670, refers also to the mutiny in Col. Borthwick's Company (Ibid., fol. 151). And Borth- 
wick's letter to the same on 10th December, 1670, gives more details. Ibid. fol. 155. 

* Acts of the Privy Council, 1667-73, pp. 421, 422. 
6 Cal. S P. Dom., 1670. 

W&HWL fir? 

Letter from the Earl of Linlithgow to the Council, izth December, 1667 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 31 

opportunity slip ? Owing to the paucity of officers, it was often found 
expedient to send out small parties under the command of non-commissioned 
officers to patrol disaffected districts in the West. There is no doubt 
whatever that this system of patrolling the country led sometimes to 
irregularities on the part of the soldiery, who tried to fill their empty 
stomachs and gaping purses at the houses of those who were, rightly or 
wrongly, suspected of being Covenanters or even harbourers of those in 
arms against the Government. Sir Walter Scott has admirably depicted 
in Old Mortality the modus operandi of Sergeant Bothwell and his party 
of Troopers when on patrol duty in Covenanting times. The picture 
is true to the life. But we have a contemporary account from the pen of 
a, gallant nobleman, who was actively employed with his Troop after the 
Pentland business, of the misbehaviour of his soldiers when out of sight of 
their officers. 

" I told you in my last," wrote the Earl of Annandale to his cham- 
berlain from Newbie, 13th July, 1667, " I had sentt some of my troup to 
Galloway. This people were together [but] ar now in six and sevines 
robing and pillaging in the counttrey. Thay spoyle poor peoples houses, 
and frightts all the ministers, and that is all thay doe." * 

Excesses by the soldiery were the outcome of absolute want. We have 
it under General Drummond's own hand in April, 1667, that the Forces 
were " in great necessitie of money . . . even neer to disorder, if my Lo. 
Comissioner, the Generall Dalyell and Sr William Bruce 2 had not upon 
their particular creditts and sureties advanced a considerable supply for 
present releef." 8 So scarce was hay and straw that four Troops had to be 
removed from the West " lest that place should totally be layd wast." 4 It 
ought to be some satisfaction to the Scottish nation to know that during 
the Anglo-Dutch war of 1666-1667 the English people were ground down 
by taxation and oppression of every kind ; nor was the lot of the soldier 
any better in South Britain than it was north of the Tweed. Here is a 
letter to the King bearing date 30th June, 1666, from an Englishwoman, 
who, for obvious reasons, conceals her name and address : 

" The people are in a desperate condition ; housekeepers so oppressed 
with taxes that they dare not open their doors, or the taxgatherer will 

carry away a bed or a dish they say a soldier may venture life or 

fortune and yet perish for want as many have done since the Restoration. 

Householders pay and soldiers are unpaid People scoff and say, 

; be a soldier, no ! we have precedents daily in the streets, we will fight no 
more, for when the war is over we are slighted like dogs.' People say ' give 
the King the Countess of Castlemaine and he cares not what the nation 
suffers.'" 5 

England and France declared war against Holland, 17th March, 1672. 
The English Government had to face the old difficulty of raising and 
paying additional forces. A Regiment of T,000 strong was raised in 

1 The Annandale Family Book of the Johnitunes, Vol. I., p. ccxi. 

a Younger son of Robert Bruce of Blairhall. Distinguished for his loyalty. Was 
Surveyor-General of Scotland and designed Holyrood House as it now stands. Created a 
Bart, by the title of Sir Wm. Bruce of Balcaskie, 21st April, 1668. Acquired the lands and 
barony of Kinross where he built a splendid residence. Died 1710. 

8 Laudenlah Papers, Vol. I., p. 279. 

4 Ibid. 

!> Col. S.P. Dom., 1665-6, pp. 477-8. "Request to Major Miller to deliver the above 
letter to the King for it concerns his life." Directed to " Capt. Miller at the Cockpit 

32 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Ireland and sent to England for service with the Fleet. The command of 
this corps was given to the Duke of Buckingham. The Irish Establishment 
was also drawn upon for twelve Companies which were formed into a 
composite Regiment. 1 A Marine Regiment was likewise levied in England. 
Charles II. had, before war was declared, turned his attention to Scot- 
land. He wanted an Infantry Regiment, 1,000 strong, levied in that 
Kingdom, " for service with the Fleet or elsewhere," and to be paid by the 
Scottish Treasury. Under date of 18th January, 1672, the Scottish 
Commissioners of the Treasury wrote to Lauderdale : 

" Wee have hade under our serious consideration his Majesties proposall 
for haveing a regiment of 1,000 foot lea vied in this kingdome, and payed 
by it, to serve him in England, either at sea or land. But wee find it 
impossible that his Ma ties revenue in this Kingdome can have that 
charge over and above what is already upon it." 2 Ten Companies of 100 
men each were raised in Scotland by the middle of March, 1672, and 
Scottish officers of good family appointed thereto. The Colonelcy was 
left vacant till 25th July, when it was bestowed on Sir Wm. Lockhart of 
Lee, one of the most distinguished Scotsmen of the time. Whatever class 
of society Lockhart's soldiers were drawn from, it remains an indisputable 
fact that they mutinied, and deserted, showing a marked repugnance to 
foreign service. Ill luck attended this Regiment the whole two years of its 
existence. On arrival at Newcastle under Major Windram, the Scots 
soldiers were ill received by the Newcastle populace who remembered the 
taking of their town by General Leslie's Army in 1640 and 1644. Colonel 
Villiers, Governor of Tynemouth Castle and Commander of the Newcastle 
Garrison, had his work cut out to keep the peace. He wrote to Secretary 
Williamson on 2nd May, 1672, and described the difficulties of the situation 
in consequence of " old feuds " between the Scots and the Newcastle 
townsmen, " the Scotch being somewhat untemperate (sic) now they are so 
very flush of money." It was thought advisable to send the Scots 
Companies to Shields, to be shipped on colliers there for Yarmouth. On 
their arrival at Shields, Captain Giles Bond wrote to the Navy Commis- 
sioners, on 4th June : " Many of the soldiers are Highlanders and unfit to 
serve the King at sea, not being able to speak a word of English." On 
29th June, 1672, the ten Scots Companies embarked at Shields and landed 
at Harwich. Seven Companies were sent to Yarmouth and three to 
Ipswich. Some weeks later Lockhart's Regiment embarked for Flanders. 

On 28th November, 1673, Sir Wm. Lockhart, then in London, informs 
Secretary Williamson of his having been under the greatest persecution of 
ill fortune imaginable and has often had to go into the country to look 
after an unhappy Regiment, which first mutinied and was afterwards 
taken by Dutch capers, at least six Companies, and two more cast away 
near Rye. The capers, after pillaging the soldiers, carried some of the 
Officers to Holland, but put most of the private soldiers ashore in so many 
parts of Kent, and Sussex, that he has had all possible difficulty to 
re-assemble a part of them, and now on his return his Majesty tells him 
" he must be going to France in a few days." 8 

In consequence of the above events, Lockhart's Regiment had to be 
reformed in Scotland. Under date of 9th December, 1673, the King wrote 

1 Irish Army Lists, 1661-1685, by Charles Dalton, Introduction, p. xviii. 

5 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. II., p. 222. 

3 Col. &.P. Don., 1673-1675, p. 36. See biog. notice of Sir Wm. Lockhart in Part II. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

to the Duke of Lauderdale and the Privy Council of Scotland ordering 
" Sir W. Lockhart's regiment to be recruited to the full number of 1,200 
men; they were to authorise Major George Windram to levy voluntarily 
900 men in addition to 200 soldiers from the Earl of Linlithgow's regiment 
and as the King understands a considerable number have deserted 
from that regiment, a great number of whom are now in Scotland, the 
Privy Council are directed to make diligent search for such runaways, and 
to have them punished according to law." l The King also directed the 
Treasury Commissioners " to pay 1,001) sterling, as levy money for these 
recruits, to be paid out of the supply granted towards the expense of the 
present war." 2 And lastly, his Majesty directed the Earl of Linlithgow 
" to draw out of his regiment 200 men and embark them at any convenient 
place on the Forth, delivering them to such officers as Sir W. Lockhart 
shall appoint to receive them, and to recruit his regiment with the like 
number." 8 

Peace was signed between England and Holland, 9th February, 1674. 
The new and old Lockhart levies were disbanded. 

During the seven years that Lord Linlithgow commanded the Forces in 
Scotland he exercised a firm and beneficent rule in the disaffected West. 
Soon after his taking over the command, the Privy Council, in their 
" Instructions to the Forces," state that " The Earl of Linlithgow, 
commander-in-chief for the time, is allowed to change the quarters of the 
soldiers, as he finds meet." 4 Linlithgow had already given his opinion to 
Lauderdale, the King's adviser, as to what steps should be further taken 
for securing the peace and quiet of the Kingdom, viz. 

" (1) That his Majesty should grant a warrand for issuing a proclamation 
discharging all those who had not subscribed the bond for keeping the 
public peace from wearing any airmes, sword, durk, whinger, or any 
other weapon whatsoever, or to have or keep any horses above the value of 
fyftie pounds scottes, after acertane day to be affixt, and that a power and 
warrand may be granted to all sherreiffs .... and other magistrats 
whatsoever to search for and to seize upon all armes, in the possession of 

such persons And that also by the said proclamation it may be 

declaired lawfull for any person whatsoever, who knows of any horses in 
such hands above the value forsaid, to seise thereon, bringing alwayes along 
with him any rnagistrat of burgh, or landwart, or any of their officiers .... 
and in ther presence making payment of the said somme of fyftie pounds 
scots, and in case of resistance (complaint being made to any of the 
magistrats forsaids) that they cause the horse to be delyvered to the person 
who seised the same, without payeing any pryce therfore, and otherwayes 
punish him in whose hands the horse was found, in his person at ther 
discretion." 6 It is to be particularly noted in Linlithgow's suggestions, 
just quoted, that the Civil power alone is mentioned. 

It was not to be expected that the Covenanters would take kindly to 
any measures for securing the peace and quiet of the Kingdom. In the 
summer of 1668, a report was spread that the rebels in the West had again 
risen. The Edinburgh post-master reports : " The Earl of Linlithgow 
inarched horse and foot to Loudon Hill, the surmised rendez-vous of the 
rebels, but found not the slightest appearance of a rebellion ; the Militia 
being now sworn so that in twenty-four hours 20,000 men can be raised 

1 Cal. S.P. Dom., 1673-1675, p. 51. a Ibid. 3 Ibid., pp. 51-52. 

4 Privy Council Act, 9th May, 1668. * Laude.rdale Papers, Vol. II., pp. 96-97. 


34 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

without a groat of charge to the King, there is no fear of future 

attempts." ] 

The Militia does not come within the scope of this work ; but the 

following description of some of the new-raised local Regiments by the 

Earl of Lauderdale, who engineered the Militia Bill through Parliament, 

has a special interest: 

" Halyrudehous, 12 Oct. 1669 I must give you ane account 

of yor militia. In little more then threttie miles I have seen six regiments of 
foote in very good order and well armed, and five troups of horse ; the Duke of 
Buccleuich's first, who was very well, both officers and sogers, and not a blew 
cap 3 amongst them. His troup was very well, but the Lord Newbottle's was the 
best manned that ever I saw Militia troup. The Eurle of Roxbrough's regiment 
were good men and well armed but all blew caps and the officers not to brag of. 
The Earle of Home's was every way well, and the Lord Tester's yet better. The 
militia regiment of this citty was very well. But if the Militia regiment of this 
Shire had not been mine, I would say they looked best because all, both musket 
and pikemen, were in blew coats lined with white, which made a good shew. 
Those six regiments you may depend on to march when and whither you please. 
And thogh I hope you shall not need them yet it is not amiss to have such a body 
ready. I shall doe my best to quicken the rest of the Kingdome." 3 

On 19th October, 1669, the Scottish Parliament met, the Earl of 
Lauderdale being Lord High Commissioner. Under this date the 
Edinburgh post-master sends some Parliamentary intelligence to his London 
correspondent: "All the Members, with lifted hands, took the Oath of 
Allegiance and then subscribed the declaration against the Covenant." * 
But there was a steadily increasing class of men chiefly in the West, " who 
would not even subscribe to the Lord's Prayer if asked to do so." 
Covenanting writers, and apologists, have much to say on the iniquitous 
conduct of the Government in trying to suppress conventicles. There is 
abundant proof that seditious language was rife at the secret meetings 
held by Covenanters, and that plans of a revolutionary character were 
freely discussed by fanatics and irreconcilables. " Our disorders now 
come to that height," wrote Lord Kincardine to Lauderdale, on 20th 
September, 1673, " that it will be very hard to curb them without some- 
thing be further done by the parliament My reason is that not 

only in all parts of the contrie privat conventicles abound, where 
very disaffected persons preach dangerous doctrine, 6 but in many parts 
very numerous field conventicles are keept, at which guards are keept 

by armed men when you are here, and that you have considered 

it, you may thinke it will be necessary wee have some greater force to 
secure our peace then [than] what wee have already." 6 

Lauderdale arrived in Scotland about 1st November, 1073, as Lord High 
Commissioner. Following Kincardine's suggestion he advised the King to 
increase the Scots Army and to appoint Sir George Monro as Major-General 
Commanding the Forces. Lord Linlithgow resumed his post as Colonel of 
the Foot Guards as soon as Sir George Monro's Commission as Major- 
General, which was dated at Windsor Castle, 25th August, 1674, reached 

1 Robert Mein to Williamson, 22nd August, 1G68. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1667-1C68, p. 548. 
1 " The blew bonnet was the headdress of the common Scotch soldiers of the Covenanting 
time .... Buccleuch's guards were probably mounted with steel headpieces." 
1 Lauderdale to the King. Lauderdale Papers, Vol. II., pp. 140-141. 

4 Robert Mein to Williamson. Cal. S.P. Dom. 

5 Not in italics in the original. [Ed.] 6 Laitdc.rdalr, Papers, Vol. II., p. 233. 




" IN the wars of the 17th century," writes a biographer of the Munros 
and Monros, " especially in Germany, under Gustavus Adolphus, there 
were engaged three Generals, eight Colonels, five Lt. -Colonels, eleven Majors, 
and above thirty Captains, besides a large number of subalterns of the 
name of Munro." l 

Sir George Monro, third son of Colonel John Monro, of Obsdaie, Ross- 
shire, was born about 1602. At an early age he accompanied his uncle, 
Colonel Robert Monro to Sweden and served with the Scots Regiment in 
that country. Subsequently, he took part in the German campaign under 
Gustavus Adolphus and, in the absence of Colonel Robert Monro, com- 
manded the left wing of the Swedish Army at Lutzen, 16th November, 1632.* 
George Monro returned to Scotland after the battle of Nordlingen, where 
he had a very high command. " A tradition is current," writes the family 
historian, " to the effect that on his, Monro's, arrival at Newmore he sent 
for a man, Walter Innes, a sincere Christian, much given to prayer and 
residing at Inchnadoun. Upon Walter's appearance at Newmore Castle, 
George Monro asked the godly man where he was and what he had been doing 
on a certain date which he named. Walter at first could not remember, but 
after some consideration he said he was engaged all that day in his barn 
praying to God to protect Newmore in the battle-field and bring him scath- 
less out of the conflict. 3 ' I thought you were so engaged, my good man,' 
said Newmore, ' as all through that day, in whatever direction I turned in 
giving the command and directing the battle, I saw you as it were in 
person before me, shielding me from danger, and thank God he has an- 
swered your prayers, and I have returned home safe and unhurt." " * 

George Monro accompanied Colonel Robert Monro to Ireland, in 1642, 
and saw much service against the Irish Rebels. After his uncle's defeat at 
Benburb (1646), George Monro, who commanded a small force of Cavalry 
and Infantry in the vicinity, made a splendid retreat " without the loss of 
a man." 6 In 1648, George Monro who had now succeeded his uncle Robert 
Monro as Major-General of the Scots forces in Ulster, was summoned by 
the Parliament to Scotland to take part in the Duke of Hamilton's 
Expedition into England. He left Ireland with a goodly force of Scottish 
and Irish soldiers 6 against the wish of Colonel George Monk who com- 

1 Anderson's Scottish Nation, Vol. II., p. 215. 
1 History of the Munros of Foulis, by AUsr. Mackenzie, p. 177. 

3 " Nordlingen, where the Imperialists gained a complete victory after a desperate 
struggle." Ibid. 4 Ibid. 

5 From Major-General Robert Monro's despatch printed in Rushworth's Historical 
Collections, Part IV. 

6 "Three thousand veterans drawn from the Scottish Army in Ireland which joined the 
Duke of Hamilton at Kendal." History of the Highlands and of the Highland Clam, by 
.Tames Browne, LL.D., Vol. II., p. 12. 

c 2 

36 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

manded the English Parliamentary Troops in that Kingdom. George 
Monro was not at the battle of I'reston, where Hamilton's " Engagers " 
were so signally defeated by Cromwell, being thirty miles in the rear. 
Cromwell, writing to the Committee of the Lords and Commons at Derby 
House, thus refers to Monro: " Wigan, 23 Aug. 1648. I am marched 
[marching] myself back to Preston, and so on towards Monro or otherwise, 
as God shall direct." 

Carlyle's remarks on Monro are interesting: "Monro with the rear- 
ward of Hamilton's beaten Army did not march ' straight back ' to 
Scotland as Turner told us, but very obliquely back lingering for several 
weeks on the south side of the Border ; collecting remnants of English, 
Scotch, and even Irish Maliunants, not without hopes of raising a new 
Army from them, cruelly spoiling those Northern Counties in the 
interim." 1 

During Monro's absence in England the Western Whigs had risen and, 
marching to Edinburgh, had taken possession of the city. As a 
natural sequence of the " Whigamore Raid," Royalists in general and 
" Engagers" in particular were treated as enemies by the General Assembly 
and the Estates. Soon after crossing the Border, Monro joined forces 
with the Earl of Lanark. The former then marched to Edinburgh, but on 
his approaching the capital the Whigs turned the Castle guns upon him. 
Monro now marched westward with the intention of seizing Stirling and en- 
trapping the Marquis of Argyll, the Whig dictator, but this astute nobleman 
made his escape from Stirling, when Monro entered the town on 
12th September, and reached Edinburgh in safety. Finding that Lanark 
and his party had made overtures of peace, and that the reinforcements 
he expected did not join him, Monro made terms on 26th September, 
1648, with the Whig government, and disbanded most of his Troops to 
whom he gave a farewell address in St. Ninian's Church. After this event 
he returned to his command in Ireland. Monro took with him "a party of 
Scottish Highlanders." George Monro was knighted by the Earl of 
Ormonde, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, at Kilkenny, in January, 1649. 2 
Monro's next important service was at the siege of Derry. From thence, in 
June, 1649, he besieged and captured Coleraine. " Carrickfergus surren- 
dered to Sir George Monro and Lord Montgomery on 4th July, 1649, and 
Dalyell of Binns, formerly quartered there as an officer of Robert Monro's 
Regiment, was appointed governor." 8 On 17th July, 1649, Sir G. Monro 
returned with Lord Montgomery to the siege of Derry which still held out 
against the Royalists. Being compelled to raise the siege, Monro retired to 
Coleraine of which he was Governor. The following month, Cromwell 
appeared in Ireland and changed the whole aspect of affairs in that 
kingdom. Monro was forced to evacuate Coleraine by Colonel Coote and 
retire to Carrickfergus. From thence he marched to Antrim and Lisnagarvey 

1 Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, edited by T. Carlyle. C'arlyle does not appear to have 
seen the old Civil War Tract, printed in 1648, a copy of which is in the Editor's possession. 
This tract describes Monro's proceedings in Westmoreland, &c. 

Allowing for great exaggeration as to the number of Monro's Troops, the tract in question 
is doubtless true as regards the friendliness of the Northern people to the Koyalist Forces. 
The " reckless excesses " said to have been committed by Monro were in Scotland, where he 
retreated after leaving England. History of the Munros of Foulis, p. 179. 

a Shaw's Knights, Vol. II., p. 221. The memoir of Sir G. Monro in the Diet, of Nat. 
Biog. states that he was made a Knight of the Bath by Charles II., but this lacks 

* History of the Munroi of Foulis, p. 180. 



Of Major -Gene rail 



Lieutenant-Gencrall 'c.R FMwE ^ ^ am j ^ Englifli For- 
ces ; and his randezvouz at fffXctm-Moorin Nunkumbcr^ 
forthwith 8000 Horieand Foqcj2t> Pieces 6'i Ordnance, 
and divers )ther Engines of-War. And his Dtcla* 


ration at the Head of each Regiment}t< aching 
ngagcm#t.;Withius7Vof ?#*' 
to live an^ die with them. * 

Alfo, a Letter of ^lie proceedings x>f tke Prince of W A L E S s 
concerning the! 'faifihg of new Forces to corrie into 
Ertglanctfind the remits and proceedings of the State* 
pi the United Provinces for the relief 6fHh 

allowing Him 1000. 
Gilders, fer diem, ^ 

ikcwifc,the proceedings of the Kings farty in the town 
wfl,/^their af&rting oi his Highncfle.and oppoGng the 
litment* forc,their planting of Ordft&nce } and arming the 
towti.As allbjthe time of the beginning of the Treaty^ 
the manner thereof, and the particulars wherein 
hey fi r ft inftft on, 6000, It. allowed to His 
Majefty,Horfcs,Coach,and otfeei necef- 
farics tojbe feat forthwith unto Him, 

Fruited ioriatisfaftioti 

t __________ 

Facsimile of Titlepage to a Civil War Tract in the Editor's possession. 

(See p. 36.) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 ;J7 

setting fire to both these towns. On 6th December, 1649, Colonels Coote 
and Venables gave battle to Sir G. Monro and Lord Montgomery on the plains 
of Lisnagarvey at Lisnestrain, not far from Lisburn. In this engagement, 
which was hotly contested, Sir G. Monro commanded the Cavalry. The 
Royalists were completely defeated. About 1,000 men, and many officers 
were slain. Monro fled towards the river Blackwater " and saved himself 
by swimming across it, escaping to Charlemont and thence to Enniskillen." ' 
In April, 1650, Sir George Monro was obliged to surrender the last-named 
town to Colonel Coote on favourable terms for himself and his Troops, 
some of whom accompanied their leader to Scotland. 

We have already seen in a previous chapter how the Scottish Estates 
passed an Act, 18th May, 1C50, excluding Sir George Monro and other 
officers from entering within the Kingdom. 2 But this prohibiton did not 
deter Monro from landing in Scotland, during the summer of 1650, and 
joining Middleton in the North. 3 The latter was, as previously stated, at 
the head of the Royalists who had signed the " Northern Band and Oath of 
Engagement," the object of which was to rescue Charles II. from the 
tyranny of the General Assembly and Estates. In the autumn, Monro 
was taken prisoner in Galloway but escaped to Holland. 

When Charles II. appointed Lieut.-General Middleton to command the 
Royalist forces in Scotland, Sir George Monro was chosen by his Majesty 
to be Lieut.-General of Horse and Foot in this kingdom. Monro landed in 
Caithness with Middleton and Dalyell in February, 1654. Colonel Lilburn, 
commanding the English forces in Scotland, wrote from Dalkeith on 22nd 
February, 1654, to the Council of State in London: "I have just seen a paper 
stating that 1,500 Highlanders with Sir George Monro, Glengarry and the 
Chancellor are in a body towards the north which I doubt will interrupt 
our other business." 4 

Previous to Middleton's landing in Scotland, the Earl of Glencairn had 
been in supreme command of the Royalist forces. This gallant nobleman 
had now to relinquish the chief command, which he did in a very graceful 
manner. 6 The same evening Glencairn gave a banquet to Middleton and 
his officers. The harmony of this entertainment was entirely marred by 
Sir George Monro who used insulting language to his host about the latter's 
Highland soldiers. Glencairn gave Monro the direct lie. This led to a 
duel early the next morning. The meeting was kept secret only Glencairn's 
valet and Monro's brother 6 being present. The combatants fought 
mounted ; but Monro's bridle-hand being wounded the duel was finished on 
foot. Again, Glencairn with a stroke of his broad-sword inflicted a severe 
cut on Monro's brow and the blood therefrom prevented the latter 
continuing the fight. When Middleton heard of the duel he put Glencairn 
under temporary arrest and took his sword from him. The sympathy of 

History of the Munros of Faults, p. 182. 

Balfour'a Annals, Vol. IV., p. 14. 

Cromwell's Scotch Campaigns, 1650-1, by W. S. Douglas, p. 158. 

Cat. S.P. Dom. This letter is wrongly calendared under " 1653." 

" The army being drawn up again . . . the Earl of Glencairn passed along the front of 
all the regiments of horse and foot, and informed all the officers and men as he went 
along that he had no further command now but as a private colonel, and that he hoped 
they should be very happy in having so noble a commander as the present general, and the 
officers under him : and so he wished them all well." Account of the Earl of Glencairn't 
Kxpedition, by John Graham of Deuchrie. 

6 Major Alex. Monro of Lord George Douglas's Regiment of Foot in the service of 

38 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

the Royalist officers was entirely with Lord Glencairn, as Monro was very 
unpopular being hot tempered and surly in manner. To use an old Scots 
term he was " cankered." The want of unanimity between the Highland 
and Lowland levies, as well as between Glencairn's and Middleton's officers, 
split up the Royalist forces into factions and kept them from showing a 
united front to the enemy. Middleton was defeated at Loch Garry. 
Glencairn, who was not at aforesaid action, made his own terms with 
General Monk, 4th September, 1654. 1 And on the 14th of the same month 
Robert, Viscount Kenmore and his party surrendered on favourable con- 
ditions. Lord Kenmore had been a popular commander among the soldiers 
who served in Glencairn's and Middleton's expeditions. He always had a 
large barrel of aqua vitce rolled before him when on the march. The 
soldiers facetiously called this cask " Kenmore's drum." They might have 
named it " Kenmore's dram " as by all accounts the Viscount drank his 
full share : " They say that Lord Kenmore being drinking strong waters 
spoke some offensive words of General Middfleton] insomuch that he tooke 
his troupe from him, and made them all sweare they would be faithfull to 
the King his interest, which they willinghe did, but upon a letter from 
Kenmore to the Generall his troupe was restored." 2 

No definite information is forthcoming as to Sir George Monro's 
proceedings, after the defeat of the Royalist Forces at Loch Garry, till he 
threw up his command in December, 1654. Like many of Middleton's 
officers he looked on further hostilities in Scotland as quite hopeless and 
made terms with General Monk. Unpopular as Monro was with the Scottish 
Royalists, his departure gave great offence to Middleton. He was even 
accused of treachery which was a most ill-merited slander ; but it must be 
remembered that his traducer 8 was a staunch adherent of Glencairn, 
between whom and Monro a deadly feud existed. 

At the Restoration, Sir George Monro came to the front again and was 
chosen M.P. for Ross-shire in 1661. Being a Presbyterian, he was regarded 
with suspicion by the Scottish Bishops. On 3rd May, 1665, we find one 
of Secretary Williamson's Northern correspondents reporting that : " The 
honest, stout Archbishop of Glasgow thinks the securing of Colonel 
Robert Montgomery, Major-Generals Hoburn and Monroe, David Lesly, 
now Lord Newark, and some few others would do much to keep the 
country quiet." 4 In August following, Sir George Monro was a prisoner 
in the Edinburgh tolbooth where he remained for some time. So far as he 
was concerned, the Archbishop's suspicions of Monro being mixed up in any 
plot hatched by Covenanters were groundless. Monro was a firm Royalist 
and remained so till his death. It is recorded that " while at Carrickfergus 
he was asked by the Presbytery whether or not he would take the 

1 Scotland and the Protectorate, p. 174. 
2 7Jirf.,p. 171. 

8 Captain John Gwynne, a Welsh officer, who had served under Glencairn, and had 
been with Middleton at Loch Garry. Gwynne wrote some halting lines on the absent Monro 
which were well received by the latter's personal enemies. Here is a sample of the 
poetry : 

" Was not Monro amongst us ? What needs then 
To cite the smaller crymes of other men ? 
Since he so grand a traytor prov'd, as though 
Himself, by beat of drum, proclayni'd it so." 

(Gwynne's Memoirs, p. 104.) 
4 Cat. S.P. Dom., 1665. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 39 

Covenant and that his prompt and profane reply was : ' The devil take 
the Covenant and you too.' " 1 

In 1669, Monro was elected M.P. for Sutherland and represented this 
shire till 1674 when he was appointed, on 25th August, Major-General of 
the Forces and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot to be forthwith levied. 
Monro was likewise appointed a Privy Councillor. In addition to Monro's 
Regiment of 800 men, two new Companies of 100 men each were to be 
added to the Foot Guards ; and three Troops of Horse were to be likewise 

On 20th October same year, Lauderdale wrote to Monro : " I have 
received your letter of the 10th, proposing a march through the country 
with the King's forces, which will be a prejudice to nobody and will conduce 
to the discouraging of ill humours, and will fit the officers and soldiers 
more for service. The King likes the proposition, and as he has given you 
authority to order those forces as you shall think best for his service, so 
he is very confident you will provide for the security of Edinburgh and 
Stirling, and order the forces so that in their march they may not be a 
burden to the country. As soon as you send up the Articles of War they 
shall be speedily dispatched as also the establishment." 2 

By Lauderdale's advice, the King granted an " Act of Indulgence," in 
favour of the outed Scottish ministers, in 1669. This conciliatory policy 
was not so successful as was expected. But for all that Lauderdale, who 
was at heart a Presbyterian, adhered to his policy in order to curb the 
growing power of the Episcopalian party s and to set at variance the moder- 
ate Presbyterian ministers and the irreconcilable Covenanters. A second 
" Act of Indulgence " was granted in 1672. This was a half-hearted 
measure which did little to allay popular discontent. Conventicles rapidly 
increased, not only in the West but in other parts of the country. The 
King's forces were actively employed in the disagreeable task of suppres- 
sing these conventicles and arresting not only those ministers who held them 
but the landowners, or householders, believed to be responsible for the 
proscribed meetings. Much has been said by Covenanting historians about 
the raid on Cardross House, Perthshire, by a party of the King's Guards and 
their outrageous conduct on that occasion. Under existing circumstances 
the raid was a most regrettable incident. It was not, however, quite as bad 
as reported. In the Diary of Colonel John Erskine of Carnock, under 
the head of " Memoranda of Henry 3rd Lord Cardross," we read that : 
" Towards the end of May, 1675, a party of the Guards under Sir Mungo 
Murray came to the house of Cardross, under night, demanding admittance 
but producing no order. They were admitted ; when they obliged Lady 
Cardross, then with child, to get out of bed, that they might 
search her chamber, and broke up chests and my Lord's closet off the dining 
room where his papers lay loose. They seized Mr. John King, a preacher, 
then in the house, whom the Privy Council ''.ad formerly seized but on his 
finding bail, had liberated." * Now this reads as if Sir Mungo Murray, a 
Brigadier of the King's Life Guards, had personally instigated and carried 
out this midnight raid ; whereas Captain John Creichton, who was a 

1 History of the Munros of Faults. 

2 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III., p. 88. A copy of the " Establishment " is given 
in the Appendix. 

8 Dr. Alex. Burnet, Archbishop of Glasgow, was deposed for his opposition to the Act 
of Indulgence. 

4 Diary (p. 227), published by the Scottish History Society in 1893. 

40 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

" Gentleman Private" in the Life Guards in 1675, says in his Memoirs : 
" I was pitched upon with a small detachment .... I went to my Lord 
Cardross's house .... there I took King and delivered him to the 
Council." l Lord Cardross was away from home, and his frightened house- 
hold were not in a state to give definite particulars regarding the leader of 
the party. It is also highly improbable that the midnight raiders pro- 
duced no order when they demanded admittance. It was not their first 
raid on Cardross House, and Charles II. in the following letter to the Privy 
Council dated " Whitehall, 22 Sept., 1674," had expressly ordered 
the arrest of Mr. John King: "We were informed that by your order 
some of our Guards did in the house of Cardross apprehend and bring to 
reason one King who was set at liberty upon caution to appear .... you 
shall require that Lord Cardross do bring him back to Prison." 2 

Lord Cardross was heavily fined for his lady having been at two 
conventicles kept in her own house, by her chaplain, and his lordship 
suffered four years imprisonment at Edinburgh. We shall hear more later 
on of Lord Cardross and his house, as also of Mr. John King who was 
rescued by some country people when being carried off to prison in May, 
1675. 8 

By way of stamping out conventicles the Privy Council in July, 1675, 
passed an Act, doubtless by Sir George Monro's advice, appointing gar- 
risons in certain places, viz. " at the house of Bridgehouse in Linlithgow- 
shire, house of Cardross in Perthshire, house of Glentirring in Stirlingshire, 
house of Mearns in Renfrewshire, house of Dovehill in Kinross-shire, house 
of Dean at Kilmarnock, in the house of bailiary of Cuningham and shire 
of Ayr, house of Airdrie in shire of Lanark, house of Newark in the shire 
of Selkirk, house of Hunthill in the shire of Roxburgh, house of Blane in 
the shire of Berwick, at the laird of Riddell's house in the shire of Rox- 
burgh, at the castle of Dumfries in the shire of Dumfries. And ordained 
that in ilk garrison there be a company of foot and twelve horse and 
that ilk two garrisons next adjacent have one Captain to command them ; 
and remit it to Major General Monro, as he shall find the places of the 
two several garrisons more or less convenient, to put the fewer or 
greater number in either of them, for the more conveniency : and that 
the general major ordain the officers to keep and remain at their 
respective garrisons and not leave their duty and charge, under the pain of 
being cashiered, &c." 4 

One of the three new Troops of Horse, raised in August, 1674, was com- 
manded by George, Lord Ross of Hawkhead. We get an insight into the 
duties expected from the Cavalry, at this period, by a letter from Lord 
Ross, to Lauderdale dated from Edinburgh, 13th March, 1675 : 

" Upon intelligence that on Sunday the last of ffeb y ther wes a field conven- 
tickle tobekeeped somewher near to Bathgate a party was sent out to looke after 
it, who accordingly did fall in with them neare to the above mentioned place : at 
the first aproche of the party many who wer at the conventickle did reteare to a 

1 See Creichton's Memoirs, printed 1731. 

2 Printed in Henry Erskine, his Kinsfolk, and Times, p. 31. 

8 Under date of 12th June, 1675, Charles II. wrote to the Privy Council of Scotland : 
" We are informed that more effects of that seditious spirit break out afresh, and particu- 
larly that a party of our forces has been deforced by a riotous and tumultuous assembly 
near the house of Cardross, when one King was rescued from our soldiers." Warrant Book 
for Scotland, Vol. III., p. 253. 

4 Printed by Wodrow, Vol. III. (1829 edit.), pp. 282-283. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 41 

marsh ground close by wher it wes not possible for the horse to attacke them ; 
bot the party indevoriiig to aprehend some of them who wer still upon the place, 
in hope to have found the preacher amongst them, at the sight of which thos who 
at the first had flead did returue, one of them saying would they see ther breath- 
ring oppressed, and that thos few perjured dogs would not be a mowthf ul to them ; 
upon which he who commanded the party fownd himselfe obleadged to abandon 
his prisoners to defend himselfe, and at the first aproche he charged them civilly 
in his Maj tlM name to disipat themselfs, promising no viollence showld be done to 
them who showld give obedience, bot the returue which they gave back wes by 
the firing of some pistols or other fire locks at them, with which insolens being 
much provocked they [the soldiers] did fire upon them backe againe, by which 
one of that insolent crew was kild, at the sight of which the rest did ruiie for it, 
never the les the party did bring off 15 of them prisoners who ar now iu the 
Tolbooth of Ed 1 ; ther hes been a great deall of iioyse made about it as if thes 
geutillmeu had provocked them to it, and some are pleasd to call it murder which 
wes done, bot what ever is said I will ashewre yor Grace this is the trew aud 
certain accompt." l 

In consequence of a letter from the Commissioners of the Treasury, on 
llth August, 1675, to the King, the latter was reluctantly obliged to send an 
order to the Privy Council for disbanding Monro's Regiment and the three 
Troops of Horse. In the King's letter, which is subscribed by Lauderdale, 
directions are given for " 100 men to be drawn out of the severall disbanded 
Companies to be formed into a new Company which is to be added 
to Our Regiment of Guards." s The low state of the Scottish Treasury 
made it necessary also to disband the Earl of Rothes's Troop of Guards 
early in 1676. 

On the 27th October, 1677, the King wrote to Sir George Monro 
"authorising him to command in chief Our Guards and all such other 
Forces, both Horse and Foot, as shall be by Warrant of Our Privy Council 
of Scotland drawn together for opposing any Rebellion or Insurrection 
there," 8 In less than two months after this Royal letter had been written, 
the Earl of Linlithgow was appointed Major-General of the Forces in 
Scotland " in place of Sir George Monro Our late Major-General whose 
Commission is hereby declared void." * No reason is given for this change 
of commanders, but it was apparent enough. In view of the increase of 
conventicles in the West, and an expected rising, Lauderdale (who had 
come to Scotland as High Commissioner in the summer of 1677) had 
formulated a plan for bringing the disaffected shires into a state of sub- 
jection. " I gave ane account before," wrote Lauderdale to the Earl of 
Danby from Holyrood, 8th November, 1077, " what orders were given and 
noblemen sent for making readie a good bodie of Highlanders and others, 
if the phanaticks in the West should rise in armes." 6 We may take it for 
granted that Sir George Monro was dead against the " Highland Host " 
being let loose on the south-western shires where they were to have free 
quarters so long as they stayed. He was a leally religious man, and must 
have viewed with horror the inevitable spoliation of countless families 
which had never risen in rebellion, but were supposed, rightly or wrongly, 
to be in sympathy with the Covenanters. Monro was superseded because 

1 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., pp. 77-78. 

2 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III., p. 377. 

3 Ibid., Vol. IV. 

4 Ibid. 

5 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., p. 89. 

42 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

he would not fall in with Lauderdale's cruel policy. He retired to New- 
more Castle his seat in Ross-shire. 

An anecdote has been handed down in the Monro family testifying to 
Sir George's merciful disposition when sent to suppress conventicles and 
non-conformity in Eastern Ross: " He had a favourite dog called Inver- 
eraig. Whenever he received instructions from Bishop Paterson to go 
out and disperse a conventicle, he would call the dog to his side, when he 
knew that Lady Monro, a sincere friend to the Covenanters, was within 
hearsay, but not in his presence, and addressed the dog thus: 'Good 
Invercraig, do you know I have got instructions from the Bishop to 
proceed to-morrow to (naming the place) and apprehend the men who 
intend to hold a meeting there to worship God, and if you like you may 
go and warn them that I am coming,' Lady Monro sent timely intelligence 
to the Covenanters, and when Sir George went to the place he found 
nothing, and told the Bishop of Ross he had been sent on a fool's 
errand." 1 

In 1683, Sir G. Monro was again chosen M.P. for Ross-shire. When 
the Scots Army marched into England, October, 1688, Monro was 
appointed Major-General of the Militia in Scotland by Commission dated 
24th October, 1688, and was granted a yearly pension of 200. 2 The Earl 
of Balcarres has a snarl at Monro in his Memoirs, and says that " as head 
of the Militia, Monro knew little more of the trade than these new raised 
men, having lost by age, and being long out of service, anything he had 
learned in Charles Gustavus' days, except the rudeness and austerity of 
that service." 8 Balcarres, as a bigoted Jacobite, was inimical to Monro 
and the Presbyterian party. General Hugh Mackay, a good judge of 
soldiers, requested the Government, in 1690, to make Sir George Monro a 
Privy Councillor, and grant him a pension, " in order to help Mackay to 
take necessary measures for the security of the Kingdom in his (Mackay's) 
absence in Holland." 4 

Sir George Monro died on llth July, 1693, at Newmore Castle. He 
was M.P. for Ross-shire at the time of his death. By his tirst wife, Anne, 
daughter of his uncle Major-General Robert Monro, Sir George had a son 
Hugh, who succeeded to Newmore. He married, secondly, in 1649, at 
Coleraine, Christian, only daughter of Sir Frederick Hamilton, and sister 
of Gustavus, 1st Viscount Boyne. By this marriage Sir George had two 
sons, John who died in 1682, unmarried ; and George, who inherited the 
estate of Culrain. The latter's heir male ultimately succeeded to the 
baronetcy of Foulis. 

1 History of the Munroi of Foul is, p. 189. 
a Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XIII. 
* Memoirs, edited by Lord Lindsay, 1841, p. 12. 
4 History of the Clan Mackay, p. 460. 




" I DOUBT not but his Majestie," wrote the Earl of Atholl to the Duke of 
Lauderdale, " by your advice, has made a very good choice of the Earle 
of Linlithgoe to be Major Generall and Commander in Chiefe of all forces, 
horse and foott, raised or to bee raised." ' 

On 1st December, 1677, we find Lauderdale writing to Viscount 
Granard, commanding the Irish Troops in Ulster, informing him that, in 
view of the " great disorders in the western shires of Scotland . . . and 
preparations made to take up arms against his Majesty," it was the King's 
wish that Lord Granard should be prepared to embark the body of Troops 
under his command, if called upon to do so, and land them on the west 
coast of Scotland. To ensure the delivery of this letter, Lauderdale des- 
patched Lieutenent James Maitland of the Foot Guards to Ireland where he 
was to wait upon Lord Granard, show him the written instructions 2 given 
to the bearer, and bring back his lordship's reply. Maitland lost no time 
on his errand and returned to Holyrood with Lord Granard's written 
answer which was to the effect that he had his Majesty's orders " to 
embark the forces now under his command and conduct them to Scotland, 
if so required by the Lords of his Majesty's Privy Council there . . . that 
the forces my Lord has here [in the neighbourhood of Belfast] are above 
2,000 foot and 300 horse." 8 

With a view of checking the French conquests in the Low Countries 
the English Parliament were in favour of an Anglo-Dutch alliance against 
France. Under the plea of assisting the Dutch, Charles II. obtained large 
subsidies from Parliament early in 1678, and was able to raise additional 
forces in his three kingdoms. As regards Scotland, a Troop of 60 Horse 
was levied by the young Marquis of Montrose at his own expense, in 
March, 1678, and inarched to London, where it was incorporated with 
the Duke of York's new-raised Regiment of Horse for service in Flanders. 
The Lieutenant of Montrose's Troop was Patrick Graham of Inchbrakie who 
subsequently commanded the Edinburgh Town Guard. The Cornet was 
John Graham, Postmaster-General of Scotland, who got licence of absence 
from the Privy Council. 4 It is interesting to know that on 27th November 
1677, this same John Graham was directed, by an order in Council, " to 
establish a horse post between Edinburgh and Portpatrick twice a week 

1 Dated at " Tullibardine, 31 Dec. 1677." Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., p. 98. 
' J These " Instructions " are printed in the Calendar of the MRS of the Marquess of 
Ormonde, K.P., New Serios, Vol. IV., pp. 72-3. 
3 Ibid., p. 73. 
* Privy Council Acts, June, 1673 August, 1678, fo. 698. 

44 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

each way . . . and was to keep a vessel to sail twice a week and back 
to Drogheda." ! This new service was to keep the military authorities in 
Ireland in touch with the Scots Privy Council. Lord James Douglas was 
to raise a Regiment of Foot in Scotland "to be sent to England." 2 This 
corps was to consist of ten Companies of 100 men each.' 

It so happened that the expected alliance with the Dutch against the 
French did not find the same favour in Scotland as it did in England. 
Consequently, great difficulty was found in raising recruits for the new 
Douglas Regiment. The Earl of Murray writes to Lauderdale from 
" Whythall, May 4. 1678": " I acquented bothe the Kinge and the Diwke 
withe a letter of Lord James Douglass . . . complaeninge that he could 
get no men in Scotland, and that y r Grace would not allow any of the 
standing forcis or militia to tak on withe him and insinuating as mutch 
as you wear [were] not so fordward for this war as when they caem for 
assistans to the Frenshe." 4 

Owing to the dearth of recruits, one Company for Lord J. Douglas's 
Regiment was raised in Ireland by Captain Charles Murray. This Com- 
pany was shipped to a sea-port on the north-west coast of England and 
marched by way of Kendal to the outskirts of Edinburgh where the men 
were to be mustered and receive their clothing. 5 Two " Companies " of 
Scots Dragoons (of 100 men each) were raised by Royal Warrant in May, 
1678. 6 Two Highland Foot Companies were likewise ordered to be levied 
in September same year " for securing the peace of the Highlands." These 
Companies, of 150 men each, were to be accompanied to their garrison at 
Inverlockie, "or any other place in the Highlands or Isles," by " 100 com- 
manded men of the Regt. of Foot Guards." 7 

On 23rd September, 1678, the King signed Commissions for the Earls of 
Airlie and Home, and for John Graham of Claverhouse, to be Captains of 
the three new Troops of Horse " to be entertained in Scotland." 8 A new 
" Company " of Dragoons was bestowed at the same time on Viscount 
Kingston ; and, last of all, a new Regiment of Foot, consisting of eight 
Companies of 100 men each, was levied by Charles, Earl of Mar. 9 This 
last-named corps still survives as the Royal Scots Fusiliers. 

The Scots Army had now trebled its strength. The Earl of Linlithgow 
made a progress through the disaffected West in the autumn of 1678. We 
may safely conjecture that this " displaying of the forces," as a cynical 
Scottish writer has termed the progress, had a deterrent effect on would-be 
rebels who had not yet fully recovered from the late unwelcome sojourn 

1 Ormonde Papers, New Series, Vol. IV., pp. 74-5. 
1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV. 

3 Ibid. 

4 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., p. 128. 

6 Warrant dated " Whitehall, 24 June, 1678 " to Captain Charles Murray to march to 
Kendal and thence to near Edinburgh with his Company of 100 men; "and that when 
they shall arrive within a daye's journey of Edenburgh they remains there untill you 
repaire to the Duke of Lauderdale Our High Commissioner to receive his directions for 
quartering them as near as conveniently may be to the place where they and the rest of the 
Companies of the Regiment are to receive their cloths and armes.'' Warrant Book for 
Scotland, Vol. IV. 

8 Ibid. 

' King's Letter to the Scottish Privy Council, 4th September, 1678. Ibid. 

8 " The sons and brothers of lords and baronets and other persons of quality solicited to 
be made Lieuts. and Cornets in these new-raised Troops." Captain John Creichton's 
Memoirs (1731), p. 43. 

9 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 45 

in their midst of the " Highland Host." 1 On 23rd October, 1678, the King 
wrote to Lord Linlithgow approving his services as Major-General : 
" Wee have thought tit hereby to signitie to you the sense wee have of the 
same . . . particularly in the late expedition into the West." 2 The King 
gave further proof of his appreciation of Linlithgow's services by bestow- 
ing a pension on the latter of 300 per annum to be paid half yearly. 8 
This nobleman was already in receipt of 200 per annum as Colonel of 
the Foot Guards, to which had been added a special pension of 100, and 
yearly pay of 300 as Major-General. 4 

Peace was signed between Holland and France at Nimeguen in August, 
1678. The English Parliament voted standing Armies illegal and the 
Commons requested the King to disband all the forces raised since 
September, 1677. Charles had to comply. He had hoodwinked the nation 
with the pretence of an Anglo-Dutch alliance against the French. To 
keep up the fiction, a strong British contingent had been sent to Flanders 
under the Earl of Feversham. In the meantime Charles was in receipt of 
a secret pension from Louis XIV. to keep England neutral. The wholesale 
disbandment of the new English levies did not afFect the Scots Army, but 
Lord James Douglas's Regiment was disbanded in January, 1679, 5 having 
been raised for the English Establishment. 

On 10th December, 1678, a new form of "The Military Oath" was sanc- 
tioned by Charles II. and subscribed by Lauderdale. The probability is 
that this " Oath " was drawn up by Lord Linlithgow, in the first instance, 
and submitted to Lauderdale who got the King to attach his sign-manual 
thereto. This is it : 


" I A. B. doe swear to be true and faithfull to my Soveraign Lord King 
Charles, and his lawfull successors, and in my Station to maintain the present 
Government in Church and State as it is now established by Law, and to oppose 
(to my power) the damnable principle of taking up Armes against the King or 
those Commissiouate by him upon any pretext whatsoever, and to be obedient 
in all things to his Majesty's Major Generall or Commander in Chiefe authorised 
by his Majesty for the time being, and will behave myselfe obediently to my 
superior officers in all that they shall command me for his Majesty's Service ; 
And I doe further swear that I will be a true faithfull and obedient Souldier 
every way performing my best endeavours for his Majesty's Service, Obeying all 
Orders and submitting to all such Rules and Articles of Warre us are or shall be 
established by his Majesty, So help me God." 6 

1 " The host of marauders," as Hill Burton calls the Northern Highlanders let loose on 
the Lowland shires of the West, " has been estimated in numbers varying from six to eight 
thousand." The "host" began its march in January, 1678 and spread over the doomed 
countries like a swarm of locusts. The landed gentry of Ayrshire, Dumfries-shire, &c, 
determined to go to Court and remonstrate against the Highland invasion. " By an Act 
of Council the remonstrants were prohibited from crossing the Border." But by March, 
the increasing outcry against the Highlanders made it.-alf heard in Court circles and the King, 
wishing to prevent further disturbances, reversed Lauderdale's cruel policy and ordered the 
Highlanders to be dismissed to their own country. That they did not go home empty- 
handed is an historical fact. 

a Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV. 

8 Ibid., fol. 16. 

4 Ibid. 

"' King's Letter to the Privy Council of Scotland, 18th January, 1678. Warrant Hook 
for Scotland, Vol. V. 

* Ibid. Some English readers may not be aware that the Scottish form of adjuration 
differs from the English. The Scots take the oath with uplifted hand and do not kiss the 
Testament. An anecdote is told of a Scotsman who had to be examined at an l.ii<rlish 

46 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

To the mass of the Covenanters who had never borne arms as trained 
soldiers, and to whom military discipline was as odious as religious 
conformity, the above form of oath was merely regarded by them as an 
additional weapon put into thu hands of their relentless persecutors by a 
godless Government. 

The last week in March, 1679, Major White's Company at Lanark got 
notice of a field conventicle to be held within the parish of Lesmahago. 
The distance being too great for infantry to march in time to disperse the 
meeting, Major White of Mar's Regiment sent twenty dragoons under 
Lieutenant John Dalyell and Ensign Duncan Menzies of his (the Major's) 
own Company. When the dragoons, and their leaders, came wibhin sight 
of the conventicle they perceived three companies of foot, each 100 strong, 
drawn up in order ; also a troop of horse. Half the foot had fire-locks, 
the rest were armed with swords, halberds, and pitchforks. The troop of 
horse were well-mounted and the troopers had pistols and carbines. 
When the Covenanters perceived the dragoons some of their foot 
advanced, while their horse attempted to surround the Royalist detach- 
ment. The officers in charge of the dragoons ordered the Whigs to 
disperse in the King's name. The rebel commander answered disdainfully 
saying that his assembled party appeared there for the King of Heaven. 
He then gave the order to tire upon the dragoons who immediately 
returned it. Each side then charged. In this unequal contest Lieutenant 
Dalyell * was wounded in several places, one being in the groin, by a 
thrust from a pitchfork, and thought to be mortal. Seven dragoons were 
taken prisoners with the wounded officer. Ensign Menzies and the other 
dragoons effected their escape. " After this," writes Lord Linlithgow's 
correspondent, " they [the Whigs] read the Covenant to the Lieut 1 lying 
upon the ground wounded, and thereafter went to their conventicle wher 
ther wes fowr sermones and lectures, and at seven a clock at night they 
dismissed the Lieut, and the seven dragoons their prisoners bot kept their 
horse and armes. One of the commanders of the Whiggs foot wes knowne 
to be of the name of Cleland, 2 whose father lives in the toune of 
Douglas." 3 

The rout of the little Royalist party gave fresh life to the Covenanters' 
cause. On 29th May, 1679, Mr. Robert Hamilton, 4 who had commanded 
the Horse at Lesmahago, with about three score mounted men rode into 

trial and was sworn according to English law. His evidence was so manifestly untrue that 
his counsel had the man sworn in Scottish fashion. The witness was then re-examined and 
told quite a different tale. Being asked afterwards by his counsel how he came to give 
such contradictory evidence, the Scotsman replied : " There's an unco' difference 'atween 
blawin' on a beuk an' sennin' ane's saul to hell ! " Notes and Queries, 10th Series, Vol. VI., 
p. 487. 

1 See biog. notice of Lieutenant (afterwards Sir John) Dalyell in the annotations to 
Mar's Regiment given in Part II. 

a Covenanter, poet, soldier. Son of the Marquis of Douglas's gamekeeper. Appointed 
Lieut.-Colonel of the Cameronian Regiment, in April, 1689. Killed at the defence of 
Dunkeld, 21st August same year. 

3 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., pp. 102-3. 

4 Second son to Sir Wm. Hamilton of Preston, Bart. Fought at Drumclog. Com- 
manded the rebels at Bothwell Brig. Succeeded to the baronetcy but not to the estate. 
" He would not own the Prince and Princess of Orange and their prelatic (xovernment . . . 
Apprehended by persecuting soldiers, 10th Sept. 1692, at Earlstoun. Remained a prisoner 
at Edinburgh till May, 1693. Continued faithful in contending earnestly for the faith 
once delivered to the Saints, Jude 3. Died at Borrowstouness 21 Oct. 1701.'' The Battle 
of Bothwell Bridge, &c., by Wm. Wilson, p. 113. 

.<* i 



Letter from Claverhouse to the 

(From the. Oi'Hiinal at 

w<#^& SK && f 2> 



p^JaT 7 *^^; 

xi V ^>- P *i*yl- '**i^?-?3& 




Earl of Linlithgow, ist June, 1679 
Mr British Museum) 

(^^~- ^y z5>- 

*z*-rzrjr d^tgf 

Letter from Qeorge, Lord Ross, to the Earl of Linlithgow, ist June, 1679 

(From the Original in tin- Kditnrx possession) 
(See n. 47.) 

THK SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 47 

the town of Rutherglen where bonfires were blazing in honour of the 
King's birthday. Hamilton's party proceeded to burn the Acts enforcing 
Episcopacy since the Restoration ; they then extinguished the bonfires 
and nailed their own " declaration " to the Market Cross. After this act 
of detiance the rebels and their leader rode away. When news reached 
Glaverhouse, the same evening, of " the insolency that had been done at 
Ruglen," 1 he was on his way with his Troop from Falkirk to Glasgow 
to join Lord Ross. After one night's halt at Glasgow, Claverhouse 
marched to Hamilton where he took a few prisoners, among them being 
Mr. John King, late chaplain at Cardross House, who had been arrested 
on two previous occasions, and had twice secured his liberty. 

On 1st June, 1679, Claverhouse was defeated at Drumclog by a force 
of rebels much superior in numbers to his own. We have Claver- 
house's own account of the engagement ; and who is there who has not read 
the graphic account of the action in Old Mortality ? Let the reader of 
this historic novel obliterate from his mind the statement that Claver- 
house was an officer of the Scottish Life Guards; also the incident relative 
to the flag of truce sent by the aforesaid commander to the rebels, before 
the fight at Drumclog commenced, as these embellishments are fiction ; but 
the story of the engagement itself is founded on fact. There is one 
humorous incident connected with Claverhouse's defeat which is worth 
repeating. " When Claverouse was routed at Drumclog," wrote Kirkton, 
"he fled [on his sorely wounded charger] past his triumphant prisoner 
[Mr. John King], who had been stationed in a small cabin on Loudon Hill 
with a Dragoon sentry to prevent his escape ; King shouted after him to 
stop and take the afternoon's preaching." 2 We shall meet this Covenan- 
ting divine again at Bothwell Bridge. His appearance at Drumclog 
cannot have been very clerical if the following terse description be 
true :- 

" A bra' uiuckle carle wi' a white hat, and a great bob o' ribbons on the cock 
o't." 3 

On 3rd May, 1079, Dr. James Sharp, Archbishop of St. Andrews, was 
done to death on Magus Moor, near St. Andrews, under circumstances of 
the greatest brutality and in the presence of his daughter. The name of 
John Balfour 4 of Kinloch stands out in bold relief as one of the assassins ; 
but what can be said for David Hackston of Rathillet who, though a 
gentleman by birth, sat quietly on his horse and saw the aged 
Archbishop killed before his eyes. As an accessory after the fact, 
Hackston was as guilty as his companions who committed the foul deed. 
Let us see how the chief historian of the Covenanters regarded this 
assassination : 

"Upon the whole," wrote the Rev. Robert Wodrow, "though the most 
part of good people in Scotland could not but observe and adore the holy 
and righteous providence of God in the removal of this violent persecutor 
and spring of the most part of the former severities at such a juncture 

1 Claverhouse to the Earl of Linlithgow, from Glasgow, 1st June, 167'J. (Lauderdale 
Papers.) Facsimile given in this Vol. [ED.] 

- The Rev. James Kirkton's Church of Scotland, p. 439 and note. 

3 Ibid. 

4 In the Royal United Service Museum, Whitehall, is the "Bible which belonged to 
John Balfour of Kinloch, the Covenanter who fought at Drumclog. The first part of this 
Bible was torn out by Balfour to make wads for his musket." No. 253 in Museum 

48 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688. 

when just upon new and violent projects, yet they could not approve of 
the manner of taking him off, nor would they justify the actors." 

Befoie engaging the rebels at Drumclog, Claverhouse sent a despatch 
to Lord Ross at Glasgow desiring assistance. Ross marched out of the 
town with reinforcements, but had not gone far when he met Claverhouse 
with some of his discomfited soldiers. A recently discovered letter * 
from Lord Ross to Lord Linlithgow, written from Glasgow on the memor- 
able 1st June, 1679, records the meeting between the two commanders. 

The attempt on Glasgow by the Covenanters is graphically described 
by Lord Ross in a second letter to Lord Linlithgow, written the evening of 
2nd June : 


" This morning thes rogwes had the confidence to asawlte us about eleven a 
clock, the first atempt wes up the galow gait, ther nixt wes down that streat 
which comes from the head of the towne, bot I had barricaded all the 4 streits so 
well and lyned them with musketiers and paced dragoons behind them for a relife, 
keeping E[arlJ Hom[e]s troope aud Claverces (?) intire in a body ; in the market 
place owr sowldiers wer very active and we galed them so with owr shot that at 
last they run for it throwing down ther arms, the number of thes that ar killed I 
can not condesend upon as yet, the town's people hurled ther dead bodies so 
quickly of[f] the streit ; we have taken a great many of ther wounded men and 
still taking mor owt of ther bowses they fled to. 1 blise god non of owr officers 
hes resaved any hurte, some few of owr sowldiers ar ill wownded two of which 
onlly I think shall dye. I know not what Jwdgment to give of this afaire bot I 
am swre thes wes the warmest day I saw the year, I dwrst uot adventer to follow 
them when they run fearing ane ambush, bot so sown as they were clear away I 
sent the horse and dragoons to fall wpon ther reare, and they are I wot now with 
them at a place called Dambeth 3 myles east of this, they seam to move towards 
bogl holl (sic) ; we keepe the market place still and this is owr present postore. 
I am your Lo. most humble servant, 


Quoting from " Lord Linlithgow's account of the Rebellion," 8 we find that 
after their repulse at Glasgow the rebels retired in disorder "... about 
a mile from the town . . . and being a great deal more numerous, at last 
marched off' to the town of Hamilton where they quartered that night." 
Linlithgow then gives an account of his own proceedings : " Upon Wed- 
nesday morning I marched from Edenburgh with all the forces that were 
there, and did send an order to the Lord Ross to march with those that 
were with him at Glasgow to Sterling which accordingly he did." 

Lord Linlithgow has been adversely criticised, and rightly so, for his 
utter want of strategy in his plan for concentrating at Stirling when the 
fate of Glasgow hung in the balance. News of the defeat at Drumclog 
had reached him at Edinburgh very early on 2nd June ; and a second 
despatch from Lord Ross, announcing the repulse of the attack on Glasgow, 
reached the capital the following morning. Yet it was not till the morn- 
ing of 4th June that the Commander-in-Chief marched out of Edinburgh 
with his available forces, which must have numbered about 1,200 Regulars. 
This was doubtless a small body of men to face the rebels who numbered 
some thousands ; but there is a mighty difference between well-disciplined 

1 See facsimile given in this vol. The original is in the Editor's possession. 
* Letter endorsed : " The Lord Rosse his letter to the Major General!, 2 June, 1679." 
Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., p. 166. 
3 Ibid., pp. 167-170. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 49 

Troops and a rabble led by a man (Robert Hamilton) who never had any 
military training. 

Linlithgow's force was sufficient to relieve Glasgow and hold that town 
(which was well provisioned) with Ross's Troops till joined by several out- 
lying Troops and Companies, as well as by the Militia. When Ross received 
his General's orders to evacuate Glasgow, and march with all his Troops to 
Stirling, he lost no time in obeying orders. His whole force joined the 
main body at Larbert, two miles from Falkirk. The King's Troops now 
numbered 1,800 men. " With these," wrote Linlithgow in his official 
account of the Rebellion, " I resolved to march towards Glasgow, to see, if 
possible, to make myself Master of that place before the Rebels should 
enter it, by which meanes we should have got refreshment for our Soul- 
diers, who wanted it extreamly. That night I marched to Kilsyth, where 
we found little or no refreshment." Linlithgow's plan to recapture Glas- 
gow came too late. His scouts brought him intelligence that they had 
seen the rebels march into Glasgow, and that they were at least 7,000 

Linlithgow now called a Council of War. His officers, " except three 
or four, 1 thought it not fitt to hazard the few standing forces his Majesty 
had in Scotland so unequally . . . and I acknowledge I myself was of 
that judgement. . . I resolved to march to Stirling that night, being the 
greatest pass in Scotland, and fittest place for joyning the Northern forces. 
I did give the Council immediately from the place an account of what I 
had resolved, and desired their commands, and if they thought fitt I should 
engadge the enimy, I should againe march from Sterling towards them. 
About 7 of the clock next morning I receaved their commands to march 
to Edenburgh, untill the rest of the forces came up, and their approbation 
of what I had done." 2 

Linlithgow was a good regimental officer, but he had not the advantage 
of Dalyell's or Drummond's experience of warfare. When the crisis came 
he proved vacillating and changeable. Apparently he took no steps to 
meet the commissariat requirements of his Troops. After two whole days 
of preparation in the capital of Scotland, Linlithgow was unable to make 
a forced march to Glasgow for lack of provisions. It was jocularly said 
of English soldiers during the seventeenth century, that they could not 
tight without their beef, their beer, and their beds; but Scottish soldiers of 
that period were considered more hardy. A famous Scottish general 
(Lord Clyde) wished for nothing better than to fight a pitched battle 
with 10,000 well-fed Englishmen, 10,000 half-starved Scotsmen, and 10,000 
half -drunk Irishmen ! 

The biographer of the Livingstons tells us that the true reason of Lin- 
lithgow's retiring to Stirling, with the Scots forces, was because " he had 
received a private order from the Council to delay engaging with the rebels 
until the arrival of the Duke of Monmouth." 8 If this be true, we may be 
sure that old Tom Dalyell was not one of the Councillors who gave this 
timid order. " From ingles asistens mightay God deliver us " wrote 
Dalyell to Lauderdale in January, 1667. He was not likely to have changed 

1 The names of these officers are not given. In the Memoirs of Viscount Dundee ( 1714), it 
is stated that Claverhouse strongly opposed Linlithgow's retreat to Stirling, and " offered 
with a thousand horse and foot to disperse the rebels or never to return himself alive." 
Quoted in Professor Terry's John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, p. 64, note 3. 

2 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., p. 169. 

* The Livingstons of Calendar, by Edwin Livingston, p. 71. 

50 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

his opinion now that his valuable services as a commander were ignored 
and he was not employed. Nor was there any reason for the panic-stricken 
Council to have informed Lauderdale that more troops were necessary to 
crush the rebellion. 

When we remember Lauderdale's boast to Charles II. in 1669, that 
20,000 Scottish Militia were ready to take the field when called upon to 
do so, it is surprising to find the Council soliciting for assistance from 
England. On 5th June, the Militia were named for service. Two days 
later the Council wrote to the Earl of Argyll, then engaged with the Earl 
of Caithness in the Western Highlands crushing a rebellion of the Macdonalds 
and Macleans, commanding him " to desentagle himself from the expedition 
for which he was commissionated against the rebellious people in the 
Highlands, to the end that he may with the greatest diligence he can 
repaire to his Majesty's host and join the forces under the command of the 
Earl of Linlithgow, with his friendis, vassallis, servantis, and followeris, 
weill appoynted And armed, for assisting towards the suppression of this 
treasonable insurrection." 1 

Returning to Linlithgow and his Troops, we find them still at Edinburgh 
on 16th June. The "Journals of the Privy Council," under above date, 
contain this notice : " Resolved that the march of the army be delayed 
till to-morrow, in regard of the great rains, and that some things for the 
amunition and the artillerie are not yet ready, and that the army march 
by the way of Linlithgow towards Hamilton in quest of the enemie." 8 
And later in the day occurs this entry : " Warrant given to the Major 
Generall to cause bring in cowes, oxen, sheep, and uy r [other] provisions for 
the use of the army and that the Commissary make distribution y of 
[thereof] as he shall find cause." 8 

It is an interesting fact to know that there was a Commissary ; but 
his duties cannot have been heavy as Linlithgow had hardly reached his 
camp in Kirkhill Park near Broxburn, on the evening of 17th June (the 
day he marched out of Edinburgh), when he wrote to the Earl of Rothes 
bewailing the fact that there was no bread for the soldiers : " My Lord, 
it is very sad to have so many militia regiments here, and hardly one bit 
of bread to eat, which if not remedied by your lordship, I leave you to 
judge of the event. I hope all of us here will do our duty in our stations, 
but men must eat." 4 

When we consider that the Privy Council knew the strength of the 
King's forces, and of the Militia they had called out, it is truly astonish- 
ing to find such a lamentable want of preparation, not only on their part 
but on that of the Commander-in-Chief who was one of themselves. 

Twelve years later, it was said that William III.'s Army " conquered 
Ireland with the help of Cheshire cheese and biscuits." But for lack 
of the last-named article Scotland ran the risk of being once moreover-run 
by Covenanters. On 18th June, Linlithgow reports to Rothes (Lord Chan- 
cellor) that five Militia Regiments have joined : "We have here the regi- 
ments of East Lothian, the Merse, that Perthshire regiment commanded 
by the Marquis of Athol, the other was at Linlithgow last night and will 
join us this morning, the two Fife regiments, the regiment of Angus, I 

1 Lord Strathmore's Book of Record, published by the Scottish History Society, p. 131. 
a Lauderdale I'apern, Vol. III., p. 170. 
8 Ibid. 

4 Letter given in AVodrow's Sufferings of the Church of Scotland (1829 edit.), Vol. III., 
pp. 99-100. 





THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 51 

believe, will join us in our march this day, and the militia regiment of the 
town of Edinburgh ... as near as I can conjecture the eight militia 
regiments that we have will make up about five thousand men." l On the 
same day that this letter was written, the Duke of Monmouth arrived 
at Edinburgh with his suite and was sworn a Privy Councillor. On 
19th June, he joined the Army at Blackburn and took over the command 
from Linlithgow. Monmouth's victory at Bothwell Bridge belongs to 
another chapter. Linlithgow had command of the Infantry in above 
engagement. Shortly afterwards he accompanied Claverhouse to London 
to give the King an account of affairs in Scotland. 

Linlithgow was not again employed as a general officer ; but he retained 
command of the Foot Guards till 1684 when pressure was put on him to 
resign his Colonelcy in favour of Lieut-Colonel the Hon. James Douglas 
(brother to the 1st Duke of Queensberry) who was given the Regiment 
13th June. " Lord Linlithgow cynically remarked that he defied anyone 
to keep it as long as he had done, his method having been to bribe the 
Duchess of Lauderdale and others." 2 

To make up for the loss of his Regiment Lord Linlithgow was appointed 
Lord Justice General. He held this high office till 14th December, 1688, 
when he received a curt official notice from the President of the Council 
ordering him " to repair to Court to attend his Most Sacred Majestie 
anent his necessary affaires. " 3 When Linlithgow reached London he 
found that the King had left England for France, and that the Prince of 
Orange was installed at St. James's Palace. 

It is said that after the Coronation of William and Mary, Lord Linlith- 
gow joined Sir James Montgomery's plot for the restoration of James VII. 4 
Be this as it may, the 3rd Earl of Linlithgow died on 1st February, 1690, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son George, Lord Livingston. 

1 Letter given in Wodrow's Sufferings of the Church of Scotland (1829 edit.), Vol. III., 
pp. 99-100. 

2 Fountainhall's Historical Observes, pp. 132-3. 

3 See facsimile of this order. 

4 Burke's Extinct Peerage. 

D 2 




JAMES CKOFTS, alias Fitzroy, alias Scott, was born at Rotterdam 
9th April, 1649. This child of sin, who was destined to be the plaything 
of the goddess of fortune, was son of Mrs. Lucy Barlow (nee Walter) and 
Charles II. Whatever may be said against Monmouth's mother, all con- 
temporary writers agree as to the extreme beauty of Mrs. Barlow's son 1 
and to his engaging manners. His boyhood, from 1658-1662, was spent in 
Paris, at the Court of the Queen Mother, under the tutorship of Lord 
Crofts whose surname he was known by till brought to the English Court, 
in the train of Queen Henrietta Maria, 1st July, 1662. By Letters 
Patent, dated 14th February, 1663, young " James Crofts " was created 
Duke of Monmouth, installed a Knight of the Garter, 28th March, 1663, 
and, by Lauderdale's advice to the King, the little Duke was married, 
20th April, 1663, to the greatest child-heiress in Scotland Anne, Countess 
of Buccleuch, then aged twelve. Monmouth who now took the surname 
of Scott, had an assured position. He was recognised as the King's 
natural son and received a grant of the Royal Arms charged with the 
baton sinister. Monmouth and his bride were created, on their marriage, 
Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch in Scotland, " with remainder to their 
heirs male, in default of which to the heirs whatever descending from the 
Duke's body, succeeding to the estate and Earldom of Buccleuch." 

For sixteen and a half years fortune smiled almost unceasingly on this 
young nobleman. He basked in the King's favour. He had his own 
party at Court, and among the people ; he went from one high military 
post to another, till, in 1678, he was appointed Captain-General of the 
Army in England. The following year he was made Commander-in-Chief 
in Scotland. No one could call Monmouth a carpet knight. He had seen 
the sternest side of war on the Continent and was not a stranger to the 
deadly breach. 

Ignoring, for obvious reasons, the historical account of Monmouth's 
life," printed in 1683, the Duke's war services may be briefly recorded as 
follows : He served as a volunteer under the Duke of York in the naval 
action of Solebay, 3rd June, 1665. When England and France declared 
war against Holland, in March, 1672, a British force of 6,000 men, 
commanded by Monmouth, was sent to France to co-operate with 
Louis XIV's Army in the invasion of Holland. The Duke shared in the 
successes gained by the combined French and British Troops, under King 
Louis and Marshal Turenne, against several Dutch fortresses in June. 

1 " He was a lovely person." Evelyn's Diary. 

* An Historical Account of the Heroick Life and Magnanimous Actions of the most 
ilhistrious Protestant Prince James, Duke of Monmouth, 1683. 


(See Memoir, pp. 52-59.) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 53 

Further operations were stayed by the States opening the sluices and 
laying their country under water. 

In April, 1673, Louis XIV. appointed Monmouth a Lieut.-General 
in the French Army which invested Maestricht, 17th June, 1673. Mon- 
mouth was in command of 8,000 British Troops at this famous siege. It 
is recorded of this young nobleman that on 24th June, he led a storming 
party against the counterscarp which he carried with great gallantry. 
The following day the Dutch recaptured the outwork they had lost. But 
they did not keep it. Monmouth with Captain Churchill (afterwards the 
Great Duke of Marlborough), and twelve gentlemen privates of the 
English Life Guards, highly distinguished themselves in regaining, at the 
point of the sword, the outward half moon and counterscarp which the 
Dutch had recaptured from the English by a furious sally after success- 
fully springing a mine. 1 For this act of gallantry Charles II. bestowed on 
Monmouth the command of the English Regiment of Volunteer Light 
Horse, vacant by Colonel Sir Henry Jones having been killed during the 
siege. On 2nd July, this fortress surrendered and the Duke returned to 

Monmouth's rise in the British Army was very rapid. Captain of a 
Troop of Horse, 30th June, 1666, and " Captain of all the Guards of Horse 
or Life Guards of Horse ... to attend Our Person in that quality . . . 
16th September, 1668." 2 Colonel of the " Royal English Regt." in the 
French Service, 1672, 8 and Colonel of an English Regiment of Light Horse 
in France, 1673. 4 

On his return from the siege of Maestricht, Monmouth aspired to the 
Captain-Generalship of the English Army, which post had been vacant 
since the death of the Duke of Albemarle in 1670. The King was quite 
ready to give the coveted command to his son, but feared a quarrel with 
the Duke of York who had grown jealous of Monmouth. 5 In January, 
1674, Charles II. gave Monmouth authority to act as General of the Home 
Forces without bestowing any Commission on his son. " MY Lord Duke 
is growing yet greater by an addition of home employments," wrote James 
Vernon (Monmouth's secretary) to Secretary Williamson on 26th January, 
1674. " The Duchess of Portsmouth told him yesterday he should be 
Master of the Horse this week and offered to lay any wager of it ; and 
last week the King ordered him to have an inspection into all things 
relating to the forces now on foot, so that now all orders are brought to 
him, and he examines them and then presents them to the King to be 
signed. This employment has as yet no name, nor has his Grace any 
Commission, and all things are countersigned by Lord Arlington as before. 
However, it is an initiating of him into business, and he is not like to be 
denied anything he shall be found capable to manage." 6 

To obviate the difficulty of Monmouth acting as Captain-General 
without any Commission, the King sent tne following order to the 

1 Cannon's Records of the Life Guards, p. 43. In Louia XI Vs Journal of this siege is 
this item : " The Duke of Monmouth acquired, at the head of the musketeers a great 
reputation." Quoted in Eoberts's Life of the Duke of Monmouth. 

1 English Army Lists and Commission Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. I., p. 99. 

3 A new battalion was added, a few months later, and styled the " New Royal English 
Regt." Ibid. Introduction, p. viii. 

4 Ibid., p. 203. 

5 The Duke of York to Colonel George Legge (on his past and present relations with 
Monmouth), Brussels, 7th June, 1679. Dartmouth Papers, pp. 34-5. 

Cal. S.P. Dom., 1673-1675, p. 119. 

54 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

respective Colonels of his Troops of Life Guards, Horse Guards, Foot 
Guards, and Foot Regiments : 


" Wee have thought fitt that the respective Colonells, or other officers in chiefe 
commanding them, shall from henceforth observe such orders as they shall re- 
ceive from our most deare and intirely beloved sonn James, Duke of Mon- 
mouth . . . and that you obey such orders as you shall from time to time receive 
from our said deare sonu accordingly ; for which this shall be your sufficient 
warrant. Whitehall, 30th March, 1674. 

" By his Ma tiM command 


This Royal order paved the way for the Commission which Monmouth 
hankered after. 

During the winter of 1677-1678 the English Nation clamoured for an 
Anglo-Dutch alliance against France. Charles now saw his way to raise 
an Army of 20,000 men which included the British Regiments in the 
service of France brought home in the spring of 1678. 2 

On 24th April, 1678, a Royal Warrant was signed at Whitehall, autho- 
rising the Attorney General (Sir Wm. Jones) to prepare a Commission 
appointing James, Duke of Monmouth " Captain-General of all his 
Majesty's Forces in England, Wales, and the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed." 
The Duke's Commission as Captain-General, dated 27th April, 1678, was the 
outcome of the above Warrant, but owing to the fact of Monmouth's secretary 
(by his master's order) erasing the obnoxious word " natural " in the body 
of the Commission, and so changing the words " to our most entirely 
beloved natural son " into " our most entirely beloved son," the King was 
obliged, in order to appease the Duke of York's anger and jealous fears, 
to cancel the Commission. This was done by Charles " taking up a pair of 
scissors and without a word clipping a piece out of his own Royal signa- 
ture." s Notwithstanding this little set-back, Monmouth pursued the even 
tenour of his command as Captain-General, but without a fresh Commis- 
sion, till June, 1679. 4 

Another little contretemps took place in June, 1678. A report had 
gained ground, spread by Monmouth's partisans, that the King had 
secretly married Mrs. Barlow, before her son's birth, and that the marriage 

1 Printed in Colonel Mackinnon'a History of the Coldstream Guards, Vol. I., p. 151. It 
is to be noted in this Royal Letter that the King studiously avoids the word " natural " 
after the words " intirely beloved." 

a For lists of these Regiments on their return to England see English Army Lists and 
Commission Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. I., pp. 203, 207, 208, 222. The Earl of Dumbarton's 
Regiment of Foot (the present Royal Scots) came home in 1678, but there is no list of this 
corps forthcoming for said year. 

" The incident is fully narrated by Dr. J. S. Clarke in his Life of James II. (1816), 
Vol. I., pp. 496-7. The original Commission at the Public Record Office, proves that 
the space left vacant by Monmouth's erasure was cut out as well as the letters "ar" 
of the Royal signature. These mutilations have at some time or other, been repaired 
by pieces of vellum being pasted on the reverse side of the document in question. A 
facsimile of this cancelled and mutilated Commission is given by the Editor. 

4 On 3rd June, 1679, the King signed a Warrant appointing " Our entirely beloved 
Cousin and Councillor James, Duke of Monmouth to be Captain-General of all our land 
forces in England, Wales and in town of Berwick-on-Tweed." Military Entry Book 


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THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 55 

contract was in existence. To prevent any trouble after his death, 
Charles made a solemn declaration that " he never gave nor made any 
contract of marriage nor was married to Mrs. Barlow alias Waters the 
Duke of Monmouth s mother." 1 

In February, 1678, and again in August of this year, Monmouth was 
sent to Ostend with some English Troops. He had the rank of " General 
of the English Forces in Flanders ; " 2 while the Earl of Ossory commanded 
the Scots and English Brigades in the service of Holland. On 14th August 
the Prince of Orange gained a victory over the French in the sanguinary 
battle of St. Denis near Mons. The Duke of Monmouth, at the head of 
the British contingent, fought with the Prince of Orange's Army on this 
occasion and behaved with great bravery. 8 It is said that the French 
Commander (Luxembourg) and the Prince of Orange were both well 
aware, before this battle commenced, that the preliminaries of peace 
between France and Holland had been signed on llth August at 
Nimeguen. 4 

The scare of a pretended Popish plot, in the autumn of 1678, increased 
Monmouth's popularity among a large section of English people ; while at 
the same time there was a strong feeling against the Duke of York on 
account of his religion. For State reasons it was thought advisable for 
York to retire to Brussels early in 1679. Monmouth now became the tool 
of the faction opposed to the succession of the King's brother. According 
to a contemporary Scottish writer, an attempt was made at this time either 
to poison Monmouth or disfigure him for life : "The Duke of Monmouth 
they say," wrote Hugh Maxwell from London, 29th November, 1678, to 
John Maxwell of Pollok, " got a letter which when opened a powder came 
up upon his face and nose, that with difficulty they say his face is preserved 
and himself not poisoned." 5 

It has already been recorded in a former chapter why the Duke 
of Monmouth was hastily sent to Scotland, in June, 1679, to take command 
of the Royalist Forces. He was appointed " Captain-General of all his 
Maj tyes Forces already raysd or hereafter to bee raysd as well standing as 
Militia within his Maj^ 68 Kingdome of Scotland .... which Commission is 
to continue in force during his Maj tyes pleasure." 6 Monmouth's Commission 
was signed at Windsor Castle, 12th June, 1679, and on the same day the King 
signed Commissions for officers selected by Monmouth to serve in the Infan- 
try Regiment under the Duke's command, which corps was to form part of 
the English contingent to be sent to Scotland. 7 Orders had already been 
given for raising three Troops of Horse Grenadiers, a Regiment of Horse 
under Lord Gerard, and a Regiment of Dragoons under the Earl of Fever- 
sham. 8 An Independent Troop of Dragoons was likewise ordered to be raised 
in Northumberland for service under Colonel Wm. Strother. Lauderdale 
had informed the Scots Privy Council, by letter dated llth June, that some 
Infantry and Artillery were to be sent by soa to Berwick. On 15th June, 

1 Pepys's Diary (Wheatley edition), Vol. III. 

2 Monmouth to Secretary Williamson from "Bruxelles, 17 Aug. 1678." S.P. Don. 
8 King Monmouth, by Allan Fea, p. 61. 

4 Dr. Clarke's Memoirs of James 11. It has been asserted that Marshal Soult was aware 
that Peace had been signed between England and France when he engaged the British Array 
at Toulouse, 10th April, 1814. 

5 Sir Wm. Fraser's The Maxwell Book, Vol., II., p. 329. 

6 Undated copy printed in the Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., pp. 258-260. 
' English Army Lists and Commission Registers, 1601-1714, Vol. I., p, 256. 
8 Ibid., p. 255. 

56 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Monmouth left London for Edinburgh with his Master of the Horse and 
secretary and arrived there on 18th, which was quick travelling. The 
next day the Duke took over the command of the Scottish Forces from the 
Earl of Linlithgow, at Blackburn, and at daybreak on 22nd July came 
within sight of Bothwell Bridge. 

Before going any further, it is necessary to point out that the account 
given of Monmouth's forces in Old Mortality is not in accord with facts ; 
we may even say that Sir Walter Scott's description is pure fiction. This 
great novelist says: "There were three or four regiments of English, 
the flower of Charles's army." Now there was not one English Regiment 
present at Bothwell. Scott, like several writers of the present day, thought 
that the Cavalry and Infantry Regiments promised by the English Govern- 
ment followed Monmouth to Scotland, and arrived in time to fight at 
Bothwell Bridge. No such thing. The scheme for sending Troops with 
Monmouth to Scotland fell through for lack of money. 1 The Regiments 
ordered to be raised in June existed only on paper. Contemporary accounts 
of the engagement speak of "five troops of English dragoons." 2 Captain 
John Creichton names " four troops " in his narrative. 8 And the King's 
letter to the Scots Privy Council, on 16th June, refers to measures taken 
by the latter, and to their having " called in Major Main [from Alnwick] 
with some of the English troops of horse and dragoons under his 
command." 4 

It is an ascertained fact that Majors Edmund Maine and Theophilus 
Oglethorpe, as also Captain Henry Cornwrall, fought with their respective 
Troops at Bothwell Bridge and received their share of forfeiture some 
months after the said engagement 6 But the names of the other two (?) 
English Troops said to have been present, cannot be traced. Again, Scott 
tells us that " a complete train of field artillery accompanied the army." 
It so happens that we have the official statement of the Commander of 
the only " train " of Artillery attached to Monmouth's Army, and this is 
what he wrote : 

humbly proposed by John Slezer, Lieut- of the Artillery 

" The Establishment of Artillery attenders within the Kingdome of Scotland 
consists only of four gunners to serve in his Majesty's Castles. I am honoured 
indeed with a Lieutenant's place of the Ordnance for that Kingdome. But I 
have neither Gunner nor no living soul to dispose on nor do I know where to find 
out one single man fit for that purpose when there shall be occasion for it, as did 
appear in the last Rebellion at Bodwell (sic) Bridge when every Governor 
thought to find use for his own Gunners, and that with much adoe I obtained 
only one Gunner to go along with four pieces of Canon (sic) besides three meu 
that were pressed from Leith who proved very unfit for that service. 6 

1 Roberts's Life of the Duke of Monmouth. 

3 An exact Relation of the Defeat of the Rebels at Bothwell Bridge. Published by 
Authority. In the Savoy. Printed by Tho. Newcomb, 1679. 

3 Captain John Creichton's Memoirs. 

4 Quoted by Wodrow (Burns's edit. 1829), Vol. III., p. 100, note. 

* Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V., under date of 27th December, 1679. 

6 Ibid. Under date of July, 1680. This assertion is corroborated by a statement in 
Kirk ton's Church of Scotland, p. 467, to the effect that the gunners in Monmouth's Army 
ran away, and had it not been that the bridge was " stopt with an barracade for defence " 
the guns might have been captured. David Leslie (son of Lord Lindores) rallied the 
gunners with the cry " Would they fleg for country fellows ? " 

K $ 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 57 

Here we have adequate proof that there were only four guns attached 
to Monmouth's Army, on 22nd July, 1679, and that these cannon were 
badly served. The Rebels are said to have also had four guns atBothwell 
Bridge, one of which was thrown into the Clyde and the other three 
taken after the engagement ; l but Covenanting writers declare there was 
only one gun. 2 As regards the so-called " battle " it was comparatively 
speaking a tame affair. The Rebels were split up into rival religious 
factions. Their Commander (Hamilton) was an impossible person, wholly 
given up to fanaticism, but without the courage of the sect to which he 

Hackston of Rathillet, who fought with a halter round his neck, 
commanded the force which defended the old bridge and held it against 
the Royalist Troops for close on three hours. An Horatius Codes would 
have held this particular bridge and the houses at the foot of it, for many 
hours ; and so might Rathillet have done had he not run short of 
ammunition and his repeated messages for more powder and ball been 
ignored. The defenders of the bridge had perforce to quit their barri- 
cades and fall back upon their main body. Even then the Rebels might 
have inflicted very heavy loss on Monmouth's Troops as they crossed the 
bridge, and filed through the narrow pass on the south bank of the river. 
As it was, Oglethorpe and his Troop advanced too far, and being unsupported 
were driven back by the Rebel Cavalry to the houses at the foot of the 
bridge. At this juncture, Lord Livingston, at the head of 300 8 of the Foot 
Guards, advanced to Oglethorpe's support and the pursuing Rebels had to 
retreat. Monmouth then crossed the bridge at the head of the Scots 
Life Guards followed by the Cavalry and Infantry. The day was practi- 
cally won. Cavalry charges launched against the ill-disciplined mass of 
insurgents finished the unequal contest. To his eternal credit be it spoken, 
Monmouth checked the slaughter which ensued. He was afterwards blamed 
by Charles II. for taking prisoners. Monmouth replied : " I cannot kill 
men in cold blood, that is work only for butchers." 4 

Among the 1,200 prisoners taken on 22nd July, 1679, was Mr. John 
King, the former chaplain at Cardross House. He was executed at 
Edinburgh on 14th August following. According to Captain Creichton 
this preacher was a highly immoral man. 6 Hackston of Rathillet made 
his escape after the defeat of the Rebels at Bothwell Bridge. A report 
was spread that his brother-in-law, John Balfour of Kinloch (one of 
Archbishop Sharp's murderers), had fallen in the engagement, 6 but this was 
not the case. 

On 6th July, 1679, Monmouth left Edinburgh for London. On his 
arrival at Court he asked the King to grant an indemnity to the Covenan- 
ters and liberty to hold their meetings under certain conditions. The 
outcome of this request was the following Royal letter to Archbishop 

1 A Further . . . Account of the Total Defeat of the Rebels in Scotland contained in a 
letter from Edenburgh, 24th June, 1679. 

a Kirkton'e Church of Scotland, p. 467. 

* A Covenanting writer says : "My Lord Lithgow's son came down to the bridge with 
about 500 red coats too." Memoirs of Wm. Veilch, p. 478. 

4 Bishop Burnet's History of my Own Time. General Wolfe, when serving as A.D.C. 
to the Duke of Cumberland at Culloden, is said to have made a similar reply to his chief 
when told to pistol a wounded Highlander after the battle. 

1 Memoirs. 

6 A Further . . . Account of the Total Defeat of the Rebeli in Scotland, p. 4. 

58 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Leighton, who had retired from the Church in Scotland, 1674, and was 
then living at Broadhurst in Sussex. 

" Windsor, July 16, 1679 

" I am now resolved to try what clemency can prevail upon such in Scotland 
as will not conform to the government of the church there ; for effecting of 
which design I desire you may go down to Scotland with your first conveniency, 
and take all possible pains for persuading all you can of both opinions to as much 
mutual correspondence and concord as may be ; and send me from time to time 
characters of both men and things. In order to this design I shall send you a 
preceipt for two hundred pounds sterling upon my exchequer till you resolve how 
to serve me in a stated employment. Your loving friend 


" For the Bishop of Dumblane." l 

The Ex-Archbishop of Glasgow was then in his 68th year, and having 
failed, as a younger man, to reconcile the differences between Episcopalians 
and Presbyterians, in Scotland, he shrank from the mission entrusted to 
him by the King. " What were the vain disputes of angry men to him ? " 
remarks Leighton's biographer. However, Monmouth's disgrace in Septem- 
ber, 1679, set the matter at rest for ever. The Duke's suggested clemency 
to the Covenanters passed from the King's mind when Monmouth had 
retired to the Hague by his father's command. The cause of this sudden 
departure was the unexpected arrival in London, from Brussels, of the 
Duke of York, who had come over without leave from the King on hearing 
of the latter's sudden illness. The Court was not large enough to hold the 
two rival Dukes, so Monmouth was sent abroad. 

" On September 12 (old style) the King sent for the Duke of Monmouth," 
writes the latter's biographer, "and told him that circumstances required 
him to resign his office of Lord General, and to withdraw for a season to 
the continent. Monmouth appears to have been unwilling to obey the 
King's directions. His answer was pettish and disrespectful." 2 

Returning to the Scots Army, on 19th June, 1679, Lauderdale wrote to 
the Lord Chancellor and the Privy Council enclosing the King's Commis- 
sion to General Thomas Dalyell to be Lieut. -General of the Forces in Scot- 
land. 8 This Commission, which was sent at the request of the Scots Privy 
Council, was handed to Dalyell at the Council Table on the memorable 
22nd June, 1679, and he joined the Army the following day. 4 

On the 1st November, 1679, the King acquainted the Scots Privy 
Council that he had thought fit to recall the Commission granted " by Us 
unto James, Duke of Buccleuch to be Generall of Our Forces in that Our 
ancient Kingdome .... and that Wee look upon Our Lieut.-Generall 
(Generall Thomas Dalzell) to be the Commander in Chiefe of all Our said 
Forces." 5 

Monmouth was not only deprived of his post of Captain-General, in 
both kingdoms, but on 29th November, 1679, was succeeded by Christopher 
Duke of Albemarle as Captain of the Life Guards. On 1st December, the 

1 Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, originally edited by Robert Chambers : revised and 
continued by the Rev. Thos. Thomson. 

* Life of the Duke of Monmouth, by George Roberts, Vol. I., p. 60. 
" Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. 

4 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., p. 173, where the receipt by the Council of Dalyell's 
Commission is mentioned. 

5 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. 

THE .SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 59 

Earl of Mulgrave succeeded Monmouth as Governor of Hull ; and on the 
last day of this eventful year the Duke's Independent Company at Hull 
was bestowed on Mulgrave. 1 

It is quite unnecessary to follow the hapless Monmouth into exile. His 
return to England without the King's permission ; his plottings and 
schemings ; his desertion of his amiable and talented Duchess ; his neglect 
of his children; his liaison with the young Baroness Wentworth a peeress 
in her own right who left her home, and sacrificed her maiden honour to 
share the Duke's second term of exile at Brussels ; his invasion of England ; 
defeat at Sedgemoor, 6th July, 1685 ; and his execution on Tower Hill nine 
days later. These sad events are well-known historical facts. In some 
respects, there was a strange similarity between the half -educated Duke of 
Monmouth and the highly-accomplished Mary, Queen of Scots. Each was 
endowed by nature with the fatal fascination of good looks coupled with 
captivating manners. Each was a devotee of pleasure so long as circum- 
stances permitted. The one set the fashion of head-dress in Scotland ; 
while the other's cock of his hat long survived in the West of England. 2 
Each was made the rallying centre of a religious party for political purposes. 
Both lacked sincerity, and were strangers to what Virgil calls the mens 
conacia recti. 

1 English Army Lists and Commission Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. I., pp. 265-6. 
""The Monmouth cock was still worn by country squires in the Western Counties, 1711." 
Pepys's Diary (Wheatley edition), Vol. VI., p. 349 and note. 



IST NOVEMBER, 1679 23RD AUGUST, 1685. 

WHEN Monmouth's Commission as Captain-General was re-called, in 
September, 1679, Dalyell became de jure Commander-in-Chief in Scotland. 
" Wee looke upom our Lieutenant Generall, (Generall Thos. Dalzell) " 
wrote the King to the Scottish Council, 1st November, 1679, " to be the 
Commander in Chiefe of all our said Forces." 1 In sporting parlance " the 
old jockey was up again and expected to ride." A contemporary writer 
records that Dalyell's Commission, which reached Edinburgh 6th Novem- 
ber, 1679, empowered him " only to be liable and accountable to, and 
judgeable by, his Majesty himself." 2 

Dalyell had also been appointed " a Commissioner of Justiciary, with 
the advice of nine others, to execute justice on the Bothwell Bridge 

On 8th November, Lauderdale wrote to Dalyell, by the King's com- 
mand, directing that " the Troop of Life Guards, and two Companies of 
Foot Guards, were to wait upon his Royal Highness the Duke of Albany 
and York as his Guard during his stay in Scotland." 4 One of the charges 
of cruelty made against Dalyell, was that he had found a sentry asleep 
at the gate of Holyrood, when the Duke of York passed the Abbey, in 
1681, and had ordered him to be shot. The sentence was remitted at 
the Duke's special request. 

One of the " Articles of War for the Government of his Majesty's 
Forces in Scotland, 1667," was as follows : " Whatsoever Sentinell or 
Pardue shal be found sleeping upon Duty, shall die." A hundred years 
later the penalty for this offence seems to have been the same. 6 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. 

a Fountainhall's Historical Notices, Vol. I., p. 243. The Commission in question is not 
among the Dalyell papers. 

8 Ibid., p. 264. 

4 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. 

4 An anecdote is told of General Eliott (afterwards Lord Heathfield): "During the 
siege of Gibraltar, it was customary with the General to take his nightly rounds in order to 
see that all was safe, and the sentinels alert on duty. One night ... he came upon a 
sentry who, overcome with fatigue, was fast asleep with his firelock in his arms. The 
General clapped him on the shoulder, and raising him, said, ' Thank God, General Eliott 
awoke you.' The poor fellow, almost petrified with astonishment, dropped his arms and 
fell down ; the General, however, walked on, first desiring him to be more careful. The 
soldier expected death as his punishment, and dreaded the dawn of day which he supposed 
would usher him to a court-martial. Fortunately for him, however, the General did not 
mention the circumstance or take further notice of it." The Annals of a Border Club, by 
Captain George Tancred, late Scots Greys, p. 174. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 61 

The defeat of the Covenanters at Bothwell Bridge broke the back of 
open rebellion. Many of the prisoners escaped the scaffold and trans- 
portation by accepting, under certain conditions, the Indemnity offered to 
them by the King. This Indemnity was extended to 3rd January, 1680, 
and at its expiration the Cameronians stood out in bold relief as the force 
to be reckoned with. On 22nd June, 1680, Richard Cameron, with a 
small armed party, entered the town of Sanquhar, in Dumfries-shire, and 
publicly read a declaration disowning Charles Stuart as King. The gaunt- 
let of defiance was thus thrown down in the face of the Government and 
the Army. Four weeks later, Bruce of Earl's Hall, Claverhouse's 
Lieutenant, with a party of Horse surprised Richard Cameron and his fol- 
lowers at Airds Moss, in the parish of Auchinleck in Kyle, and defeated 
them. Cameron was killed on the spot. Hackston of Rathillet was 
taken prisoner ; while Donald Cargill escaped for a time. Hackston was 
brought before Dalyell and Lord Ross, and then sent to Edinburgh for 
trial. He was executed as he well deserved, but the barbarous torture 
inflicted on Hackston leaves an indelible blot on Scottish justice. In the 
old churchyard at Cupar is a tombstone inscribed with the names of 
three sufferers for the Covenant, one of them being Hackston of Rath- 
illet " a hand belonging to whom is interred thereunder." 1 

In July, 1681, a party of Captain Stuart's Troop captured the 
Rev. Donald Cargill, who had the courage of his opinions. One of the 
witnesses against him was Archibald Stewart, in Borrowstoness, who 
confessed that " he was a rebel at Airdmoss with Mr. Cameron and had 
a sword and two pistols ... he had been frequently with Mr. Cargill and 
was present at the excommunication of the King and his Royal Highness, 
the Lord Chancellor [Rothes], the Earl of Linlithgow, General Dalzel, and 
the King's Advocate [Mackenzie], at the Conventicle at Torwood, and he 
himself was there in arms." 2 Cargill was executed in July, 1681. 

On 24th March, 1681, the King wrote from Oxford to the Scottish 
Council, ordering two new Companies to be raised for the Earl of Mar's 
Regiment, which were to take the place of the two " Companies of 
Highlandmen " now ordered to be disbanded. 8 In the summer of this 
year the Duke of York returned to Scotland as High Commissioner. 
Dalyell found the Duke keenly interested in military matters, and it was 
doubtless owing to the former's representations to His Royal Highness 
that the idea of forming a National Regiment of Dragoons was in the 
first instance due. On 25th November, 1681, the King wrote to the Duke 
of York concerning " His Majesty's Regt. of Dragoons in Scotland 
whereof Lieut-General Dalyell is appointed Colonel." 4 

The composition of this new corps (the present historic Scots Greys) 
and the names of the officers appointed thereto are recorded in Part II. of 
this Volume. It only remains therefore to say here that Dalyell raised, 
organised, and commanded this Regiment from the end of 1681 to the day 
of his death. It was this old campaigner who instituted the " stone- 
grey " clothing for his new raised corps. 6 

1 Scottish Monuments and Tombstones, by the Rev. C. Rogers, Vol. II., p. 84. 
a A true and impartial Account of the Examinations and Confessions of several execrable 
Conspirators against the King and his Government in Scotland. London, 1681. 
8 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. 

4 Ibid., Vol. VI. 

5 Treasury Records, under date of 22nd March, 1683, refer to order to import " 243<i 
elnes of grey cloth for use of the regt of dragoons." It has never been definitely ascor 
tained that this Regiment was mounted on grey horses prior to the Revolution. 

62 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

When Dalyell was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Scots Army 
he was in his 80th year, but, like the veteran Duke of Schomberg, of 
Revolution renown, he was able to keep a tight hand over his officers, 
while all movements of the Troops in disaffected districts, or otherwise, 
were regulated by him. Dalyell did not spare himself. The Duke of 
Hamilton, in a letter to the Marquis of Queensberry, from Hamilton, 
26th May, 1682, records: "I had almost forgot to tell you Generall 
Dalzell was here this day, where he mett the gentlemen of this 
shire pretty frequently conveened. They seamed all very frank and 
willing to do all they could for the security of the peace, and fell on 
some overtures which will be better digested againest this day eight 
days that he returns from Aire." l On the 2nd June following, Dalyell 
again met the Commissioners and heritors of Lanarkshire at Hamilton. 
Amongst other matters the heritors " offered advyce to Generall Dalzell 
anent the places most convenient for lodging such forces as may 
be thought necessary for apprehending skulking vagabonds and rebells, 
on the confynes of the shyre and elsewhere and for securing the 

As Fabius had been the shield of ancient Rome, in like manner was 
Dalyell Scotland's protecting Mgis. Claverhouse was a second Marcellus, 
and chafed for a free hand in his desultory campaign against the wild 
Westland Whigs. It soon became evident to the Duke of York and 
Dalyell how well-fitted Claverhouse was for harrying the rebels and 
dispersing their conventicles. It was entirely owing to the Duke of York 
that Claverhouse was given the Colonelcy of the King's Regiment of 
Scottish Horse, which was formed in the winter of 1682-3. 8 But as on 
previous occasions, the Government " robbed Peter to pay Paul." " His 
Highnes has also moved the Kinge that Claverous showld have a 
Collonell's pay," wrote the Earl of Moray, Secretary of State, to the Mar- 
quis of Queensberry, Lord Treasurer, from Whitehall, 3rd February, 168-, 
" so that the Aed Major, Quartermaster, and Martiall of the regement of 
dragoons ar ordered to be discharged, and ther pay applyed for Claverous 
who is to haue the same pye as Collfonell] that the Generall hes as 
Coll[onell] of the dragoons, and the letters for this purpos are also sent to 
your Lordship by this post." 4 

When news reached Dalyell that his Regiment was to be shorn of two 
of its Staff Officers, he was naturally furious. Old as he was Dalyell set off 
to London to ask the King to rescind the discharge of the officers in 
question. The result of the General's expostulations is recorded in a 
letter from the Duke of York to the Marquis of Queensberry, from London, 
9th May, 1683 : " The Old General is now a going back, and I hope better 
satisfyd then when he came from Scotland." 6 The Aid-Major and the 
Quartermaster of Dalyell's Dragoons were again added to the Establish- 
ment of the Standing Army in Scotland, by a Royal Letter to the Council, 
dated llth May, 1683. 6 

It is a well-known fact that the relations between Dalyell and 
Claverhouse were strained, even after the restoration of the two discharged 

1 Hist. MSS. damn., Report XV., Appx. Pt. VIII., p. 241. 

2 Ibid., p. 242. 

3 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII. 

I Hist. MSS. Comn., Report XV., Appx. Pt. VIII., Vol. II., p. 22. 
5 Ibid., Vol. I., p. 189. 

II Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 63 

officers to the former's Regiment. In April, 1684, the Council recom- 
mended that Claverhouse should command the Troops in Ayrshire. 
Accordingly this officer called upon the Commander-in-Chief at the 
latber's house in Edinburgh. " I called at the Generalls this fornoon," 
wrote Claverhouse in an undated letter to Queensberry, "and he was gon 
out to diner. Som time after he sent the order of councell to me without 
any order from himselfe, and sent me word by his servant that that was 
all he hade to say. I told his man I would wait on him imediatly after 
diner, and when I cam to his lodging, his man told me he was layen doun, 
and that he had not been well for som days. I offered to stay till he was 
awak, but his man told me I needed not, for he would give me no other 
orders. I can do nothing without his orders, for act of councell says the 
Generall is to comand my Lord Balcares troup and mine and Capt 
Clielands to Clidsdelle ; and that he should give orders to Coll. Bouchan 
and me to comand there. Houever, least the Kings service suffer in the 
time, I will goe and join my Lord Ross troup, till the half of the Gairds 
and the other troops coin. I hop your Lordship will cause dispatch them. 
If the Generall will not, the councell may give the orders imediatly to 
the respective troupes." * 

In November, 1683, a party of the Foot Guards, under a non-commis- 
sioned officer, made a raid on Cardross House, which had been a happy 
hunting ground in the past for those in search of conventicle holders. The 
Hon. Veronica Erskine, in a letter to her brother, Lord Cardross, from 
"Cardross, 23 Nov., 1683," wrote: "All the soldiers belong to 
Lithgow's Regiment, but we know not whose Company they are in, but 
that may easily be got notice of, since the name of the corporal is inserted 
among the rest." 2 

When the swing of the pendulum brought the Presbyterians into 
power, after the Revolution, a party of Lord Cardross's new-raised Regi- 
ment of Dragoons prevented the Episcopal minister of Logie from 
entering his church. Many other authenticated acts of aggression 
against the Episcopal Clergy in 1689, are familiar to students of Scottish 
history. 8 

On 28th October, 1684, James Renwick, a Covenanting preacher, 
issued his " Apologetical Declaration," which is tersely described by an 
able Scottish writer as " flat rebellion." ' After proclaiming war against 
Charles Stuart and his accomplices, including " bloody militiamen, mali- 
cious troopers, soldiers and dragoons . . . and such as designedly and 
purposely advise counsel, and encourage them to proceed against us to 
our utter extirpation, by informing against us wickedly, willingly, and 
wittingly, such as viperous and malicious bishops and curates," the 
manifesto then goes on to threaten condign punishment : " We say all 
and every one of such shall be reputed by us enemies to God and the 
Covenanted work of reformation, and punisht.l as such according to our 
power and the degrees of their offences chiefly if they shall continue, 
after the publication of this our declaration, obstinately and habitually 
with malice to proceed against us." B 

1 Hist. AfSS. Cornn., Report XV., Pt. VIII., p. 286. 

2 Henry Erskine, his Kinsfolk, and Times, p. 31. 

3 Short Account of the Grievances of the Episcopal Clergy of Scotland, printed in The 
Sj>ottiswoode Miscellany, Vol. II., pp. 387-400. 

4 Professor Simford Terry, author of John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee. 
6 Quoted by Hill Burton in his History of Scotland. 

64 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Renwick 1 was only twenty -two when he issued this "Declaration," 
which was affixed to church doors and market crosses by his followers on 
8th November, 1684. Mark the result. On 20th November, two Gentle- 
men of the Life Guards, Thomas Kennoway and Duncan Stewart, were 
foully murdered at an inn adjacent to Swine Abbey, Linlithgowshire. And 
on llth December following, the Rev. Peter Pierson, minister of Carsphairn, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, whose anti-Covenant principles were well-known, was 
shot dead at his manse door. The murderer escaped for the moment. A 
few days after this event a hundred rebels entered the town of Carsphairn, 
released the prisoners from the tolbooth, and seized such arms as they 
could lay their hands on. This little success was short-lived. Claverhouse 
and his Troop came up with a party of Cameronians on 18th December at 
the Bridge of Dee near Kirkcudbright. The rebels took to flight ; but in 
the pursuit which followed five Cameronians were killed and three taken 
prisoners. 2 One of the slain was James McMichael, the murderer of the 
Rev. Peter Pierson. 8 In the meantime the Privy Council " had ordained 
the death penalty to all who refused to disown on oath Renwick's declara- 
tion." And a few months later a statute was passed " making any acknow- 
ledgment of the Covenant an act of treason." 

During the last two or three years of his life, Dalyell spent much of 
his time at Binns beautifying his estate. There is every reason to believe 
that the General had detachments of his Regiment quartered at Binns, 
when he was there,* as the building known as " The Oven " is said to have 
been used for baking bread for Dalyell's Dragoons : 

" All of them proof 'gainst desperate alarms, 
Trained up by old Dalyell in feats of arms." 

On the accession of James VII., Dalyell's Commission as Commander- 
in-Chief was renewed. The Earl of Argyll's ill-starred invasion of Scot- 
land, in May, 1685, caused more apprehension in England than in the 
northern kingdom. Consequently, the King sent the Earl of Dumbarton 
to Scotland with the rank of Commander-in-Chief. Dalyell's Commission 
was not recalled as Dumbarton's stay in Scotland was of very short 

On 23rd August, 1685, General Thomas Dalyell died very suddenly, of 
apoplexy, at his house in Edinburgh. Being Commander-in-Chief of the 
Scots Army at the time of his death, his remains were accorded a public 
military funeral in accordance with his rank. " Six pieces of cannon 
before his hearse, his led horse, bfiton, coat of armour, Pall, the standing 
forces who escorted through the Portsburgh on the way to his last home in 

1 This enthusiast had, when only twenty, brought himself into prominent notice by his 
" Declaration " at Lanark in which he denounced Charles II.'s Court in strong language. 
He was also responsible for the "second Sanquhar Declaration'' 28th May, 1685. 

After several hair-breadth escapes, Benwick was captured in the winter of 1687-8, and 
executed at Edinburgh, 17th February, 1688. He was the last of the Covenanters who 
suffered on the scaffold. 

3 John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee, by Professor Sanf ord Terry, p. 176. 

3 Ibid., p. 177. 

4 The 2nd Earl of Stair, who was appointed Colonel of the Enniskillen Dragoons, in 
1715, "according to a custom not uncommon in the army at that time, provided (by 
arrangement with Government) winter quarters and forage for the men and troop horses, 
when not on duty, in his grounds of Castle Kennedy, Wigtonshire." Annals of the Viscount 
and 1st and 2nd Earls of Stair, by John Murray Graham, Vol. II., p. 289. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 65 

the family vault of Binns at Abercorn." 1 For many years Dalyell let his 
beard grow, but the often repeated statement that " this beard was never 
shaved after the decapitation of King Charles I," is certainly erroneous. 
Had he worn a beard when he escaped from the Tower of London, in May, 
1(552, the fact would certainly have been mentioned in the description of 
his person sent by the Council of State to various seaports on the English 
coast. There is also a portrait of Dalyell at Leslie House, Fifeshire, which 
represents the General as an old man and clean shaved. The original bone 
comb which the General used, when he wore a beard, is preserved at Binns ; 
" it is twelve inches broad, while the teeth are at least six inches deep." 
In size, the aforesaid comb is more remarkable than the one found in 
St. Cuthbert's coffin, last century, and now exhibited in the Dean and 
Chapter Library, Durham. 

The General left, with other children, a son, Thomas, who was created 
a baronet, as a reward for his father's service, 7th November, 1685, with 
remainder to his heirs-male and of tailzie. 



(Scotish Elegiac Verses, 1629-1729, pp. 39-42.) 

" Thou child of sin and fate, who only can 
Measure the true dimensions of a man. 
Who with impartial and triumphant wings 
Overtakes the poor man's flight as well as kings, 
And with thy martial all coutrouling drum, 
Beats a cold march to the eternal home, 
Tyrant o'er tyrants, who, with fatal force, 
Betwixt the soul and body makes divorce. 
No more thy trophies boast, thou here must yield, 
Here's one thou could not conquer in the field, 
Who, spite of all the forces him withstood, 
Has div'd for honour in a sea of blood. 
Who, wheresoever he fought, or seige did lay, 
Honour and conquest did their wings display, 
Whose heart by night nor day did ever feel 
A coward's damp, oft sleept in sheets of steel. 
That soul of chivalrie, which no delight 
Could weaken, or the face of death affright, 
The great Dalziel who with undazled eyes, 
Affronted all the flames from steel could rise. 
Just like the generous eagle dare oppose 
The proudest light that ever in heaven arose. 
His actions all were generous, and free, 
And did no interest own, but loyaltie. 
He lov'd not wars for wars, nor strife for strife, 
Not prodigal nor nigard of his life, 
He did not softly spare himself, but then 
He did exact the like of other men. 
For of his generous, and martial heart, 
Courage and judgement had their equal part, 
He was the genius of the camp, yet knew 
When to retire, and when his foes pursue, 

1 Fountaiiihall's Diary. 

66 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

He knew all order of tumultuous war, 

Ranks, files, march, countermarch, to make a square, 

And form a square, to raise a diamond, 

And all Battalias ever yet were found, 

How to encamp, entrench, and any part 

Where nature fails, to fortifie by art ; 

How to defend, or to assault a town, 

And comtings, bulwarks, platforms to beat down. 

He knew no treacherous arts, nor cheating charms, 

But masculin courage, and the laws of arms. 

With these he made his souldiers well train'd men, 

With these he brought them on, and off again. 

It was by those, he to his latest breath, 

In every war, conquest, propound, or death. 

Like a majestick general, by those, 

He sold his souldiers' lives dear to liis foes. 

By his example every minor band 

Did take new force from his heroick hand ; 

Souldier inspired souldier ; foot, the horse ; 

But he them both, BO great's a general's force 

Who by his valour, made it understood, 

An ounce of honour's worth a pound of blood, 

His never daunted courage umlervalu't 

The iron salutation of a bullet. 

Therefore some grovling coward's low pitcht eye 

That could not reach triumphant honours skie, 

What their affrighted sense could not behold, 

Without being dazled, yet to carp were bold. 

But he at home, abroad, anil in all parts, 

His blade imbrued in rivers sprung from hoaris. 

Yet with such moderation that he made 

It clear, war was for physick, not for trade. 

In Ireland, and at Musco, and at home, 

Like Hercules he monsters overcome. 

In all which enterprizes we might see 

His counsel, courage, generositie. 

He knew when to be harsh, when to be mild, 

And did esteem each souldier as his child, 

And train'd them so, which care was not in vain, 

They as their father reverenc'd him again, 

And with the Prophet did him thus bewail, 

Horse-men and chariots of our Israel. 

But now being enfranchised, and at large 

From all our wars, death seals him a discharge. 

He with the souls above and Hierarchic, 

His valour turned into extasie, 

Where till the earth and all its trophies lie 

A scattered heap, and time itself shall die, 

He shall live unallarm'd with the blast 

Of any other trumpet but the last." 

Non potes exigfio claude Dalzelle sepulchre, 
Tarn brevis ingentem uoii capit urna virum. 
Te Duce Monstra jacent patria teterrima, cum nil 
Hestaret, superi scandis in astra poli. 




MAY JUNE, 1685 

THIS nobleman was sent to Scotland as Commander-in-Chief when 
the Earl of Argyll invaded the kingdom. Lord Dumbarton, known 
previous to March, 1675, as Lord George Douglas, was third son of the 
1st Marquis of Douglas. Since his boyhood, when he had been page of 
honour to Louis XIV., this soldier of fortune had served in the French 
Army with distinction and had attained the rank of Major-General. But 
a more interesting fact is that he had commanded the Royal Scots 
Regiment of Foot for thirty years prior to the accession of James VII. 
The aforesaid grand old corps had been for long in the service of France, 
when Charles II. recalled it to England in the spring of 1666. * In the 
autumn of 1667 the Douglas Regiment, which had received recruits from 
Scotland, returned to France with their Colonel. In 1678, when a war 
with France was on the tapis, Charles II. again recalled his Scots corps to 
England, and it was sent over to Ireland early in 1679. The Earl of 
Dumbarton, so created 9th March, 1675, being a Roman Catholic, was 
debarred from holding a Commission in the British Army ; and when the 
Royal Scots, consisting of 21 Companies, were mustered at Rinsale in 
April, 1679, the Colonel was conspicuous by his absence. His corps was 
then officially described as " The Earl of Dumbarton's late Regt. of Foot." 2 
This nobleman was not superseded as his Colonelcy remained unfilled till 
28th November, 1685, when James VII., who rode rough-shod over the laws 
of England, re-commissioned Dumbarton to be " Colonel of Our Royal 
Regt. of Foot." In the previous July the King had appointed this Earl a 
Lieut. -General. 8 The regimental march, " Dumbarton's Drums," 4 is 
said to date from 1678 : 

l; Dumbarton's drums beat bonny, O! 
When they mind me of my dear Johnny, O! 

Then I'll be the Captain's lady, O! 
Farewell all my friends and my daddy, 0! 

I must stay nae mair at home, 

But follow wi' the drum, 
And whenever it beats I'll be ready, O! " 

1 " The Douglas Regt. to assemble at St. Quentin and embark from St. Valerie by order 
from the Marquis de Louvois, Minister of War." See Camden Miscellany, p. 34. 

* Irish Army Lists, 1661-1685, by Charles Dalton, p. 127. 

3 Lord Dumbarton's name is prefixed by a cross in the register of his Commission as 
" Lieut-General " given in Military Entry Book, No. 1. The same MS. has a memorandum to 
the effect that " the + -before certain officers' names denotes Roman Catholics who had 
not conformed to the Test Act." See Vol. II., English Army Lists, p. xi. 

* Scottish Minstrel, by E. A. Smith, Vol. III., p. 6, Edinburgh, n. d. 

E 2 

68 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

When Lord Dumbarton was despatched to Scotland in hot haste (May, 
1685), it was expected in England that Argyll's invasion would develop 
into a formidable rising. The three Scots Regiments in the Service of 
Holland were re-called and the transports conveying them home were 
ordered to sail to Leith. Colonel Hugh Mackay, the officer in supreme 
command of the aforesaid Regiments, was promoted Major-General of the 
Forces in Scotland by Commission dated 4th June, 1685. 1 It may be that 
the prompt measures taken by the Government had a deterrent effect on 
would-be rebels. Anyway, Argyll's invasion was a fiasco from first to 
last. A handful of militia had the triumph, if triumph it can be called, of 
capturing Argyll on 18th June, 1685, and delivering him over to Lord 
Dumbarton at Glasgow. The only fighting that any of the Regulars had 
was on the very day that Argyll was captured. It occurred at Muirdyke, 
Renfrewshire, and Sir John Cochrane of Ochiltree, Argyll's partisan, with 
a party of rebels engaged Captain Cleland's Troop of Scots Dragoons. In 
this encounter Cleland and several of his troopers were killed ; while 
Cochrane and his party, after gallantly holding their own for some hours, 
escaped in the darkness. " When Argyle was taken," writes this nobleman's 
biographer, " the Privy Council despached a vessel to meet the transports 
[from Holland] and inform them that they might return. This message 
reached them when they were off St. Abb's Head." 2 The three Scots 
Regiments were landed at Gravesend and placed on the English Establish- 
ment till 3rd August following, when they returned to Holland. 

An unpublished letter from Lord Dumbarton to Lord Linlithgow, 
written when the former was hunting after Argyll in the West of 
Scotland, has recently been discovered. It is as follows : 

"Ctir [Cantyre] 31 May 85. 
"My Lord, 

" I intreat yo r Lop. to send foreward this Black box with all possible speed 
and recommend it, have the three Loudien [Lothian] Regts. ready to march in 
case I send for them, I am just now going to Irwine and from thence to Largs 
where I hear ye E. of Argyll was offering to land therefore send yt way to me if 
you have any news, I hear there was one of ye King's yachts went ys s to Dunbarton, 
send aud see wt newes there is of her and let me hear from you, and if she 
knowes anything of any of the men of war, if the Perth or Forfar Regts. come 
yo r way or your Lop. hear any news of them, order them in my name to march 
towards ye Coast of Largs wher* they will hear where I am, Let me know all ye 
news you have. I am in haste going to march, I am 

" My Lord 

" Yo r Lops, most 

" humble servant 


It is recorded that when Argyll was brought prisoner to Glasgow " the 
Earl of Dumbarton had an interview with him and a few words of good- 
natured banter passed between them." 6 Argyll was lodged in the tolbooth, 
and the slight wound he had received at the time of his capture was surgi- 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. X. 

3 A Scots Earl, by John Wilcock, p. 398. 
8 Probably a contraction for " ysterday." 

4 A fac-simile of this letter, which is in the Editor's possession, is given as an illustration. 
It is addressed " ffor His Maties Spc" Service. To ye Earle of Linlithgow at Glasgow 
haste haste haste." 

5 A Scott Earl, p. 396. 



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THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 69 

cally treated. 1 At ten at night on 20th June, 1685. Argyll was led captive into 
Edinburgh " with his hands tied behind his back, bare-headed, in the midst 
of Captain Graham's guards, with cocked matches, and the hangman walking 
before him ; the procession being escorted by the horse-guards." a On arrival 
at the castle the prisoner was heavily ironed. Argyll was doubly doomed 
to die, as on 19th December, 1681, he had been found guilty of high treason 
and sentenced to death for refusing to subscribe to the Test Act. His 
escape from Edinburgh Castle on 21st December, 1681, gave Argyll a 
further lease of life ; but his ill-advised rebellion, in 1685, once more put 
him in the power of his Royal enemy, and he was executed 30th June, 1685. 
Whatever charges may be made against Archibald, 9th Earl of Argyll, as 
a man and a politician, by writers of history, there can be but one opinion 
as to the marvellous fortitude and Christian resignation he displayed, not 
only during his last days on earth but on the scaffold. For him death had 
no terrors. 

Dumbarton's services in Scotland were rewarded by a grant of the 
estate of Salton forfeited by Andrew Fletcher. When the Order of the 
Thistle was revived by James VII., Lord Dumbarton was made a Knight. 
This nobleman was in high favour with the King, and was second in 
command of the Army encamped on Hounslow Heath in 1687 and 1688. 
By his Countess, who was sister to the Duchess of Northumberland, the 
Earl of Dumbarton had an only son who received the courtesy title of Lord 
Ettrick. Shortly after this child's birth the Marquis of Douglas wrote to 
the Laird of Blackwood, 2nd May, 1687 : " I doe believe he [Lord 
Dumbarton] hes nothing more in Ettrick then he hes in Dumbarton, but 
only the title." 8 At the age of eighteen months, 23rd October, 1687, 
George, Lord Ettrick received a Captain's Commission in his father's 
Regiment. 4 He was the prototype of " the Captain crying for his pap." 5 

At the Revolution, Lord Dumbarton adhered to James VII. and followed 
his Royal Master to France, where he died, 20th March, 1692. George, 
Lord Ettrick took up the title as 2nd Earl, and was appointed, in 1715, 
Lieut.-Colonel of Colonel Dubourgay's Regiment of Foot on the English 
Establishment. In the following year he was sent Ambassador to Russia 
by George I. 

The 2nd and last Earl of Dumbarton also ended his days in France, and 
apparently in very straitened circumstances. In a letter from him to 
Lady Jean Douglas dated : " Douay, 7 Jan., 1749." he writes : " As for me 
I live quietly here, with a gentleman that boards me and my servant ; and 
I strive to make a shift with my poor fortune." 6 

1 A Scots Earl, p. 399, and note. 

2 Council Registers, 20th June, 1685. 

8 The Douglas Book, Vol. IV., p. 281. 

4 Englith Army Lifts and Commission Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. II., p. 195. 

* See paper on " Child Commissions in the Army," by Charles Dalton, in Notet and 
Queries, 8th Series, Vol. VIII. 

The Scottish Nation, Vol. II., p. 73. 

( 70 ) 



7th OCTOBER, 1G85 23rd MARCH, 1C88. 

THE HON. WM. DBUMMOND of Crornlix, second surviving son of the 
2nd Lord Maderty, went to Ireland as Captain in Colonel Robert 
Monro's Regiment, 1 in 1642, and saw service against the Irish rebels. In 
the summer of 1646 Captain Drummond was sent to London, to report on 
the state of the Scots Army in Ireland to the English Parliament. In 
1648, Drummond accompanied Major-General George Monro to England 
and joined the Army of " Engagers," under the Duke of Hamilton, with 
which he marched into Lancashire. As one of George Monro's officers, 
Drummond was at the capture of Stirling Bridge, in September, 1648, 2 when 
the Marquis of Argyll, leader of the Whigs, narrowly escaped being taken. 
In 1649, Drummond joined Lord Ormonde in Ireland but returned to 
Scotland in 1650, and was made Colonel of a Regiment by the Scottish 
Parliament " in place of the Earl of Tullibardine in respect of his excuse." 8 
At Worcester, Colonel Wm. Drummond commanded a Regiment. He was 
taken prisoner and suffered a rigorous captivity. It is said he obtained 
his release by getting " a poor fellow accepted bail for him." 4 Drummond 
joined Charles II. in Paris. The King sent him over to Scotland in 1653 
with the rank of Major-General. " He landed near Yarmouth in disguise 
with a double-bottomed trunk in which were laid His Majesty's Letters and 
Commissions. Thence to Newcastle, Kelso (to the Earl of Roxborough's 
house), and on to Edinburgh in the habit of an ordinary carrier. From 
Edinburgh to the West Ferry where he was nearly discovered by one of the 
Usurper's spies. He went to Elphingstoune and being provided of a boat 
that afternoon he came quickly to this Country [Perthshire], so wearied 
and disguised that his nearest relatives could not know him." B Drummond 
shared in the campaign waged by the Royalists under the Earl of Glencairn 
and General Middleton, in the Highlands, and was with the latter 
commander when defeated at Loch Garry, 19th July, 1654. In the following 
May, Generals Dalyell and Drummond obtained passes from General Monk 
" to go beyond seas" on giving security of " 2,000 a piece for their peace- 
able living." 6 

By his own wish, Drummond elected to accompany his friend General 
Dalyell to Russia and enter the Czar's service. Charles II. gave them 
letters to the potentate who ruled over Muscovy, to Prince Radziwill and 
others. The Emperor of Russia appointed Drummond " Lieut-General of the 
Strangers." In this new sphere of action Drummond distinguished himself 

1 Funeral Sermon for General Viscount Strathallnn, by Principal Alexander Monro of 

3 Balfour's Annalt, Tol. IV., p. 216. 

4 Funeral Sermon as before. 
' Ibid. 

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THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 71 

in the campaigns against the Tartars and Poles. It is recorded that in an 
action with the Poles, Drummond covered the retreat of the Russian Army 
with a very small body of Troops under his command. He posted a 
Company of musketeers on the outskirts of a wood bordering a morass, 
which separated the advancing Poles from the retreating Russians. These 
marksmen, who appear to have worn swans' feathers in their hats, did 
their work so effectually, under Druminond's orders, that the pursuit was 
checked and the Russians made good their retreat. 1 

When war broke out between England and Holland, in 1665, Charles II. 
recalled both Dalyell and Drummond from the Russian service. The 
Czar was very unwilling to lose two such capable commanders, but had 
finally to give his consent. He presented to each of the Scottish Generals 
a certificate testifying to their great military experience. 2 William Drum- 
mond was appointed Major-General of the Scots Forces, in July, 1666, and 
was likewise ordered to raise a Regiment of Horse consisting of ten Troops. 
The registers of these two Commissions are not forthcoming ; but the 
Muster Rolls of the Troops forming Drummond's Regiment are still in 
existence. 8 

There is no need to refer to the part played by Drummond in the 
Pentland Rising, as his letter giving full particulars of the engagement 
with the rebels has been quoted in a former chapter. 4 On 5th December, 
1666, the King sent a special letter of thanks to General Dalyell for the 
victory obtained at Pentland. The postscript to this Royal Letter runs 
as follows : " I pray tell Will Drummond I am very sencible of the share 
he hath had in this victory, which he shall find on all occasions." 

In a letter to Lauderdale, written from Glasgow, 14th December, 1666, 
Drummond gives his opinion as to the chief cause for the late Rising : 

" Of the ryse of this late rebellion I can give you no other accowmpt after 
examynatione of many prisoners but that it seems the preachers at many 
conventicles had disposed the people to be in radiness to ryse in armes when the 
opportunitye showld offer, but as God wowld have it they brook out about Dum- 
fries unadvysedly." 6 

There is ample testimony to the fact that throughout the reign of 
Charles II. language of the most seditious nature was used not only at 
conventicles but from city pulpits. In September, 1662, Hugh Mackail, a 
young Presbyterian divine, in a sermon preached at the High Church, 
Edinburgh, declared that " The Church of Scotland had been persecuted by 
an Ahab on the throne, a Haman in the state, and a Judas in the church." 6 
Was it surprising that when this preacher was captured, after Pentland, it 
was remembered against him how he had denounced the King, Lauderdale, 
and Archbishop Sharp, from the pulpit. A Scottish biographer has made 
excuse for Mackail's intemperate language just recorded on the ground 
that " the age of journalism had not yet fully commenced," so that the 

1 Funeral Sermon for General Viscount Strathallan, by Principal Alex. Monro. The 
preacher when narrating how General Drummond had covered the Russian retreat, used the 
expression that the Army had been saved by the Swans' Feathers. 

1 The original testimonial given to Drummond is not forthcoming ; but the letter 
from the Czar Alexis to Charles II. testifying to Drummond's bravery and services is at 
the British Museum. See facsimile, in this vol. ; also translation in the Appendix. 

3 See Pt. II. 

4 See pp. 23-25. 

6 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., pp. 262-3. 

6 Memoir in Diet, of Nat. Biog. Mackail was executed at Edinburgh, 22nd December, 1666. 

72 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

ministers had to keep their congregations conversant with public measures. 
This excuse is a transparent fallacy. 

The lack of newspapers was more than made up by political tracts and 
pamphlets. And Covenanting literature was enriched, in 1667, by a book 
printed abroad and smuggled into Scotland. " There is a Damned book 
come hither from beyond sea called Napthali, or the Wrestlings of the 
Church of Scotland," wrote Sir Robert Moray to Lauderdale from Edin- 
burgh, 10th December, 1667. " A copy came to my hands and I have 
given it to the prim[ate] to look over .... It hath all the traytors 
speeches on the scaffold here, and in a word all that a Toung (sic) set on 
fire by hell can say of things and persones hereaway " * There is something 
comical in the diversity of opinion regarding Napthali and a kindred work 
entitled : Jus Populi Vindicatum, or, The People's Right to defend them- 
selves, and, their Covenanted Religion vindicated ; Sir James Steuart of 
Coltness, a Scottish Ishmael, wrote part of the first-named anonymous 
book and was author of the second. 

Wodrow thus expresses his admiration of Sir James Steuart's 
character : " It would take a man equal to himself to draw it and I dare 
not attempt it ; he was wonderful in prayer, and mighty in the Scrip- 
tures, and wonderfully seen in them beyond any man almost ever I 
conversed with." Macaulay refers to these two Covenanting publications 
as " hardly to be surpassed for ferocity and absurdity." And the late 
Mr. Mark Napier says of Sir James Steuart : " This James Steuart was 
a thorough-paced traitor and actually wrote part of that vicious trash 
Napthali. This cheat-the-woodie became Lord Advocate to the King 
of Glencoe." 

Early in 1667, Drummond was at Court and is said to have urged the 
necessity of increasing the Standing Army in Scotland. Whether he did 
so or not, the Forces raised in 1666 were disbanded in September, 1667, and 
Drummond's command as Major-General came to an end. " Upon the 
disbanding of the forces," wrote Drummond to Lauderdale from Edinburgh, 
19th September, 1667, " the Gen. [Dalyell] and I hes been exposed to some 
people's ill will, who have searchd with great Industrie to have found out 
some ground of callumating (sic) us, and hes served edicts at all the Kirk- 
doors in thes parts where wee had been most converseing for encourageing 
every man to bring in their complaints if ther wes anything to say 
against us, but all this malice wes in vaine, for wee have done nothing 
hiddenly, but all things with faithefullness, and that before the eyes of 
the world." 2 

Drummond, who was now a Privy Councillor, married, early in 1668, 
Lady Humbie (daughter of Sir Archibald Johnston of Warriston) widow 
of Lord Humbie. The following MS. entry, in Drummond's handwriting, 
was found in a printed German book in the library of Innerpeffray : 

"In anno 1668 uppon friddaj the 28 of feb. about 12 of the clock iu the 
night I was marled in the Abbay Church of Holyrud hous by Mr Kid actual 
minyeter ther.'' 8 

Through General Drummond's influence, " Warriston's head which had 
been exposed on the Nether Bow Port was allowed to be taken down and 
buried along with his body." * 

1 Lauderdale Papers, Vol. II., p. 88. 
'Lauderdale Papers, Vol. II, pp. 68-9. 
1 Diary of Andrew Hay of Craignethan Castle. 
4 Kirkton's History of Church of Scotland. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 73 

From 1669-1674, Drummond represented Perthshire in Parliament. 
For some unexplained reason Drummond earned the ill-will of the Lauder- 
dale Government and was, by the King's Warrant to the Privy Council, 
dated 22nd September, 1674, ordered/' to enter himself in prison in Dumbar- 
ton Castle within 40 hours after legal intimation of this order, there to 
remain till the King's further pleasure." 1 After nearly eighteen months 
of close imprisonment, Drummond was released the first week in March, 
1676. " And as to Lieut-Qenerall Drumond's desire," wrote the King, 
on 24th February, 1676, to the Scottish Privy Council, " it is Our Royall 
pleasure and wee are hereby graciously pleased to authorise and require 
you to cause him to be set at his full libertie, Hoping that his future car- 
riage wilbe such as that thereby wee shall have no cause to think this Our 
Royall favour ill bestowed." a 

It has been asserted that Drummond was restored to his post as Major- 
General after his release from prison. 8 This was not the case. From 
August, 1674, to December, 1677, Sir George Monro was the sole Major- 
General of the Forces and was succeeded, 18th December, 1677, by the 
Earl of Linlithgow as previously stated. Drummond retained, during his 
incarceration, his " Militia Troop of Perthshire Horse ; " 4 but appears to 
have resigned this appointment in May, 1676. B During the winter of 
1677-8, Drummond " waited upon the King's [Highland] Host in the west." 6 
In what capacity does not appear. But, like the Marquis of Atholl, he dis- 
approved very strongly of the Privy Council's harsh measures against the 
Covenanters, and their families in the Western shires, 

In April, 1678, Drummond accompanied Lord Atholl, the Duke of 
Hamilton, thirteen other noblemen, and about fifty Scottish gentlemen to 
London to lay the sufferings of the Covenanters before the King, and 
plead for more lenient measures. The deputation had at heart the dis- 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III. The following petition is at the British 
Museum : 

" Unto the Lords of His Maj tte most honobl privie concell 

The suplicatione of Genell lew' drommond prisoner at dunbartone Castell 

" Humbly sheweth That your Lo 1 having owt of your Goodness Granted your petitioner 
Libertie upon a former suplicatione to goe abroad in the day tyme for a certaine 
space because of the Indispositione of his bodie and a great tendencie to the 
gravel through the closeness of his restrainte And that Limited tyme so favorablie 
allowed by your Lo s being expyred and yitt the same causes of Indangering your 
petitioners health not removed 

" May it therf ore pleas 

your lo 5 : 

" To continew your goodness and 
the libertie formerlie bestowed 
upon your petitioner 
" Ana he shall euer pray etc. 

(Endorsed) "petitions 

lieut Gen : drumond 

1675 " (Add. MS. 23137, fol. 49). 

s Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III. 

8 " Memoir of Wm. Drummond 1st. Visct. Strathallan " in Diet, of Nat. Biog. 

4 Military History of Perthshire, 1660-1902, by the Marchioness of Tullibardine, p. 109. 

' Ibid. 

See Drummond's speech to the King quoted in the text. 

74 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

grace of Lauderdale, then High Commissioner in Scotland. The King 
refused to see the deputation as a body ; but Drummond secured an 
audience and relieved his mind on the subject of his own personal wrongs 
at the King's hands : 

"Lt. Gennerall D[rummon]d reserved his spitch till the Kinge uas ryseinge 
out of his chear, then he tould the Kinge how he had bene always a loyall sub- 
jecte and yit had suffered lyk a slaeve, that he had bene kipt a prisoner eightne 
monthes and to this houre kneiw not for uhat : that he had uaeted on the King's 
Host in the west and yit his burdinge uas greater then any other, he had come up 
to offer his service in the war, and now iff ther uas no imployment for him (iff 
he uas criminall) his Maj sty might hange him hear rather then he should 
retorne home and be persecut lyke a slaeve. 1 

What the King said in reply is not recorded. 

Drummond represented Perthshire in the Convention Parliament of 
1678. In the following year his wife a died, in England, and was buried 
at St. George's Church, Southwark. 

On 8th September, 1682, William Drummond of Cromlix succeeded his 
kinsman John Drummond of Lundin as Master-General of the Ordnance. 
This post carried with it the rank of " youngest Lieut-General " and so 
brought William Drummond to the front as second in command of the 
Scots Army. Owing to Dalyell's advanced age, and the strained relations 
between him and Claverhouse, Drummond's presence in the West was 
absolutely necessary to direct operations against the Covenanters. To 
increase his powers he was given a " Commission of Justiciary " by the 
Council. In this double capacity, Claverhouse had not only to write to 
Lieut-General Drummond in May, 1684, when he could not get his orders 
from General Dalyell ; 3 but had in May, 1685, to deliver up an im- 
portant prisoner to Drummond " having no commission of justiciary 
myself." 4 

In April/1685, " upon rumours of fears of Argyll's landing," the Council 
ordered 1,200 Highlanders to be sent into the West to be under the orders 
of General Drummond and Colonel Douglas. 6 In May and June, Drum- 
mond was actively employed in the West and in close touch with Claver- 
house. 6 

General Dalyell died on 23rd August, 1685, and on 7th October following 
Drummond was appointed to the command of the Forces and granted 800 
per annum. He was succeeded as Master-General of the Ordnance by 
Colonel Douglas. In January, 1686, Drummond was re-admitted a Privy 
Councillor, and in March had apartments allotted to him in Holyrood 
The same month he was summoned to Court. There were other reasons 
besides military reforms ' which made James VII. desirous for a conference 
with Scotland's new Commander-in-Chief. The King wanted liberty of 

1 Earl of Murray to Lauderdale, 28th May, 1678. Lauderdale Papers, Vol. Ill, p. 151. 

1 She had an only son, William, by General Drummond who succeeded as 2nd Viscount 

Hist. MSS. Comn., Report XV., Pt. VIII., p. 287. 

4 Ibid., p. 293. 

'Fountainhall's Historical Notices, Vol. II., p. 636. 

' Claverhouse to the Duke of Queensberry, 16th June, 1685. 

'"Rules for the better Government of his Majesty's Forces in Scotland" were signed 
by the King at Whitehall, 26th April, 1686, and 200 granted to Lieut-General Wni. Drum- 
mond for his expenses to London and back. Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XI. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 75 

conscience for his Roman Catholic subjects, but former severities were to 
be continued against the Covenanters. It was said of Drummond that 
" he was a bad Christian but a good Protestant." 1 The latter part of this 
description was undoubtedly true as General Drummond declined to fall 
in with the King's one-sided policy ; and on his return to Scotland he 
opposed the Government both in the Council Chamber and in Parliament.' 2 

In February, 1687, the King granted " partial toleration " to Scotland. 
Drummond did not lose the King's favour for his manly conduct. On 
28th May, 1686, the Scottish Parliament, by the King's desire, passed an 
" Act of Dissolution of the lands and barony of Torwoodlie from the Crown 
in favour of Lieut-General Drummond." 8 And he was created Viscount 
Strathallan 26th August, 1686. Apart from his splendid services to the 
Crown in the past, the Commander-in-Chief was a soldier of the first 
order, and it may be that James foresaw that a time was coming when the 
Scots Army might be needed to uphold the Royal prerogative in England. 

On 24th February, 1686, George, Duke of Gordon was appointed 
Governor and Constable of Edinburgh Castle 4 in place of the Duke of 
Queensberry who had incurred the King's displeasure. Gordon was inducted 
into his new post without any oath, being a Roman Catholic. Fountainhall, 
writing under date of 7th January, 1686, records "two Companies are 
added to Douglas's Regt. . . . their commanders both Papists." B About 
this time the Earl of Perth " verted " to the Roman faith. So also did 
Sir Robert Sibbald, the most learned antiquary in Scotland. " His room 
was broken into and searched by a band of eager Protestants," writes 
Viscount Dundee's biographer, " who threatened to ' Rathillet ' him an 
expressive phrase ! The timely appearance of Lieutenant-General Drum- 
mond and Claverhouse in the former's coach, in which they conveyed him 
to the shelter of Holyrood, saved Sir Robert from an awkward predica- 
ment." 6 It is fair to add that Sibbald, after a course of deep religious 
study, in London, saw the error of the act he had committed. He returned 
to Scotland " and could not be at quiet till he had published his recantation 
openly in a church .... The recantation of so learned a man, upon so 
much study, had a great effect upon many." 7 

The granting military commissions to Roman Catholics increased the 
King's unpopularity among all classes of his Protestant subjects. Strath- 
allan was powerless to prevent officers " of the King's religion " from being 
admitted into the Army ; but a certain section of extreme Presbyterians 
held the Commander-in-Chief responsible for the unwelcome additions to 
the Scots Army. In The Scottish Antiquary for 1896 8 there is given "A 
Letanie," copied from an MS. endorsed with date " 1686," one verse of 
which profane parody runs as follows : 

" From Dromond, Wairiestouns good-sone 

who bids his Officers be gone, 

that poprie may better goe one 

Good Lord delyver us." 

1 This phrase, attributed to Johnston of Warriston, is quoted by Lord Macaulay. 

2 Drummond was M.P. for Perthshire 1681-2, and in 1686. 

" Thomson's Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, Vol. VIII., pp. 588-9. 
" Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. X. 

5 Historical Notices, p. 693. 

6 John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee, by C. Sanford Terry, M.A., pp. 

7 Bishop Burnet's History of James the Second (1852 edit.), p. 128. 

8 P. 115. 

76 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

In September, 1686, Lord Strathallan was nominated Commissioner of 
Justiciary for Argyllshire. On 16th May, 1687, he was appointed Governor 
of Inverary Castle and " Captain of the Company of Foot to be raised and 
put into the Castle." l Strathallan expended 800 on the fortifications of 
Inverary Castle which sum was refunded to him 3rd March, 1688. 2 In 
less than three weeks, viz., on 23rd March, the Commander-in-Chief was 

We get a curious side-light on Lord Strathallan's last illness from a 
contemporary chronicler. " The Dutchess of Lauderdale," wrote Lord 
Fountainhall, " sued Sir James Dick of Preistfield for ' ane ryot ' in so far 
as shee having taken out of Duddington Loch five of the swans which, or 
their parents, were put in by her Lord ; he took them back again except 
two whose skins shee had given to General Drummond in his sicknes to 
warm his breast; for which he [Sir James Dick] broke up doors. He 
alleged the swans were his own he standing infeft in the loch and conse- 
quently in all that fed on it and though the first were put in 

by the Duke of Lauderdale yet the product was Sir James's. The Lords 
of the Privy Council fand, if they had come of their own account and 
bigged there then they were Sir James's ; but since the owner who put 
them in was knowen, they fand they belonged to the Dutchess, and Sir 
James his tolerance to let then stay in his loch did not make them his ; 
upon which he turned all the rest out of his loch. But Duke Hamilton 
alleadging that the loch bounded with the King's Park and so belonged to 
him he put them in again ; and thus took possession in the King's name of 
the Loch, which will cost Sir James ane declaration of property to clear 
his right." 8 

Lord Strathallan was buried at Innerpeffray on 4th April. Allusions have 
already been made to the funeral sermon. Lord Macaulay refers to General 
Drummond as " a loose and profane man ; " but this assertion does not seem 
to be corroborated by other writers. The " Drummond " handed down to 
posterity in that choice specimen of Covenanting poetry called " Lag's 
Elegy " may not be General Wm. Drummond. And when Wm. Cleland, the 
soldier-poet and Cameronian, wrote of the doings of the Highland Host, 
and the rout of Covenanters "By Devils Drummonds and Dalzells," it 
does not follow that General Drummond was en jeu, as there were both 
officers and men of this name who accompanied the Perthshire Militia to 
the West in 1678. 

Under date of 24th November, 1653, we find Sir Edward Hyde, in a 
letter to Secretary Nicholas, referring to Colonel Wm. Drummond as " a 
very discreet, honest, gallant person." 4 And in the Memoirs of Sir Ewen 
Cameron of Lochiel, General Drummond is described as "an honest man, 
a faithful and sincere friend, and an incorruptible patriot." 6 

During his three years in office as Master-General of the Ordnance the 
Artillery was put on a more respectable footing than heretofore. 6 Drum- 
mond added dignity to the post of " Master-General " by memorialising 
the Duke of York in the interest " of those who attend the Magazine 
and a roome for himself [in Edinburgh Castle] where he may meet 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XII. 

" Ibid. 

' Fountainhall's Historical Notices, Vol. II., p. 857. 

4 Clarendon S.P., Vol. III., p. 196. 

5 Quoted in The Drummond Genealogy, p. 314. 

6 See " Establishment, 1 ' dated June, 1684, given in the chapter on " Artillery " in Pt. II. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 77 

with his officers about his business." l The Castle fortifications were 
repaired during Drummond's regime and the quarters of the garrison 

The following entry in one of the Warrant Books for Scotland, proves 
that even in his old age the Commander-in-Chief looked into the smallest 
details : 


The false muster discovered by Viscount Strathallan made by Lieut. Wm. White 

of Buchan's Regiment who was suspended Lieut. Wm. White is to 

be now restored to his post. Windsor, 15 Aug. 1687." 2 

1 Letter from the Duke of York to the Marquis of Queensberry, 30th January, 1683. 
Hit. MSS. Comn., Report XV., Appi. Pt. VIII., p. 184. 
" Vol. XII. 



24TH MARCH, 1688 HTH DECEMBER, 1688 

THE HON. JAMES DOUGLAS was second son of James, 2nd Earl of Queens- 
berry. He began his career in the legal profession and was admitted an 
Advocate in the year 1665. x On 14th March, 1672, a Commission was 
granted to " James Douglas, brother to the Earl of Queensberry," as 
Captain in Sir Win. Lockhart's Regiment of Foot. When this corps was dis- 
banded, in 1673, James Douglas appears to have entered the Scots Brigade, 
in the service of Holland, as Captain in Colonel Colyear's Regiment. The 
dates of James Douglas's Commissions in this corps are as follows : " Cap- 
tain from Dec. 16th, 1674 (in succession to Lieut.-Colonel Mackay), became 
Sergeant-Major, Nov. 5th, 1676, Lieut-Colonel, Jan, 15th, 1678, and Colonel 
in succession to Alex. Colyear, March 22nd, 1680. Was succeeded by John 
Wauchope, April 9th, 1685. " 2 James Douglas's younger brother. Robert, 
was also a Captain in Colyear's Scots Foot and was killed at the siege of 
Maestricht, in 1676. 8 It is a well-known fact that James Douglas served 

1 In Nisbet's Heraldic Plates the date " 7 Dec. 1665," is given. The entry in the 
" Faculty List " regarding James Douglas is as follows : " 2nd Son of James, 2nd Earl of 
Queensberry : entered the Army, was made Colonel of the Guards in Scotland, July, 1684 ; 
rose to rank of Lieutenant-General ; died at Namur 1691." 

a Ferguson's Scots Brigade in Holland, Vol. I., p. 508 note. Mr. Ferguson has not 
identified the James Douglas named on p. 508, as the Earl of Queensberry's son, but there is 
every reason to believe Colonel James Douglas of the Scots Brigade to be identical with 
the Hon. James Douglas, who was appointed Colonel of the Scots Guard in 1684. 


THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 79 

at Bothwell Bridge, in June, 1679, and was awarded a share of the Forfeiture 
granted in December following. 1 

It has not been ascertained in what capacity he served in the above 
engagement, as prior to 1684, Colonel Douglas had no locus standi in the 
Scots Army ; but he may have held a Commission in the Militia. 2 His 
appointment as Colonel of the Foot Guards, 13th June, 1684, 8 was entirely 
due to the interest in high quarters which his elder brother, the Duke of 
Queensberry, possessed. Pressure was put on Lord Linlithgow to resign his 
command, and this nobleman was given the post of Justice-General by 
way of a bribe. Under date of 12th August, 1684, Lord Fountainhall 
records : " James Douglas brother to the Hy (sic) Treasurer was receaved 
Collonell, in place of the Earl of Linlithgow, on the head of his Regiment ; 
and the Felt Marshall carried chains, axes, bolts, and all the other ingins 
by which delinquent souldiers are to be punished." 4 

The new commanding officer soon proved himself to be a martinet. 
Two months later the aforesaid diarist chronicles : " Colonell Douglas 
keeps them very hard every day training and exercising, and studies to 
get them all of one pitch or height, and will let none of them keep their 
bairds long, or to have ill gravats (sic) or gravats strings, that they may 
look young and brisque ; and when they want he buys new ones with 
their pay, and causes them all ty their hair back with a ribbon, so it 
cannot blow among ther eyes when they visie (sic) at ther fyring ; and he 
discharges any of ther officers who keip cellers wheir by they made the 
sojors waist ther pay in drinking." 6 And on llth December, 1684, the 
same writer tells us : "At Privy Counsell a bill is given in by some of 
the souldiers whom Collonell Douglas had turned out of his Regiment 
complaining that he had taken the arrears of ther pay, and cloathed and 
shoud (sic) some of the rest of the sojors therewith. Claverhouse ouned 
this bill ; and said it would discourage any to enter in his Majesties service, 
if they were used thus. The Hy Treasurer resented this ; and said ' None 
would doubt but that his Brother knew his duty, and they had gotten 
coats at ther entry for nothing and so should pay them.' Thus grew the 
difference between Claverhouse and the Treasurer." 6 Colonel Douglas 
spared no pains to bring his corps into a high state of efficiency. The 
former diarist refers to " another printed program affixed by two souldiers 
in Col. Douglasses regiment to show their skill in fencing, appealing on [e] 
another at broad sword, dagger, faucion, and all the other weapons ; they 
wounded on [e] another slightly, there was a little money payed for a sight 
of this gladiatory, joco-serious divertisement." 7 

Whilst mimic warfare was being practised by some of the guardsmen 
in Edinburgh, real fighting had taken place in Galloway. " The few 
handfull of phanatick rebells left in the West turning very insolent " 
wrote Sir John Lauder, " the Hy Treasurer r Duke of Queensberry] causes 
his brother Col. James Douglas select out of his whole regiment 200 of 
his prettiest men, and by order of the Privy Counsell sends him against 
these rogues that the glory of defeating them might fall to his share. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. I. 

s The Militia does not come within the scope of this work. [Ed.] 

8 The Karl nf Moray's MSS. 

* Fountainhall's Historical Notices, p. 550. 

5 Ibid. 

6 Ibid. p. 580. 

7 Historical Obiervet, p. 145. 

80 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

And accordingly Douglas being on [e] day in the fields in Galloway with a 
small party of 8 or 10, he meets with as many of the rebells at a house, 
who kill two of his men and Captain Urquhart, Meldrum's brother, and 
had very near shot Douglas himselfe dead, had not the Whig's carabine 
misgiven, whereon Douglas pistoled him presently. Urquhart is the only 
Staff officer this desperat crew have yet had the honor to kill. He was 
brought into Edinburgh and buried with much respect." 1 

On 27th March, 1685, Colonel Douglas received a Commission of 
Justiciary in the South-West from the Council. In this capacity James 
Douglas earned the undying hatred of the Covenanters. 2 He had already 
received a grant of the lands of Machrimore for his services at Bothwell 
Bridge ; and in 1685 the estate of Camlodden was added. The same year 
we find Colonel James Douglas elected Member for Peebles and described 
as of Skirling. He was promoted Brigadier-General of the Horse and 
Foot, 16th May, 1685. 8 A still higher post was conferred on him 
26th October, 1685, viz. the Mastership of the Ordnance. This appoint- 
ment carried the rank of youngest Lieut.-General as set forth in the body 
of the Royal Warrant : 

"... Especially with the command of all his Majesty's forces leavied or to 
be leavied in his said Kiugdome as youngest Lieut-Geuerall with all the Honours, 
Powers, Priviledges, and others whatsoever thereunto pertaining . . . and his 
Majesty . . . gives, grants, and dispones to .the said Colonel James Douglas a 
yearly sallary and allowance of one hundred and fifty pounds sterling money to be 
paid unto him at two somes every year, &c." * 

On 20th March, 1686, James VII. wrote to the Scottish Council 
" ordering seven companies of the Regt. of Guard to be sent up [to London] 
in the frigots and yacht wherein ten Companies of the Earl of Dumbarton's 
Regt. are now sent to Scotland there to remain during Our pleasure . . . 
And you are to allow the said Lieut-Generall James Douglas to come up 
hither either by sea or land as he shall think fit." 6 The seven Companies 
of the Foot Guards reached London in due course and formed part of the 
Koyal Army encamped on Hounslow Heath in June, 1686. 6 On 
5th October, same year, the King wrote to the Scottish Treasury concerning 
" the payment of 500 sterling to Lieut-Generall James Douglas in 
consideration of his expences in severall journeys hither from that Our 
ancient Kingdome by Our order about matters relating to Our Service, 
&c." 7 

24th March, 1688, Douglas became, by the death of Viscount Strathallan, 
the senior General Officer of the Forces, Claverhouse being second in 

1 Historical Observes, p. 146. 

3 " The activity of Colonel Douglas and the Laird of Lag was fully taxed in the endeavour 
to press the Abjuration Oath upon the people." Lag's Memoir, p. 41. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX. 

4 Ibid., Vol. X. The original Warrant is among the MSS. of Colonel David Milne Home, 
of Wedderburn Castle. It is counter-signed by " Queensberry Thesr, Perth Cancells, 
Kintore, Linlithgow, Tarbat, Geo. Mackenzie, &c." Also an Extract Act by the Lords of 
the Privy Council for supplying certain words omitted in the above Warrant, dated 
12th January, 1686. 

6 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. X. 

'Antiquarian Repertory, Vol. I., p. 230. In the "List of King James's Army on 
Hounslow Heath, 30 June, 1686," the Scots Guards are described as " 1st Bn. of Scotch 
Guards, Major Murray, Commandant." It is to be noted that there was no 2nd Battalion 
of this Regiment till after the Revolution. 

7 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XI. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 81 

command as Major-General. The King issued no Commission to Douglas 
as Commander- in-Chief. The Duke of Queensberry was out of Office and 
in disgrace at Court, so could not push his ambitious brother's fortunes 
further. Claverhouse's star was in the ascendant. His Cavalry corps had 
been given the designation of " The King's Royal Regt. of Horse " on 
21st December, 1685. 1 It may be that the King, even in the spring of 
1688, forbore to appoint Douglas to the military post then vacant, having 
an inner consciousness that Claverhouse was not only a more devoted 
servant but a more capable and popular leader of men. 

In March, 1688, three Infantry Regiments, composed largely of Roman 
Catholic officers and men, were added to the British Army. 8 By an 
arrangement with Louis XIV. the three Regiments were to be paid by that 
monarch, which fact needs no comment. One of these three battalions, 
chiefly officered by Scotsmen, who had voluntarily thrown up their 
Commissions in the Dutch Scots Brigade to serve James VII. at home, 
was raised in Scotland, and is said to have been embodied at Musselburgh. 8 
The Colonelcy was bestowed on Colonel John Wauchope, 4 who relinquished 
the command of a Regiment in the Scots Brigade to take up the appoint- 
ment in March, 1688. On 5th April following, the King wrote to the 
Privy Council ordering" seven Companies and one Company of Grenadiers 
of Our Regt. of Guard in Scotland to come to London with all convenient 
expedition ... so soon as Our Ships shall arrive at Leith in which they 
are to be transported hither ; and the Battalion of Foot under the command 
of Colonel Thomas Buchan now here to be carried thither . . . and Wee 
are likewise resolved that the Battalion of Our Regt. of Foot commanded 
by George Earl of Dumbarton now there shall come into this Our Kingdom 
by Land." B A month later Sir John Lauder chronicles : " Buchan's 
soldiers arry ve at Leith from London ; and Douglas's Regt. goes up in that 
same frigate in their place." 6 

In September, 1688, the Dutch Invasion and the Revolution were in 
sight. Under date of 24th September, the King wrote to the Scottish 
Privy Council as follows : " Whereas it imports Our Service much that 
Our Standing Forces of that Kingdome lie in as narrow a compasse and as 
near the Borders of England as they can conveniently lie, Wee have 
thought fit to require you forthwith to bring all Our Standing Forces into 
the Louthians and Marches that they may be ready to receive such further 
orders as Wee shall think fit to send to them from time to time." 7 Three 
days later the King sent urgent orders for the Scots Army to march into 
England. 8 The Council had perforce to acquiesce and the necessary 
arrangements were speedily made. The Militia was called out and placed 
under the command of Sir George Monro. On 3rd October, the Army, 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. X. The Regiment was clothed in red, laced and 
faced with yellow, the Royal Stuart livery. 

2 Lists of these three Regiments are given in English Army Lists and Commission Registers, 
1661-1714, Vol. II., pp. 151-155. 

3 Ferguson's Scots Brigade in Holland, Vol. I., p. 478. 

4 See biog. notice of this officer in Pt. II., where a List is given of Wauchope's Scots 
Foot, 1688, which consisted of thirteen Companies. 

5 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XII. 
e Historical Notices, p. 866. 

7 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XIII. 

8 Ibid. Under the same date (27th September) the Earl of Dunmore was instructed by 
the King " to order all the officers of his Regt. of Dragoons to repair to their respective 
commands.' 1 Ibid. 

82 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

under command of Lieut.-General Douglas, began its march to 
Carlisle. The Cavalry consisted of the Troop of Life Guards, the Royal 
Regiment of Horse and the Earl of Dunmore's Regiment of Dragoons. 
The Infantry comprised the six Companies of the Foot Guards left in 
Scotland, and Buchan's Foot which was fourteen Companies strong. A 
small Train of Artillery accompanied the Army. 1 There is no evi- 
dence to show that Wauchope's Regiment marched south with General 
Douglas. Not being in Scottish pay the last-named corps is ignored 
in the Warrant Books for Scotland ; but it is an established fact 
that Wauchope's Regiment, 927 strong, was quartered at " Clerkenweli 
and adjacent parts" the 1st November. 3 A letter from General 
Douglas to the Duke of Queensberry, soon after crossing the Border, 
is still extant : 

" Penrith, 
11 October, 1688. 
" May it please your Grace, 

" The noise of the Dutch design continues as before. This morning I sent 
Major General Graham with the horse to York. He will be there speedily, and 
if there be anything ado, I fancy to have share among the first. Some people 
would make me believe that Major General Mackartie joins me about Preston 
with a considerable force. But of this I hear nothing from Court, so I do not 
much credit it. However, if my Lochaber party come to me in time I will be 
able to deal with the Dutch if they overpower me not extremely by their number. 
Your son is well and hearty, he has always been with me since I was at Moffat. 
We drink your health every day either in wine or brandy, and eats now and then 
a bit of cold meat on the march. May it please your Grace, your Grace's most 
faithful obliged servant. 


By the end of October all the Scots Forces had reached London. On 
5th November, the Williamite Army landed in Torbay. It consisted of 
15,000 men, of which " the most formidable were the Six British regi- 
ments " 4 commanded by Hugh Mackay a Scottish Major-General. On 
12th November, Claverhouse was created Viscount of Dundee and Lord 
Graham of Claverhouse in the peerage of Scotland. The honours conferred 
upon his rival were doubtless mortifications to General Douglas. But 
there is no need to suppose that Douglas at this time, or for some weeks 
afterwards, meditated joining the Prince of Orange. Like many others, 
he bided his time and shaped his actions by the course of events, so as 
to be on the winning side. Douglas has been accused by the Earl of Bal- 
carres of various acts of treachery, 5 none of which have been proved. For 
instance the assertion that Douglas " sent in a battalion of the Scots 
Guards to the Prince of Orange's camp " rests on no foundation whatever. 
It is quite true that part of the Regiment deserted from the King's Army 

1 The Artillery was under Captain John Slezer and returned to Edinburgh from Carlisle. 
There is a letter among the Duke of Leeds's MSS. from Slezer to General Douglas, dated 
" Edinburgh, 20 Nov. 1688," reporting his arrival with the Artillery Train. " His march 
delayed at Aylisson Bank by reports of the rebels." 

- Marching Orders (signed at Whitehall), 1st November, 1688. 

3 Napier's Life and Times of John Graham of Claverhouse, Vol. III., pp. 476-477. 

4 Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland. The English Regiments were com- 
manded respectively by Colonels Tollemache, Bellasyse, and Cutts ; the Scots Regiments 
by Mackay, Balf our, and Ramsay, late Wauchope's. 

s An Account of the Affairs of Scotland relating to the Revolution in 1688. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

at Salisbury and went over to the Williamite forces ; but not a single 
officer accompanied the men who were under command of a corporal. 1 
General Douglas laid down his Commission when King James escaped to 
France, and returned to Edinburgh. It was an open secret that on 17th 
December, the day before James's departure, the hapless monarch had 
opened his mind to Lords Balcarres and Dundee, and had by word of 
mouth appointed the latter to command his (King James's) Troops in 

One anecdote of General Douglas's sojourn in Edinburgh during March, 
1689, has been handed down, but it rests on dubious authority. Captain 
John Creichton narrates that at a tavern dinner where some notable 
officers of doubtful political views were present, General Douglas drank 
" damnation to all who would ever draw a sword against King James." 2 

It is uncertain when Douglas left Edinburgh to offer his services to 
William III., but it must have been very shortly after Dundee's historic 
conversation with the Duke of Gordon under the battlements of Edinburgh 

William III. was accustomed to rough-spoken martinets, and from his 

Erevious knowledge of Douglas respected him as an officer whose whole 
eart was in his profession. The King paid Douglas the compliment of 
appointing him a Lieut. -General in the British Army, and re-commissioned 
him Colonel of the Scots Foot Guards. In July, 1689, Douglas was sent 
to Ireland 8 to serve on the Duke of Schomberg's Staff. In December follow- 
ing he reviewed the British Forces 4 then encamped at Dundalk. Stirring 
times were at hand. For months past preparations had been going on in 
Ireland for the coming decisive struggle between the Jacobite and Wil- 
liamite forces in that kingdom. 

Under date of 16th February, 1690, John Evelyn writes : " The King 
persists in his intention of going in person for Ireland, whither the French 
are sending supplies to King James, and we, the Danish horse to Schom- 
berg. 1 ' 6 And three days later, Evelyn records meeting General Douglas 
at dinner : " I dined with the Marquis of Carmarthen (late Lord Danby), 
where was Lieut.-General Douglas, a very considerate and sober com- 
mander, going for Ireland. He related to us the exceeding neglect of the 
English soldiers, suffering severely for want of clothes and necessaries this 
winter, exceedingly magnifying their courage and bravery during all their 
hardships." 6 

At the Battle of the Boyne, 1st July, 1690, General Douglas had command 
of two Brigades of English Infantry. With these Troops he was sent by the 
King, at an early stage of the battle, to reinforce Count Schomberg's 
Division. " On Douglas's arrival," writes Colonel Walton in his brilliant 
account of the first pitched battle fought by our Standing Army, " Count 
Schomberg placed his infantry in the centre, and his cavalry on the flanks 
and advanced on Lauzun (The French com uander) who awaited him 
between Rossmore and the Dublin road." 7 Douglas's Troops, and the 

1 " Edward Kempe, Corporall, appears in the Rolls of Capt. Innes his companie, 1680." 
The Countable of France, &c., by James Grant. 

2 Creichton's Memoirs, edited by Swift. 

3 His " pass to go to West Chester " is among the S.JP. Dom. under date of 26 July 

4 House of Lords' MSS. 

* Evelyn's Diary (edit. 1854), Vol. II., p. 303. 


7 Uiitonj of the British Standing Army, 1660-1700, p. 110. 

84 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Division to which he was attached, had much to do with the great victory 
gained over King James's Army. William III. showed his appreciation of 
Douglas's services at Boyne Water by appointing him Colonel of an 
English Regiment of Foot vacant by the death, in September, 1690, of the 
Earl of Kingston. 1 There is a letter still extant from Douglas to his 
brother, the Duke of Queensberry, giving some details about the Battle of 
the Boyne, in which he mentions that the veteran Duke of Schomberg 
was accidentally killed by a shot fired by one of the Duke's French 
soldiers. 2 

The march on, and relief of, Dublin was followed by a two days' review 
of the Army at Finglass. From thence a Division 8 under General Douglas 
was sent to invest Athlone. " On the seventeenth July," writes Colonel 
Walton, " Douglas arrived before Athlone and summoned the place. The 
governor, Colonel Grace, firing a pistol at the trumpeter, bid him tell 
General Douglas that 'those were the terms he was for,' and that 'when 
his food was all gone he would defend Athlone until he had eaten his 
boots.' " 

" Douglas was not long in discovering that the strength of the place had 
been under-estimated. Approaches were indeed commenced ; but, without 
bread, without pontoons to cross the river, with only about a dozen guns, 
the heaviest of which were twelve-pounders, without sufficient powder even 
for these, and with Sarsfield on the march from Limerick with 15,000 men 
... it would be rashness to remain before Athlone. At dawn on the 
25th July the siege was raised and Douglas marched towards Limerick to 
rejoin the King." 4 In order to mislead the enemy who were on the watch 
for him, Douglas had to avoid towns and restrict his march westward to 
bye-roads. By so doing he reached Limerick with his force intact, but for 
four days together his Troops were without bread. 5 Before Limerick was 
invested a terrible disaster befell the Artillery Train, which included 
wagons of ammunition and provisions, that had been sent from Dublin. 
This Convoy had reached Ballynedy, seven miles from Limerick, where it 
halted for the night on the evening of llth August. Two Troops of 
English Cavalry formed the sole escort to this Train. " Not a sentry, not 
a vedette was posted beyond the precincts of the camp, not a word of 
notice of approach had been sent on to headquarters." 6 General Sarsfield 
having been apprised by a peasant, two days earlier, of the approach 
of the Train had, on Sunday the 10th, crossed the Shannon with 800 
Cavalry at Killaloe. After lurking in the mountains all Monday the Irish 
Troops had suddenly swooped down on the slumbering camp, in the dead 
of night, and cruelly slaughtered the English soldiers, wagoners, and camp 
followers, among whom were women and children, as they slept. Sars- 
field's butchers then collected all the wagons and burnt them ; after which 
they burst most of the guns and then retreated into the mountains. This 
untoward event had much to do with King William's failure to reduce 
Limerick, as he was only able, for lack of heavy ordnance, to invest the 
town on the south side of the river. 

1 Wm. Pierrepont, 4th Earl, an English peer. 

2 This letter is given by Mr. Napier in his Life and Times of John Graham of 
Claverhoiise, Vol. III., Appendix, pp. 715-718. 

* It consisted of four Regiments of Horse, two of Dragoons, the Second Battalion Scots 
Foot Guards, with nine other Infantry Regiments, total 7,500 men. 

4 Walton's History of the Standing Army, 1000-1700, pp. 127-8. 

* Ibid., p. 128. /&;</., p. 132. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 85 

The historian 1 of The Wars in Ireland records that " William's 
General Officers lent their horses to fetch in the debris from Ballynedy." 
Siege guns were ordered up from Waterford while mounted Infantry kept 
the road. 

Ten days after the trenches were opened the breach appeared practica- 
ble and an assault was ordered. Five hundred Grenadiers were to storm 
the works. " Immediately in support were the Scots Guards," writes 
Colonel Walton, " the Ninth and Eighteenth Foot, Lisburn's Hereford- 
shire regiment, the Blue Dutch, and a regiment of Brandenburgers. To 
the left of these was another body of infantry composed of Cutts's regi- 
ment and the Danes. In rear of all was a strong show of cavalry. 
General Douglas commanded the whole." 2 There is no need to tell here 
how the assault on Limerick proved unsuccessful. Lord Macaulay's 
graphic pen has left a word-picture of the bravery of the assailants and 
defenders during hours of carnage 8 in the sweltering heat of an August 

" When all was done that man could do 
And all was done in vain " 

the besiegers returned to their camp. Three days later the siege was 
raised and the British Army retired some weeks later into winter 

In the spring of 1691 Douglas was back in Ireland. In May, we hear 
of him bringing down Troops from the north of Ireland to re-inforce 
General de Ginckell the Commander-in-Chief. " Before the campaign 
opened," writes George Clarke (Secretary at War in Ireland) in his 
autobiography, " the King sent for Sir J. Lanier and Major-General Kirke 
away from Ireland, and so he did for Lieut.-General Douglas some time 
after, for the latter and the two first could never agree, and I was some- 
times apprehensive that their animosities would have broken out into 
more than words, but nothing of that sort happened. They all three went 
into Flanders and there soon ended their lives." 4 

The real reason for the withdrawal of Generals Douglas, Kirke and 
Lanier from Ireland was due to the " complaints made to the King of the 
great disorders committed by them and their officers in taking away the 
cattle, stock, and goods both of protestants and of such papists as have 
submitted." B It is evident that whatever personal differences these three 
General Officers migh have, between themselves, they were alike in 
venting their chagrin, at the raising of the siege of Limerick, on the Irish 
natives, whom they plundered unmercifully when marching through the 

The British Army in Flanders and the Allies under William III. 
were encamped at Gemblours early in June, 1691. Their united force 
amounted to 56,000 men. General Douglas was given command of the 
Brigade of Guards consisting of the First Foot Guards, the Coldstream 

1 The Rev. George Story, Chaplain to the Earl of Drogheda's Regiment. 
1 Hist, of the British Standing Army, 1660-1700, pp. 136-137. 

3 Fifteen hundred men fell on the side of the besiegers alone. The Scots Foot Guards 
had seven officers killed and eleven wounded. General Douglas's English Regiment had 
five officers killed and thirteen wounded, two of them mortally. Story's Ware in Ireland. 

4 Hist. MSS. Comn. Report on the MSS. of Mr. Leyborne-Popham of Littlecote. 

s Letter from the Earl of Nottingham to Lieut.-General Douglas, 1st November, 1690 
Cat. S.P. Dom. 

86 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Guards, the Scots Guards, 1 and a Battalion of Dutch Guards. A side 
light is thrown on Douglas's last days by a letter from the youthful Earl of 
Angus 2 to his father the 2nd Marquis of Douglas, written from " Utrecht, 
Jan. 1692." After recounting the false position in which he is placed by 
his father's and the King's refusal to allow him to take part as Colonel of 
the Cameronians, in the coming campaign, Angus goes on to say : 

" The Master of Stairs particularly can inform your Lordship how much to 
my dishonour all the Generall Officers of the Army, all the Court, and all 
perhaps that knew me in the Army spoke of my being here . . . considering 
that my Eegiment lies there in actuall service . . . Lieut-Generall Douglas, 
tho' but few days in the camp, was pleased both to his nephew [Lord 
Drumlanrig] and Sir Robert Douglas in that time to show a great consarn in 
me, and spoke of my absence in so strong terms that he told them it had been 
better for me to've been there, tho I should have come barefoot and without a 
whole coat, and was pleased to say the next year he would come himselfe and 
pull me from Utrecht to the Camp tho he shou'd be oblig'd to seeke a contribu- 
tion from my friends that are officers in the army for my subsistence there, since 
it was the only way I had both to make my own fortune and contribute to the 
establishment of the family I belonged to." 3 

While serving at Gerpynes Camp early in July, 1691, General Douglas 
was attacked by fever and carried to Namur where he died. 4 He was 
temporarily buried in St. John's Church, Maestricht. 8 

Narcissus Luttrell, the diarist, chronicles under date of 5th October, 
1691 : " Letters from Scotland say that Lieutenant General Douglas his 
corpse was brought to Edinburgh from Holland in order to its interment 
there." 6 On the 24th July, 1692, the young Earl of Angus fell at the 
head of the Cameronians at Steinkirk ; and his kinsman, Sir Robert 
Douglas, Colonel of the Royal Scots, met a hero's death on the same fatal 

As a commander, General Douglas was not heureux. He seems to 
have been cordially disliked by both officers and men. The Duke of 
Schomberg, in a confidential letter to William III. writes on 17th April, 
1690, with reference to General Douglas : " I find him more proud and 
more inclined to stand upon his official dignity than when he came . . . 
it is astonishing that a man can be at the same time so interested and so 
proud." 7 And on llth May following Schomberg again criticises Douglas 
in a letter to the King : " Whatever one does he is never contented and 
he finds fault with everything if he is not first consulted." 8 

General Douglas, who died intestate, left a widow whose maiden name 
was Hamilton. On 17th October, 1691, the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury granted Letters of Administration "to the Hon. Anna Douglas 
relict of the Hon. James Douglas of the parish of St. James, Westminster, 

'"A battalion of the Scots Guards was embarked at Leith early in Feb. 1691." 
History of the 1st Foot Guards, Vol. I., p. 350. 

" Only son of the Marquis of Douglas by his first wife. He had been appointed Colonel 
of the " Cameronians " at the first raising of this historic corps, 22nd April, 1089, when 
twenty years of age. 

8 The Douglas Boole, Vol. IV., p. 384. 

4 Dauvergne's Campaign in Flanders, 1691, p. 102. 

5 Ibid. 

6 Diary, Vol. II., p. 292. 

7 Col. *.P. Dom. 

8 Ibid. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 87 

and parts beyond seas, Esqre." l This lady had, by General Douglas, a 
son James, who received an Ensign's Commission in the Scots Foot Guards, 
18th June, 1688. Young James Douglas was appointed Ensign to his 
father's Company. On 1st September, 1691, he was promoted Lieutenant, 
but left the Army same month and settled down at Skirling in Peeblesshire. 
Neither his death nor the date of his marriage have been ascertained. 
His eldest son's death occurred in 1700 and his will, which describes him 
as " James Douglas eldest lawful son of the deceased Lieutenant James 
Douglas of Skirling " was proved at Edinburgh, 2nd September, 1700. a 

Chambers in his History of Peeblesahire states that Dame Anna Hamil- 
ton, relict of Lieut.-General the Hon. James Douglas, married John 
Carmichael, 1st Earl of Hyndford, and that by some arrangement she 
carried Skirling into the Carmichael family. There is no corroboration of 
this second marriage in any of the Scottish peerages, but the Earl of 
Hyndford's second son, William, is described as "of Skirling" in Burke's 
Extinct Peerage. The estate in question was doubtless bought by one of 
the Carmichaels. 

1 Original at Somerset House, London. 
J See Appendix. 



THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


The Earl of Newburgh. 1 


Mungo Murray.* 

[Robert Douglas 8 ] . 


Dr. Christopher Irvine.* 

* Compiled from contemporary books and papers. On 10 Jan. 1661, the Parliament at 
Edinburgh decreed " that a troop of Horse be raised for guarding the Lord Commissioner 
and Parliament, to assist the Parliament in putting their Acts in execution against dis- 
obedient persons, which the Commissioner was desired to acquaint his Majesty with." The 
Mercurius Pullicua (No. 13), March 28 to April 4, 1661, records that " On the 26 a Troop 
of Horse under the command of the Earl of Newburgh randezvous'd neer Holy Rood 
House consisting of noblemen's and gentlemen's sons." The earliest " Establishment " for 
this Troop that can be traced is dated 8 Oct. 1667 (gee Appendix). The Establishment 
given by Cannon in his Records of the Life Guards, purporting to be the one for 1661, is 
really the Establishment for 1684. The Scots Life Guards came to England at the 
Revolution and was subsequently known as the 4th, >r Scots, Troop of Life Guards. 
Disbanded 1746. 

1 Sir James Livingston (son of Sir John Livingston, Bart., of Kinnaird) was a Gen- 
tleman of the Bedchamber to Charles I. and created, for his services to the Royal Cause, 
Visct. Newburgh, 13 Sept. 1647. He served as Lt.-Colonel to Hugh, Earl of Eglinton, who 
commanded Charles I's Scottish Life Guards. Lord Newburgh shared Charles II.'s exile 
in the Low Countries and commanded a Scots Regiment raised in Flanders. Created Earl 
of Newburgh 31 Dec. 1660. Appointed Captain of the Scots Troop of Life Guards at its 
raising in Jan. 1661. Lord Newburgh held this post till July, 1670, when his corpulence 
and goutiness made an excuse for depriving him of the Captaincy which was bestowed on 
the Earl of Atholl. " Newburgh was secured in a pension equivalent to the gain he made 
by the Troop" (Sir George Mackenzie's Memoirs of the Affairs of Scotland, 1821 edit., 

G 2 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688. 

p. 187). The date of this nobleman's death is given as " 26 Dec. 1670 " in Millan's Suc- 
cession of Colonels, 1742. But in a letter from H. Muddiman to Mr. Worth the Earl of 
Newburgh is stated to have died on "4 Dec. 1670." Cal. S. P. Dom., 1670, p. 570. 

* This officer is sometimes confounded with his namesake Sir Mungo Murray of Tib- 
bermuir, Perthshire, who saw much service with the Royalist forces in Scotland prior to 
the Restoration. (See The Spottiswoode Miscellany, Vol. II., p. 188.) The Lieutenant of 
the King's Life Guards was 2nd son of the 1st Earl of Atholl of the house of Murray. 
At the Restoration he was given a pension of 200 for life by the King, 20 Dec. 1660. 
Chosen M.P. for Perth in Nov. 1660, and appointed Lieut, of the Troop of Life Guards 
at its raising early in 1661. Served at Rullion Green. In Sept. 1668 Mungo Murray was 
employed with 60 of his Troop " to search in the heads of Kyle and Nithsdale, and appre- 
hend any of the rebels rising in arms " (Privy Council Registers). Mungo Murray's 
knighthood was probably about 1667, but the exact date has not been ascertained. His 
death is thus referred to in a letter, preserved at Murthly, from Thomas Steuart to John 
Steuart, Yr., of Grandtully, dated Edinburgh, 6 Dec. 1670 : " The Hon. Sir Mungo Murray, 
M.P. for Perth and Lieut, of King Charles II. 's Guards at the Restoration, died unmarried 
at Edinburgh on 5 Dec., and was buried in St. Giles' Church." In Nisbet's Heraldry it 
is recorded that Sir Mungo Murray was interred " at the tomb of John, Earl of Athol, who 
died Lord Chancellor in 1579." 

3 In Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, it is stated that Robert Douglas 2nd son of the 
3rd Earl of Morton " was a lieutenant of the gensdarmes in Prance, under the Duke of 
York, master of horse to Princess Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans, and lieutenant of King 
Charles II. 's horse guards under the Earl of Newburgh. He died without issue anno 

4 Younger son of Christopher Irvine of Robgill Tower, Annandale, a barrister of the 
Temple. Appointed Physician and Surgeon-Major to all the forces in Scotland 23 Dec. 
1674. The following notice of a curious medical work by Dr. Irvine appeared recently in 
a catalogue of old books : 

" Irvine (Chr.) Medicina Magnetica : or, The rare and wonderful Art of curing 
by Sympathy Laid open in Aphorismes ; Proved in Conclusions ; And digested into 
an easy Method drawn from both : Wherein the connexion of the Causes and effects 
of these strange Operations, are more fully discovered than heretofore. All cleared 
and confirmed, by pithy Reasons, true Experiments, and pleasant Relations. Preserved 
and Published, as a Master- Piece in this Skill. 12mo, FIRST EDITION, original sheep. 
22/6. Printed in the Year, 1656. 

" *** Without place or printer's name, but perhaps printed in Edinburgh, as it is 
dedicated to General Monck, to whose army the author was a surgeon. He gives ' the 
weapon-salve cure ' in detail ; it consisted of anointing the weapon which did the 
injury with a salve, one of the important constituents of it being ' the Mosse 
which grows on the scull of a man that hath died a violent death (he that is hanged 
is best).' " 

Dr. Irvine was appointed Historiographer in Scotland to James VII. on 30 July, 1686. 
Hut. MSS. Comn., Report X., p. 95. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



The Earl of Newburgh. 1 

Mungo Murray. 2 

Major Wm. Cockburn. 8 


John Dalmahoy. 4 

Dr. Christopher Irvine. 5 

* Compiled from contemporary books and MSS. 

1 See biog. notice on p. 3, note 1. 

2 See do. on p. 4, note 2. 

8 See do. on p. 66, note 2. 

4 Precepts for payments to this officer, as Qr. Master of the Life Guards, are noted in 
the Privy Council Registers from 9 Oct. 1667 onwards. Also licence, 8 April, 1669, to 
said officer " to goe to the Bathes in England for recovery of his health for the space of 
three moneths." Commission renewed by James VII. in March, 1685. He was eldest son 
of Sir Alex. Dalmahoy, Bart., of Dalmahoy, Midlothian, and appears to have been nephew 
to Thomas Dalmahoy, M.P. for Guildford, 1661-1678, which Thomas md. the widow of 
Wm. Duke of Hamilton. Anderson's Scottish Nation, Vol. II., p. 39. 

' See biog. notice on p. 4, note 4. 

6 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 




[John, Earl of Atholl, 1 in succession to the Earl of Newburgh.j 


John Napier 8 to be Lieut, of one of His Majesty's Troops 
of Life Guard in Scotland under the command of 
John, Earl of Atholl [in room of Sir Mungo 
Murray, deed.] 20 Dec., 1670. 

George Murray 8 to be Cornet to one of above Troops 

commanded by the Earl of Atholl - 

1 Commission register not forthcoming. In John Millan's Succession of Colonels, 1742, 
the date of appointment is given as " 28 Jan. 1671," but Mr. Andrew Ross, Boss Herald, 
quoting from Treasury Records, gives " 13 July, 1670," as the real date. See chapter on 
the Scots Life Guards in A Military History of Perthshire, 1660-1902, by the Marchioness 
of Tullibardine, p. 8. 

2 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. I. The following letter written by the Hon. John 
Napier is at the Brit. Museum (Add. MS. 23134, fol. 163) : 

" Edinburgh Decem br $g 
"My Lord, 

" last post I receaved a letter from Mr. forester ; wherin he tells me ; that he 
was Comanded by your Lo p : to signifle to me his Maj ties graciouss detenninatione in 
the dispotitione of the liv ts : place. I doe acknoledge it is more then I deserue and it 
does oblidge me (tho I were not tyed by alleadgiance) to be a faithfull subject and a 
grattful servant ; and next to his Majtie : I owe the obligatione to your Lo p : for 
which amongst the rest of the undeservd f avoures Conf erd upone me I shall say no 
more, but be ashured that the grattfull acknoledgment shall never be wantinge from 

" My Lord 

" I have sent the " Your most faithfull and 

Coppies of both " humble servant 

the Commissiones." " JO. NAPIER." 

" For The Right hon ble 

The Earlle of Lawderdaille 
sol secretaire of state 
at whietthall." 

The Hon. John Napier was 2nd son of the 2nd Lord Napier of Merchiston. He had been 
page to Charles II. during this monarch's exile in Holland. When the Anglo-Dutch war 
broke out in 1672, John Napier volunteered for service with the English Fleet and lost his 
life. A contemporary diarist records, under date of 1672, that "Jo" Napier, Lieut, to 
y" King's Troup dyd at sea in y e dutch war." Masterton Diary, printed by The, 
Scottish Hist. Soc., Vol. XV., p. 468. 

* /bid. See biog. notice on p. 62, note 3. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Patrick, Earl of Kinghorn, 1 to be Lieut, of the Life 
Guard of Horse commanded by John, Earl of 
Atholl [in room of John Napier, deceased] - Whitehall, 23 July, 1672. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotlaml, Vol. I. Third Earl. A great loyalist. Fined 1,000 
sterling by Cromwell in 1654. By charter dated 1 July, 1677, this nobleman was granted 
permission to change his title to " Strathmore and Kinghorn for himself and his heirs for 
ever." Resigned his Commission in the Life Guards 18 July, 1680. He was a Lord of 
the Privy Council to Charles II. and James VII. D. 1695. 


5TH JUNE, 1678.* 

Major George Bruce. 
Captain [George] Buckam. 
Sir Mungo Murray. 
Captain [James] Scott. 

* Prom the Master Roll printed in A Military History of Perthshire, p. 17. 



James, Marquis of Montrose 1 to be Captain of Our Life 
Guard of Horse in Scotland (in place of the Marquis 
of Athole whose commission is hereby declared 
void) - Whitehall, 26 Oct., 1678. 

1 Warrant Boole for Scotland, Vol. IV. Third Marquis. Raised a Troop of Horse at 
his own expense in Scotland, March, 1678, to serve with the Duke of York's Regt. of 
English Horse (see List of Troops raised in 1678). Died in 1684. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, .1661-1688 



Dr. Mathew Brisbane 1 to be Surgeon to his Majesty's 

Life Guard of Horse - - Windsor, 20 May, 1680. 

George, Lord Livingstoune 2 to be 1st Lieutenant of Our 
Life Guard of Horse in place of Patrick, Earl of 
Strathmore and Kinghorn who voluntarily resigns 

Windsor Castle, 18 July, 1680. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. A Mathew Brisbane of Bishopton fell at 
Flodden. His collateral descendant and namesake was Minister of Erakine and had a son, 
Dr. Mathew Brisbane, Physician in Glasgow, "a man of great learning" (Brisbane 
Pedigree). Commission renewed by James VII. Serving in Dec. 1688. 

1 Ibid. Succeeded his father in 1690 as 4th Earl of Linlithgow. Appointed Capt. in 
the Foot Guards in Sept. 1668. Was actively engaged at the battle of Bothwell Bridge. 
Capt. of the Life Guards 1 May, 1684. Accompanied the Troop to England in Dec. 1688. 
Removed 31 Dec. 1688. D. 1695. 



George Murray * to be [Under] Lieut, to Our Troop of 
Life Guard of Horse in Scotland [? in place of 
Major Wm. Cockburn] - - Whitehall, 22 April, 1681. 

Edward Ruth ven 2 to be Cornet to above Troop 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII. See biog. notice on p. 62, note 3. 

1 Ibid. Granted a pension by Charles II. of 60 per ann. 15 July 1682. Out of the 
Troop 1 May 1683. D. in 1685. A note in the Warrant Book records that he was " grand- 
son to Patrick Ruthven Earl of Forth and Brentford." He was born 19 Feb. 1663. Third 
son of James, Lord Forrester, by his 2nd wife Lady Jean Ruthven. Took up the title 
of his grandfather the Earl of Brentford, but had no right to the same. In Nov. 1685 
James VII. wrote to the Privy Council of Scotland on behalf of Martha Temple, relict 
of Edward Ruthven. Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. X. 



David Hay 1 (second son of John, Earl Tweeddale) to be 
Cornet of the Marquis of Montrose's Troop of Life 
Guard in Scotland - Windsor Castle, 1 May, 1683. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII. Lieut. 1 May, 1684. Comn. renewed by 
James VII. Accompanied the Life Guards to England at the Revolution. Left the 
Army in Dec. 1688. Obtained from his father the estate of Belton. D. 1727. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


George, Lord Livingstoune l to be Captain of his Majesty's 

Troop of Life Guard in Scotland - - Windsor Castle, 1 May, 1684. 
David Hay 2 to be Lieut, to Lord Livingstoune's Troop - 

Windsor Castle, ,, 
George Home 8 to be Cornet of above Troop 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII. See biog. notice on p. 19, note 2. 

9 Ibid. See p. 8. 

3 Ibid. In Sir John Lander's Historical Observes, p. 122, this officer is thus mentioned : 
" Captain Home of Ford (who formerly had a Company of Grenadiers) is made Cornet of 
the Troop." George Home, or Hume, served as Capt. of Grenadiers in the Earl of Dum- 
barton's Regt. of Foot during the campaign against the Moors, 1680-1681. He particularly 
distinguished himself in the sortie from Tangiers, 27 Sept. 1680, when he was wounded. 
Captain George Home as well as Major James Halket of Pitfirran and Capt. Robert 
Hodge (three of Dumbarton's officers) have had their names handed down to posterity in 
a doggerel drinking song of the regiment (printed in 1681) of which the first and thirteenth 
verses run as follows : 

(1) " Captain Hume is bound to sea, 

Hey boys, ho boys ; 
Captain Hume is bound to sea, 


Captain Hume is bound to sea, 
And his brave companie ; 
Hey the brave Granadeers, 

(13) " Sixty brave Granadeers, 

Hey boys, ho boys ; 
Sixty brave Granadeers, 


Sixty brave Granadeers, 
Beat the Moors from Tangiers, 
Hey the brave Scottish boys, 

On Home's return from Tangier he was appointed Capt. of the new Grenadier Company 
in the Scots Foot Guards 19 June, 1682. Transferred to the Cornetcy of the Life Guards 
as given in the text. Accompanied said Troop to England, as Lieut, and Lt.-Col. in 
Oct. 1688. Out of the Army before Jan. 1689. 

10 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



John, Earl of Rothes. 1 

Alex. Lord Montgomery. 2 


Adam Urquhart 3 of Meldrum. 

Andrew Paterson. 4 


Captain [George] Arnot. 6 
Captain -- Leslie. 
Captain Stewart. 6 

* The names of officers in this Troop are taken from Lord Bothes's unpublished letter to 
Lauderdale given below. This Troop took the place of that under the command of the 
Earl of Middleton, who was deprived of all his posts in 1663, and his Troop disbanded 8 Oct. 
same year at Stirling by the Earls of Linlithgow and Aboyne (Cal. S.P.D. 1663). The 
first Establishment List of the Troop of Life Guards " under the command of his Majesty's 
High Commissioner the Earl of Rothes," signed " Charles R.," and subscribed " Lauder- 
daill," is preserved among the present Earl of Rothes's MS8. (See 4th Report Hist. MSS. 
Comn., p. 50). It is noteworthy in this first Establishment List (1664) that the Captain of 
the Troop received 1 4s. sterling per diem, the Lieut. 12., and the Cornet 11s. (inclusive of 
allowances for their horses) ; whereas by the new Establishment of 8 Oct. 1667 the afore- 
said three officers only received respectively 14s., 12., and 9. per diem for themselves and 
horses. Lord Rothes's letter (Add. MS. 23122, f. 184) (modern spelling) to the Earl of 
Lauderdale about the former's new-raised Troop is very interesting. 

"November the 15 [1664]. 
"My dear Lord, 

" You know the day of rendezvous appointed by His Majesty does now draw near 
for the troop of guards of which he was pleased to honour me with the title of 
captain. Therefore I have presumed to send you up the establishment and the 
persons' names who are to have commissions from His Majesty. Montgomery is 
Lieutenant. One ' Adim orchiert Lord of meldrum ' and My Lord ' ougilbies neuoay 
(? nephew) ' and a most pretty worthy gentleman is my cornet, and ' andrie [Andrew] 
pettursun quartermastter.' The commissions and establishment I hope you will 
hasten down. I must entreat that you may put His Majestie in mind that I must 
provide liveries for the trumpets and kettle drummer with a standard and silver 
trumpets and banners for them. The Earl of ' Neuberu ' had as I hear a great deal 
allowed for them and yet for ought I hear all his accounts are not paid. If I have as 
much allowed as he the business I require no more and I hope His Majesty will allow 
mine to be as fine as any and I intend to give you the trouble to be a kind of a general 
overseer in the affair. The standard I hear will cost a great deal for they are all very 
fine and I hope my whole troop shall be so, otherwise I shall lose much leisure and upon 
my word whatever has been done with others none of their allowance shall be kept 
from them. I have nothing of public concern to say, but I pray God people in this 
country would be as wise as they ought. So my dear Lord till the next post Adieu." 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-168B 11 

The sequel to aforesaid letter is also among the unpublished letters in the Lauderdale 
MSS. (Add. MS. 35125, fo. 111). It is from the Earl of Newburgh to Lord Bothes : 

"London, Jan. 17 th , 166f 
" May it please your Grace 

" By one of his Ma" 05 Precepts w ch I haue desired my Lord S' Andrews to present to 
yr losp you will see it has not bein long in my handes & I dp assure your Grace it has 
not bein my fault y' it came not sooner to you, for I haue bein a dilligent sollicitor for 
it, & did endeauour (though in vaine) to haue gott itt in time to haue had y liveries 
against Christmas : if your Grace wilbe pleased presently to returne y 400 or giue me 
leaue to draw Bills vpon my lord Bellenden for itt I shalbte sure to haue them in 
readiness to bring downe with my selfe, hopeing now to haue y" honour very suddainely 
to kiss yr Graces hands : in this I shall attend y r losp orders : 

for y" other precept I shall humbly beg yr Grace wilbe pleased to returne j* money or 
order itt wth y other, y= Carabines haueing bein this long time ready, w ch are so much 
better & cheaper then any than are made in England, that if your Grace thinks fitt to 
order I will send for fourscore of y same to come wth mine for your losp Troope. I 
send a servant of my owne into Holland as soone as y Weather breakes to bring those 
oner & some other goods of my owne that are lying there. 

My Quarter-Master writt me word that yr Grace was once speakeing to him about yr 
Standard, if you wilbe pleased to giue me Comission I shall be very proud to haue v" 
honour of serueing yr losp both in that & for yr Buff coates wen I can gett both 
cheaper & better then y e man y' I heare pretends to make them for you. My Stan- 
. dart cost just forty pound ; if y' losp thinks fitt to giue me any directions you must 
be pleased to send yr Cypher or how you will haue it made. 

my willingness to serue your Grace in all thinges make me presume to Offer my 
service to you in these little thinges make tryall of me when you please you shall find 
me what I euer professed to be & y' is 

' May it please yr Grace 

" Your Graces most obedient & 

most faythfull servant 

Endorsed : " L. Comas' 4 Feb^ 

Newbrugh to the 

Duke of Lauderdale (we)." 

The endorsement to above letter is misleading. The words " Newburgh to the Duke of 
Lauderdale " are in a different hand to the rest of the endorsement, and have apparently 
been added at a later date. Lauderdale was neither Lord Commissioner nor a Duke in 
1605. Bothes was the first, and as such had the honorary rank of " Grace." He also had a 
Troop of Guards which Lauderdale never had. Bothes's Troop was disbanded 1 March, 

1 See special memoir as Commander-in-Chief. 

2 Eldest son of Hugh, 7th Earl of Eglinton. Md. for his 2nd wife Lady Mary Leslie, 2nd 
dau. of John, 6th Earl of Rothes. Succeeded his father as 8th Earl of Eglinton in 1669. 
Resigned his Commission iu the Guards 12 June, 1674. He was named a Lord of William 
Ill's Privy Council 1st May, 1689. Capt. of a Troop of Scots Horse same year. Given 
command of 3 Troops in IC'JO. D. in 1701. 

3 Son and heir of Patrick Urquhart of Meldrum. Appointed Lieut, to the Earl of 
Airlie's Troop of Horse 27 Sept., 1678. Fought at Bothwell Brig. Captain of a Troop of 
Horse, in place of James, Earl of Airlie, 25 Nov., 1682. Captain in Claverhouse's Begt. of 
Horse 27 Dec., 1682. Edinburgh, 10 'Nov., 1684, leaving issue by Lady Mary Gordon 
his wife, who remarried James Earl of Perth, Lord Chancellor of Scotland, and d. at 
St. Germains in 1726. 

4 . Of Dinmure. His name occurs as Qr.-Master in " Precepts " for payments to the 
Earl of Bothes's Troop of Horse Guards, dating from 9 Oct. 166713 Jan., 1671. See also 
payments quoted in the Appendix. After the disbandment of Bothes's Troop in 1676, a 
certain Mr. Paterson appears to have acted as secretary, or clerk, to Lord Bothes at Leslie 
House. In a letter from George Stirling, Chirurgeon, Edinburgh, dated 27 Oct., 1680, to 
the Laird of Keir, the former writes : " The Duke and Duchess of York arrived at Leslie 
. . . there are with them Atholl's two sons, Panmure's two brothers, the Master of Salton's 
son, the Laird of Lundie, and Mr. Patersoun, clerk." 

h Under the head of "Orders to the Chancellor's Troop, 11 Dec., 1667," the Privy 
Council direct : " That part thereof under the command of Captain Arnot to continue 

12 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

their quarters in Edinburgh ; that part thereof under the command of Captain Lesly to 
remove and quarter at Dalkeith ; and that part under the command of Captain Stewart to 
quarter at Tranent and Seatoun." (Acti of the Privy Council, 1661-67, p. 13). Captain 
George Arnot was fourth son of Sir James Arnot of Pernie, Co. Fife. Came of an ancient 
family which had supplied Scotland with gallant soldiers from the earliest times. So far 
back as 1190 Sir Malcolm Arnot accompanied the Earl of Fife on an embassy to Henry III. 
of England. Sir David Arnot was standard bearer to James IV. at Flodden, where he 
shared his sovereign's fate. In 1780 a silver seal of curious workmanship, and bearing the 
Arnot arms, was dug up on Flodden Field (Notes and Queries, 3rd series, Vol. XI., p. 324). 
Colonel Charles Arnot of that Ilk commanded a regiment of horse for Charles II. at the 
battle of Inverkeithing in 1651, and died a few months afterwards. George Arnot was 
admitted to the King's service as a Page of Honour in Oct. 1650 (Sir John Balfour's 
Annals, Vol. IV., p. 128). Sir James Turner mentions, under date of 1654. having met 
" George Arnot, at that time page to his Majestie, at Cologne" (Memoirs, p. li6). And in 
Oct. 1655, Secretary Nicholas records a fracas having occurred between George Amot and 
Nicholas Armorer of the King's household, in which Arnot proved that he was both a 
gentleman and a courtier (Cal. S.P.D., 1655, pp. 390-391). It was owing to the strained 
relations between Arnot and Armorer that the former lost his post of page, for which he 
was paid forty guilders a month. Arnot probably was given a commission in one of the 
ephemeral British regiments raised by Charles II. in Flanders for service under Don John 
of Austria. Be this as it may, he had the rank of Captain before 1667. In Lament's 
Diary is this notice : " 1670. About Whitsunday Captain George Arnot, the laird of 
Ferney his 3rd brother, bought the Grange in Fyffe ... it stood him about 16,000 merkes 
as was asserted (p. 222)." In June, 1677, Charles II. granted a " pension to Captain George 
Arnett (sic) of Grange of 100 per annum" (Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV.). On 
22 Feb., 1678, Arnot was appointed Major of Sir John Talbot's Regt. of Dragoons on the 
English Establishment. This corps was disbanded within twelve months of its raising. 
We next find Arnot serving in the Earl of Dumbarton's Regt. [of Foot (the Royal Scots) 
and in the muster of this corps taken at Kinsale in April, 1679, the name of George Arnot 
appears as one of the senior captains. Thomas Dineley in his " Journal of a Tour in 
Ireland, 1679 " (printed in the Kilkenny Archaeological Society's Proceedings, Vol. IV.) 
records meeting Major Arnot, at Kinsale, in whose late Troop of Dragoons the writer 
(Dineley) had served as a private. On 12 July, 1681, Arnot was commissioned Lieut, of 
the Independent Company at Dumbarton Castle, and at same time appointed Lieut. - 
Governor of that fortress. The nominal Governor of above Castle, and Captain of the 
Company in garrison there, was the juvenile Duke of Richmond. This nobleman's mother, 
the Duchess of Portsmouth, as tutrix and guardian to the young Duke, granted, by com- 
mission under her hand dated " Whitehall, Jan. 30, 1682, full power to Major George Arnott 
to uplift what is due of the pay of her said son as Captain Aforesaid which is eight shillings 
sterling per day and apply the same to his own use and behoof." On the accession of 
James VII. Arnot was confirmed in his posts. But his Jacobite proclivities prevented his 
holding these appointments under William III. George Arnot married Susan Leslie, 
daughter of Robert Leslie, 3rd (or 4th) son of the first Baron Lindores, and had a daughter 
married to Ogilvy of Boyne the younger. Arnot appears to have sold Grange to his 
kinsman, Balfour of Burleigh, before 1704, in which year we find mention of "Major 
George Arnot, Commissioner of Supply for Banffshire " (Thomson's Acts of the Parliament 
of Scotland). 

6 In the Register of Burials at Greyfriars' Church occurs this entry under date of 
17 March, 1674 : " Captain Harry Stewart one of His Majesty's Life Guards." 


Commission to James, Earl of Airlie, 1 to be Lieutenant 
of that Troop of the Guard of Horse in Scotland, 
whereof the Earl of Rothes is Captain, in place of the 
Earl of Eglintoune Windsor Castle, 12 June, 1674. 

1 See biog. notice on p. 11, note 2. 


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Letter from the Earl of Airlie to the Earl of Linlithgow, sth June, 1680 

(From the Original in the Editor a possession) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 13 



George, Earl of Linlithgow. 

Sir James Turner. 


Col. Wm. Urrie. 

Major Alex. Thomson. 

Charles, Duke of Lenox and Richmond. 

John, Earl of Mar. 

* This Regiment, the present Scots Foot Guards, has been generally supposed to date 
its existence from 1660. This is not the case. Neither did the Earl of Linlithgow 
receive a Commission as Colonel under date of 1660, as stated in Millan's Succession of 
Colonels, 1742, and successive Army Lists. The reason for the delay in raising the Foot 
Guards is obvious enough when we remember that General Sir Thomas Morgan's English 
infantry corps, 1,000 strong, did not vacate Leith citadel until the middle of May, 1662. 
When Scotland was once clear of the English forces five Companies of Foot were raised. 
These new levies formed the nucleus of the Scots Foot Guards. The Kingdom's 
Intelligencer, Sept. 15-22, 1662, contains this notice : 

" Edinburgh, 13 Sept. 

" My Lord Commissioner as Captain General of all his Majesties Forces in Scotland 
took a view of five Companies of new raised men, viz. the Duke of Lenox his Com- 
pany which are to go to the Castle of Dunbarton the Earle of Mars Company which 
are for Stirling Castle, Sir James Turners Company, Colonel Dry's and Major Thomp- 
sons, each company consisting of a full hundred completely armed, and scarce a man 
above thirty years of age. Divers Captains, Lieutenants and Gentlemen of quality 
think themselves preferred in carrying a pike in these companies, so generally Loyal 
now is that Kingdom, that every man is ready to express his best endeavours for his 
Majesties service. . . ." 

The Mercurius Publicus, Sept. 18-25, 1662, records the presentation of Colours at 
Edinburgh on 16 Sept. : 

" This day the five Companies, formerly mentioned, received their Colours which 
were red, with a Saltire or St. Andrews Cross Argent in a Feild Azure, and a Thistle 
Crowned with this Motto round the Thistle, Nemo me impune lacessit." 

We know from Sir James Turner's Memoirs (quoted on p. 5, Part I.) that the above five 
companies were sent to Glasgow after being raised. The absence of regimental records 
between 1662-1667 unfortunately leaves a hiatus in the history of this fine old corps 
which it is difficult to fill up. It appears from an important and hitherto unpublished 
letter from the Earl of Linlithgow to Lauderdale (Add. MS. 23121, fol. 15) given below, 
in modern spelling, that there were six Companies reviewed by the Earl of Middleton in 
Sept. 1662, at Glasgow. The sixth company was raised apparently to garrison Edinburgh 
Castle : 

" Edinburgh, 19 Jan. 1664. 

". . . . My Lord, as to the command of those foot Companies, the E. of Middel- 
ton conferred upon me, and as I conceive he had his Majesty's order for it, was with- 
out any Commission. Whilst he was at Glasgow he convened the officers of the six 

14 THE SCOTS ARMY,, 1661-1688 

Companies and told them that they were to be commanded by me as Lieut.-Col. to his 
Majesty's regiment of guards, and to receive orders from me, which they heartily sub- 
mitted to. In which charge I have so carried myself that I hope none has just cause 
of complaint. 

" My Lord, I hope your lordship will signify this to his Majesty, in obedience to his 
royal commands. I am so sensible of your lordships favour and kindness, that I know 
not how to express myself or return thanks. I shall only entreat your lordship will 
look upon me as 

"My Lord, 
" Your lordship's faithful and 

" humble servant, 


" I pray God to bless and preserve our gracious master and I shall not be afraid of 
my private condition although it be bad enough. I desire your lordship to remember 
I have no foot company." 

This letter conclusively disposes of the statement that Lord Linlithgow was appointed 
Colonel of the Foot Guards in 1660. There seems little reason to doubt that Lord 
Middleton had hopes of being made Colonel-in-Chief of the new raised Begt. of Foot 
Guards hence Lord Linlithgow's appointment as Lieut.-Colonel without a Company. Sir 
James Turner records in his Memoirs that he did not receive his Commission as Major and 
Captain " till a year and a half after his appointment when the King sent him one. ' This 
was 12 Feb. 1664, and we may take it that Lord Linlithgow received at the same time his 
Commission as Colonel and Captain. An undated and hitherto unpublished letter from 
the Earl of Rothes to Lauderdale (Add. MS. 23121, fol. 26, modern spelling) begins as 
follows : 

" My deare Lord. 

" I have this day received the Commissions for the officers and have already spoke 
with the Earl of ' Linlitheu ' and ' turner ' who are very well satisfied with what 
is resolved upon, neither could it be otherwise for I found their inclinations tending 
that way before I delivered it to you as my opinion." 

When Linlithgow was made Colonel of the Foot Guards and given a Company the post 
of Lt.-Colonel became vacant. So far as can be ascertained it was not filled up till 28 July, 
1666, when Turner was promoted (Memoirs'). Between 1664-1666 Lt.-Colonel George 
Curror and Lt.-Col. Win. Borthwick had succeeded the Duke of Lenox and the Earl of 
Mar as Captains in the Foot Guards, these two noblemen having respectively the command 
of Independent Companies at Dumbarton and Stirling. Lt.-Col. James Alexander was 
also given a Company before 1666. In July, 1666, his Majesty caused his Regiment 
of Guards to be increased from seven to ten Companies. In Sept., 1667, the three 
companies added the previous year were struck off the strength of the Guards, "and 
sent to France to serve under Lord George; Douglas in that Kingdom." The King's 
letter to the Privy Council of Scotland, dated 29 October, 1667 (p. 17) gives the names of 
the field officers and senior captain of the Foot Guards ; and the " Establishment of his 
Majesty's Forces in Scotland," "dated at Whitehall, 8 October, 1667 " (Appendix) fixes the 
rate of pay for the officers and soldiers of the seven Companies of Guards. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 15 



George, Earl of Linlithgow. 1 

Sir James Turner. 2 

Col. Win. Urrie. 8 



Major Alex. Thomson. 4 
Lt.-Col. James Alexander. 6 
Lt.-Col. George Curror. 6 
Lt.-Col. Wm. Borthwick. 7 
[James] Leith. 8 
[Adam] Rutherford. 9 
[Patrick] Melville. 10 

Dr. Christopher Irvine. 11 

1 See special memoir as a Commander-in-Chief . 

3 Wrote his autobiography and the Pallas Armala. Eldest son of Patrick Turner, 
Minister successively of Borthwick and Dalkeith. Educated at Glasgow University ; M.A. 
1631. Enlisted in Sir James Lumsden's Regiment in the service of Gustavus Adolphus. 
Attained the rank of Captain in the German wars. Appointed Major of the Earl of 
Kirkcudbright's Regiment in the Covenanting Army in 1640, though he never took the 
Covenant, when said Army lay at Newcastle. Within a year was sent to Ireland 
as Major of Lord Sinclair's Regt. to fight against the Irish Rebels. After the 
surrender of Newry to the English Turner returned to Scotland, 1644. Rejoined the 
Covenanting Army and invaded England, 1645. Appointed Adjt. General of the 
Scots Army, 1647. Joined the Duke of Hamilton's Army ("Engagers") raised to 
invade England and rescue Charles I. Hamilton's forces were routed at Preston by 
Cromwell, and Turner surrendered himself prisoner to Lilburn at Uttoxeter 25 Sept. 
1648. Imprisoned at Hull for 15 months. Released by Fairfax and allowed to go abroad. 
Returned to Scotland in 1650, and landed at Aberdeen 2 Sept. Appointed Adjt.-General 
and Colonel in the Royalist Scots Army. Fought at Worcester, and was taken prisoner. 
Escaped and joined Charles II. in Paris. Was employed by Charles II. on diplomatic 
missions. Knighted at the Restoration. Appointed Major of the Scots Foot Guards in 
Sept., 1662. Lt.-Col. 28 July, 1666. " Resorted to his old method of billeting soldiers on 
recalcitrant Covenanters, and extorting fines" (Diet. Nat. Biog.). This was one of the 
causes of the Pentland Insurrection. Taken prisoner by the Covenanters at Dumfries in 
Nov. 1666. Made his escape same month. Was subsequently tried by Charles II's orders 
for cruelty and oppression. Deprived of his commission in March, 1668. Appointed 
Major of the Scots Dragoons, 25 Nov. 1681. Md. Mary White, an Irish lady. 

3 Son of John Urry, " of the most ancient and noble family of the Urrys of Pitficliie 
in the county of Aberdeen," and younger brother to Major-General Sir John Urry, who 
changed sides more than once during the Civil Wars, and was eventually beheaded at 
Edinburgh, 29 May, 1650 (see Appendix). Wm. Urry was a staunch Royalist. In 1648 
he was wounded in an engagement while serving in Scotland under General Middleton 
(Turner's Memoirs). In 1651 Col. Urry joined the Northern Royalists under Middleton, 

16 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

and we find the signature " W. Horrie " attached to the manifesto issued by the " Northern 
Band and Oath of Engagement" (Cromwell's Scotch Campaigns, 1650-1651, by W. S. 
Douglas, p. 159 note). When the Scottish Forces were re-modelled in Oct. 1667, Col. Wm. 
Urry's majority was, by the King's orders, given to Sir James Turner (whose former post 
of Lt.-Colonel had been bestowed on the Earl of Kellie) and Urry made senior Captain 
(p. 17). On 3 March, 1668, Urry succeeded Turner as Major, and held this post until 
his death, which occurred at Glasgow in the autumn of 1673. He had a Grant of Arms in 
1672-3. His Will was proved at Glasgow 18 Dec. 1674 (see Appendix). Col. Wm. Urry 
left issue by his wife (Jane Scott), a son John Urry, Editor of Chaucer, whose memoir is 
given in the Diet. Nat. Biog. 

* A devoted Royalist. His parentage and early services have not been traced. He is 
believed to have served with General Middleton's forces at Loch Garry (in which engage- 
ment the Royalists were signally defeated in June, 1654, by General Morgan) and to be 
identical with the Thomson named in the Queen of Bohemia's letter to Secretary 
Nicholas, dated from the Hague, 29 Sept. 1654 : " There reached here one Thomson, one 
I have seene before : he tells all the particulars of the defeat that is so bragged of. He 
saith they were dispersed upon it, but it is aboue fiue weekes since he came from thence, 
being come thourough (sic) England by his countrie, the borders, where in his passage he 
mett with a partie where he was hurt and lamed, but for all that he is gone to the King. 
He much complains of diuisions amongst them " (Evelyn's Diary, Vol. IV., ed. 1854, pp. 
211, 212). Major Thomson was with his Company in Edinburgh at the time of the Pent- 
land Rising, and helped to keep order in the City. Knighted about 1667. He died 18 Oct., 
1667, and was buried in the High Church, Glasgow, where is a monument to his memory, 
with a Latin inscription which has been thus translated : 

" Consecrate to the memory of Sir Alexander Thomson, Knight, sometime a most 

famous, valiant, and most vigilant Captain in the King's forces, who fell asleep in the 

Lord piously and pleasantly, 18 October, 1667. 

" The nation's honour, virtue's love, renown, 
Adorn'd this Captain, while the earth upon ; 
His lasting fame, reporting what he was, 
Will far surpass a monument of brass. 

" This grave is sacred, venerable dust ; 
For, here are laid the ashes of the just. 
Life did bring death to me ; but, here's my gain, 
By death I do a better life obtain." 

Dame Janet Balvaird, relict of Sir Alex. Thomson, Knt., d. in 1705, and her Will was proved 
at Edinburgh that year. See Appendix. 

6 Eighth and youngest son of Wm., 1st Earl of Stirling. Entered the University of 
Glasgow, 1635, and subsequently served in the Royalist Army. Md., 1st, 16 Aug. 1656, 
Margaret, dau. of Capt. David Scrimgeour, and secondly, about 1668, Grizel, dau. of James 
Hay, 2nd son of George Hay, 2nd Earl of Kinnoull, by whom he had a dau. Margaret, 
bapt. 23 June, 1669, one of the witnesses at which ceremony being George, Earl of Linlith- 
gow (Memorials of the Earl of Stirling and House of Alexander, Vol. I., pp. 257, 258). 
Left the Army 2 Dec. 1668. Under date of 9 Dec. 1671 is recorded the burial of Colonel 
James Alexander in the Register of Greyfriars' Church, Edinburgh. 

6 A certain George Curror was of Houdone, Co. Selkirk, in 1648. On the Committee 
of War for Co. Selkirk, 1648-9. He had to pay 600 at the Restoration, for delinquency 
during the Usurpation, before receiving a free pardon (Acts of the Parliament of Scotland). 
Under date of 10 Oct. 1667, there is a " Precept to Sir Wm. Sharp for paying to the 
Companies of Capts. Alexander, Borthwick, and Currier, three months preceding the 1st 
Oct., amounting to 11,340" (Treasury Records). Lt.-Col. Curror was knighted before 
20 Sept. 1671, when "Protection" was granted to him for 3 years (Cal. S.P. Dom.). 
Commanded the Troops in Glasgow, 1670 (see Curror's letter to Lord Linlithgow in 
Appendix). Md. Elizabeth Lesley, 2nd dau. of Sir John Lesley, of Warden, and widow 
of Gordon of Cluny. This lady was a Roman Catholic, and in a " Return of Papists found 
in the liberties of Westminster, 1678," appears the name " Lady Currier " (House of Lords' 
MSS.). Sir George Curror d. about Sept. 1673. 

7 Son of Col. Wm. Borthwick, of Johnstonburn. Raised a Company of Foot for 
Charles I. Was a devoted Royalist, and employed by Charles II. when in exile on secret 
missions. Applied to the Protector for a pass to Scotland in Sept. 1655. " He obtained 
his pass, but the Scottish Council laid a trap for him, and allowed him to return in order 
to obtain intelligence through intercepting him. His brother, Major James Borthwick, 

- ' I ' 


The Earl 

of Linlithgow's 

Commission from 

Charles II as 

Colonel of the 


of Foot (the 

present Scots 


. . 



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5. JrrwJina fo 


':'- '"' I 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 17 

was in their pay and betrayed him to them" (Scotland and the Protectorate, p. 182). 
Appointed Captain in the Foot Guards in April, 1667. " I perceive Coll. Borthwick comes 
hither a Captain," wrote Genl. Drummond to Lauderdale from Edinburgh, 16 Apr., 1667, 
"and I am glad your Lordship finds any way to get him bread" (Add. MS. 23126, . 161). 
Promoted Major of the Foot Guards, 15 Nov. 1673. Ketired in 1680. Had a pension of 
100 per ann., 12 June, 1680. Md. Eliz. Maxwell. He and his spouse were granted a 
Charter 28 July, 1671, " to them and the heirs of their bodies the half of the lands and the 
barony of Dechmont pertaining to the said Elizabeth as the eldest co-parcener of her 
father" (Cat. S.P. Dom.). Col. Wm. Borthwick died in Nov., 1688, and was bd. on llth 
in the Greyfriars' Churchyard. He left a son William (dejure llth Lord Borthwick), who 
was killed, while serving as Colonel of a Scots Regiment, in the Dutch Service, at Ramillies, 

8 , a , 10 These three officers and their respective companies were transferred from Lord 
(Jeorge Douglas's Regt. of Scots Foot to the Scots Foot Guards in the summer of 1666. 
In Sept., 1667, the three Companies were disarmed and disbanded at Burntisland by Sir 
James Turner (Turner's Memoirs, p. 198). These disbanded soldiers, and their officers, 
were then embarked at Leith for Dover. Under date of 3 Oct. 1667, we find a " Pass for 
Captains Melville, Rutherford, and Leith, with their Companies of Scotch soldiers, 109 
each, from Leith to Dover" (Cal. S.P. Dom.). And a later Dover notice records that : 
" Four (sic) Companies of Scotch soldiers have been shipped for France [from the Downs] 
and went on board without trouble " (Ibid.). Captain Adam Rutherford was son of John 
Rutherford of Glennysland, a baillie of Jedburgh. According to the printed Rutherford 
pedigree (by T. Cockburn Hood) Adam Rutherford attained the rank of Major in Lord 
Dumbarton's Regt. 

11 See p. 4, note 4. 


NOVEMBER, 1667. 

" Whereas Wee have reduced Our Forces near to the number they were 
before the Warres, and have appointed the Earle of Linlithgow to be 
Colonell of Our Regiment of ffoote. Wee do think fitt and hereby autho- 
rize you, to give orders for placing the Earle of Kellie, 1 Lt.-Colonell of that 
Our Regiment, and the rest of the Officers the places they were in before. 
That is to say, Sir James Turner, Major, Colonell Urrie first Captaine, 
and the rest of the Officers as they are now placed according to Our 
Establishment. Wee shall speedily send them Commissions. At White- 
hall, 29 October, 1667. 

" By his Majesty's command, 

"To his Majesty's Privy Council in Scotland." 

1 Sir James Turner records in his Memoirs how he handed over the Lieut.-Colonelcy of 
the Scots Foot Guards to the Earl of Kellie on 2 Nov. 1667. See letters from this noble- 
man on p. 34, and biog. notice on p. 35. 

18 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Capt. Ratray. 1 
Lt. Col. James Mercer. a 
Capt. Patrick Wishart. 3 
Win. Crichton. 4 


Joseph Douglas. 8 
Charles Alexander. 6 
Capt. Patrick Middletoun. 7 
Capt. Wm. Dundas. 8 


Capt. Wm. Dundas." 

* The names of officers given above are taken from contemporary muster-rolls, memoirs, 
&c., as mentioned in the following annotations. 

1 Referred to in Sir James Turner's Memoirs as being his lieutenant in 1663. 

2 Col. James Mercer of Aldis, Co. Perth, had a Kegt. of Horse in 1651 (Ealfoui'a Annals, 
Vol. IV., p. 300). Served under Middleton in 1654 and was taken prisoner. James Grant, 
in A Constable of France, refers to some old Muster Rolls of the Scots Guards in his 
(the author's) possession, and records the fact that Lt.-Col. James Mercer appears in a Roll, 
earlier than 1672, as a Lieutenant. He d. before " 17 Nov. 1684" on which date, "Jane, 
widow of Colonel James Mercer," was bd. in the Greyfriars' Churchyard, Edinburgh. 

3 Third son of Dr. George Wishart, Bishop of Edinburgh. In a Muster Roll of the 
Scots Guards, circa 1672, formerly in possession of James Grant the novelist and referred 
to by him (see note 2). Capt. P. Wishart appears as Lieut, to Lord Livingston's Company. 
In the "Privy Council Registers" there is an order dated 2 March, 1669, addressed to the 
Earl of Linlithgow, " to remove that party of sojours sent to the north under the command 
of Captain Wishart from their present quarters, and to quarter them within the burgh of 
Inverness till further order" (Acts of the Privy Council, 1667-1673, p. 198). Captain 
Wishart was one of the jury at the trial of the notorious James Mitchell, for the attempted 
murder of the Archbishop of St. Andrews in 1668, held at Edinburgh 10 Feb. 1674. It is 
interesting to know that Captain Wishart had been transported to Barbados, with other 
Scots officers, in 1654, by the Cromwellian General in Scotland, but being bought, and set 
at liberty, by Lt.-Col. Browne, a Scots farmer in Barbados, Wishart was able to return to 
Scotland. General Monk to the Protector, 8 Feb. 1654-5, printed in Scotland and the 
Protectorate, p. 247. 

4 Possibly the Wm. Crichton who was a younger brother to the 1st Viscount Fendraught. 
Several precepts for payments, between 1667 and 1671, appear in the Treasury Papers addressed 
to Lieut. Wm. Crichton of Lord Linlithgow's Regt. of Foot Guards. On 10 Aug. 1688 
James VII. wrote to the Privy Council in Scotland " ordering an allowance, at the rate of 
two-thirds of his daily pay, to be given to Wm. Crichton, late Lieut, to Capt. Robert 
Murray in the Regt. of Guards, by reason of his great age and disablement from service." 
Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XIII. 

s This officer's name is taken from the MS. Records of the Scots Foot Guards compiled 
by Mr. Andrew Ross, Ross Herald. The date of his appointment as Ensign in the Guards 
is given in aforesaid Records as " 1669." He is probably identical with the Joseph Douglas 
who was page to Archibald, Earl of Angus, in 1655. In a list of Lord Angus's debts, 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 19 

13 Jan. 1655, appears : "To Joseph Douglas my lord's padge half yeir's fie 33 6. 8d." 
The Douglas Book, Vol. IV., p. 338). In July, 1666, was a Lieut, in Lord George Douglas's 
Regt. of Scots Foot (English Army Lists, Vol. I., p. 63). The Register of burials in 
Greyfriars' Churchyard for 1674 records the burial of a child of Captain Joseph Douglas. 

8 This officer's name is taken from the MS. Records of the Scots Foot Guards referred 
to in note 5. The date of his appointment as Ensign in the Guards is given as 1669. Son 
of Charles Alexander, 5th son of 1st Earl of Stirling and nephew to Lt.-Col. James 
Alexander. D. in 1676. See Comn. of Alex. Livingstone to be Ens. vice Alexander, 
25 June, 1676. 

7 This officer's name is given in an old Muster Roll of the Scots Guards, formerly the 
property of the late James Grant, novelist. Patrick Middleton appears as Ensign to Lord 
Livingston's Company in said Roll, which is dated 4 Sept. 1672. Further services untraced. 

" There are several precepts for payments to Capt. Wm. Dundas, Qr.-Mr. to Lord 
Linlithgow's Regt. of Foot Guards, between 1667 and 1671, among the Treasury Papers. His 
name also appears as Ensign in the undated Muster Roll of the Scots Foot Guards referred 
to in note 2. Capt. Wm. Dundas was promoted Lieut. 15 June, 1672. Held the post of 
Qr.-Mr. until 4 March, 1681, when his name disappeared from the regiment. 


" George, Earle of Linlithgow, 1 to comand that Our 
Regiment of ffoote, consisting of seaven companyes, 
in the quality of Colonell thereof - - 

" Whitehall the 19th August, 1668." 

[George, Lord Livingston, 3 to be Captain in above 

Regiment- - Whitehall, Sept., 1668.] 

[John Wynram s to be Captain of that Company in our 
Regt. of Guard whereof Lieut. -Colonel James Alex- 
ander was late Captain - Whitehall, 2 Dec., 1668.] 

1 A fac-simile of Lord Linlithgow's Commission, in the Editor's possession, is given in 
this volume. 

1 The register of Lord Livingston's Commission as Capt. in the Foot Guards is not 
forthcoming but is referred to in the following extract from Lord Lauderdale's letter to 
Col. Wm. Borthwick, dated " Whitehall, 3 Sept. 1668 " : " I have by Colonel Scot sent 
home all the commissions for the King's regiment. Present my humble service to EfarlJ 
of Linlithgow. Tell him my Lord his sones commission is signed and sealed, but the King 
commanded me to keep it till there be a vacancie because of the precedent." (MS. at 
Register House, Edinburgh.) See biog. notice of George, Lord Livingston, on p. 7. 

3 The register of this officer's Commission as Capt. in the Foot Guards is not forthcoming 
but is referred to in a letter, preserved at the Register House, Edinburgh, from Lord 
Lauderdale to Lord Linlithgow, dated " Whitehall 2 Dec. 1668 " : " The King haveing 
been gratiously pleased, upon the demission of Lieut. Colonell James Alexander to prefer 
this gentleman, Mr. Wynram, to the command of that Company whereof the sayd James 
Alexander was formerly Captain, I shall earnestly intreat your Lordship to show him all 
the kindness you can in justice, not only upon the account of my recomendation, but 
alsoe of the great sufferings which both his father and himself e have sustained by reason 
of their loyaltie and adherence to the King's service." John Winraham, eldest son of 
Lord Liberton, was promoted Major of the Scots Foot Guards 8 Jan. 1681 and Lt.-Colonel 
20 June, 1682. D. in 1687 and was bd. in Greyfriare' Churchyard 2 Sept. 1687. His 
Will was proved at Edinburgh 26 Nov. 1687. See Appendix. 

H 2 

20 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Archibald Stewart 1 to be Lieut, to Col. Wm. Urrie in 
the Regt. of Foot commanded by the Earl of Lin- 
lithgow - - Whitehall, 2 March, 1671. 

James Maitland, 2 Yr., to be Ensign to Col. Wm. Urrie in 

above Regiment - Whitehall, 8 April, 1671. 

[John Hay, s Captain-Lieutenant of the Earl of Linlith- 

gow's Company in the Regt. of Guards - 1671 ?] 

1 Warrant Bk. for Scotland, Vol. I. Of Dunearn in Fife. Fourth son of James 4th 
Earl of Moray. Capt. in the Scots Guards 15 Nov. 1673. Appointed Lieut.-Gov. of 
Stirling Castle and Lieut, of an Indep. Cy. of Foot in said garrison, 1 Dec. 1682. Comns. 
renewed by James VII., 30 March, 1685. Promoted Capt. of the Indep. Cy. at Stirling 
Castle, 24 Feb. 1686. Succeeded in above posts by Lt.-Col. Wm. Middleton 28 March, 

2 Ibid. Son of Capt. James Maitland (see his Comn. as Capt. in the Guards under 
date of 1 Nov. 1677 and note thereto). Lieut. 15 Nov. 1673. In Dec. 1677 Lieut. James 
Maitland of the Guards was sent to Lisburn, in the north of Ireland, by the Duke of 
Lauderdale, with letters from the Scottish Council to Viscount Granard commanding the 
forces in the north. Said letters referred to " disorders in the Western Shires " and the 
co-operation of the Irish troops, under Lord Granard in case of a rising en masse of the 
Covenanters, with the King's troops in Scotland (Cal. of the Ormonde Papers, New Series, 
Vol. IV., pp. 71-72). Lieut. Maitland was with his regiment at Bothwell Bridge, in 1679, 
and both his name and his father's appear in the " List of some Persons to be gratified by 
his Majesty with shares out of the forfeitures of those that were in the late Rebellion " 
(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V.). Qr.-Mr. of the Foot Guards 4 March 1681. Capt.- 
Lieut. 13 Sept. 1687. Capt. 18 June, 1688. Out of the Regt. before Jan. 1689. 

8 Appears in the Muster-Roil of 4 Sept. 1672 as " Capt.-Lieut." Son of Col. John Hay 
of Barra. Promoted Capt. in the Foot Guards 8 Jan. 1681. D. in June, 1688. 



Alex. Livingston 1 to be Ensign to the Earl of Linlithgow's 

own Cy. in the latter's Regiment - - Whitehall, 15 June, 1672. 

Wm. Dundas 2 to be Lieut, to Sir George Curror's Cy. in 

above Regiment - Whitehall, 

Wm. Cleland* to be Ensign to Sir George Curror's Cy. 

in do. - Whitehall, ,, 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. II. Younger son of the 3rd Earl of Linlithgow. 
Capt. in the Foot Guards 9 Jan. 1680. Comn. renewed by James VII. 30 March, 1685. 
Left the Army same year on succeeding to the title of Earl of Calendar by the death of 
his uncle, the 2nd Earl, in August, 1685. D. in Dec. 1692. 

Ibid. See p. 19, note 8. 

8 Ibid. Of Faskine, Co. Lanark. Received a share out of the " Forfeitures " for his 
services at Bothwell Bridge. Appointed Lieut, of a " Company " of Dragoons 21 May, 1678 
and Capt.-Lieut. of the Scots Dragoons when this corps was raised in Nov. 1681. Capt. 
11 May, 1683. Was very active in harrying the Covenanters in the West. Killed in action 
18 June, 1685, at Muirdyke, Renfrewshire, when bravely leading his dismounted troop 
against a strong position held by a party of the Earl of Argyll's followers under Sir John 
Cochrane of Ochiltree. Memoirs of Wm. Veitch, &c., by McCrie, p. 325. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 21 


John Drummond 1 of Lundin (second son to the Earl of 
Perth) to be Captain of the Cy. of Sir George Curror, 
deed, in the Earl of Linlitbgow's Regt. of Guards , 19 Sept., 1673. 

Col. Wm. Borthwick 2 to be Major of above Regt. in the 
room of Col. Wm. Urrie, deed., and Captain of Urrie's 
late Cy. - - Whitehall, 15 Nov., 1673. 

Archibald Stuart 8 (brother to the Earl of Moray) to be 

Captain of Colonel Borthwick's late Cy. - Whitehall, 

James Maitland 4 to be Lieut, of Borthwick's, late Urrie's 

Cy., in room of Archibald Stuart - - Whitehall, ,, 

Archibald Stuart 5 to be Ensign of the same Cy. in room 

of James Maitland - - Whitehall, 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. II. Second son of James, 3rd Earl of Perth. Re- 
signed his Comn. in the Guards, 13 Oct. 1677, on being appointed Lieut, of the Indep. 
Company in Edinburgh Castle and Lieut.-Governor of said fortress. In June, 1679, was 
sent by the Privy Council with a despatch to the Duke of Monmouth, then marching against 
the Covenanters, and thus it happened that John Drummond of Lundin " had the good 
fortune to be an actor, as well as a witness, in this engagement at Bothwell Brig" (Privy 
Council to the Duke of Lauderdale). Appointed Master-General of the Ordnance, 13 Oct. 
1680. Macky tells us how Lundin got into favour with James, Duke of York : " Drum- 
mond of Lundin was Lieut.-Governor of Edinburgh Castle in 1680 when the Duke of York 
and his Duchess visited the county. Being very handsome, and a fine dancer, he got into 
H.R.H.'s favour as to be made Lord Treasurer Deputy ; and on their Highnesses arrival in 
London he was sent for to Court and made Secretary of State " (Drummond Memoirs, p. 243). 
When James VII. ascended the throne Lundin was created Viscount Melfort, and in the 
following year was advanced to the Earldom of Melfort. K.T. in 1687. Retired to 
France with James VII., who gave Melfort the titular title of Duke. On 23 July, 1694, 
Melfort being then in France was declared an outlaw by the Court of Justiciary and 
attainted by Act of Parliament. D. at St. Germains in January, 1714. 

8 Ibid. See p. 16, note 7. 

3 Ibid. See p. 20, note 1. 

* Ibid. See p. 20, note 2. 

5 Ibid. Left the Regt. as an Ensign in Dec. 1688. Possibly a cadet of the Stewarts of 
Burray. A certain Archibald Stewart was appointed Cornet in Lord Cardrosa's Regt. of 
Dragoons in Dec. 1690. 

22 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



James Carnegie 1 of Phinhaven Windsor Castle, 25 Aug., 1674. 


[Robert] Dobie 2 - Whitehall, 4 Sept., 1674. 


[John] Inglis 8 - 

Sir John Moncreeff 4 - Windsor Castle, 25 Aug., 1674. 


James Murray s - - Whitehall, 4 Sept., 1674. 


[Hugh] Moncreeff 6 - 

t> ti 


James Dalinahoy 7 to be Lieut, of the Earl of liellie's Cy. 

in the Regt. of Guard in Scotland - - Whitehall, 19 May, 1674. 
Charles Dalmahoy 8 to be Ensign to the Earl of Kellie's 

Cy. in above Regt. - - - Whitehall, 19 Nov., 1674. 

* Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. II. 

1 James Carnegie, of Finhaven, Co. Forf ar, was second son of David 2nd Earl of Northesk. 
M.P. for Forfar, 1669-1674, and for Forfarshire, 1686. Served at Bothwell Bridge. Resigned 
his Commission in the Guards in Jan. 1680. Md. in 1674, Anna 2nd dau. of Margaret 
Lundin, lady of that Ilk, and Robert Maitland brother of John, Duke of Lauderdale. D. at 
Edinburgh, 10 March, 1707. Bd. in the Abbey Church. 

3 Of Stonyhill, East Lothian. Comn. renewed by James VII. 30 March, 1685. Be- 
lieved to have accompanied the Foot Guards to England in Oct. 1688. Out of the Regt. 
before Jan. 1689. Served with the Highland Army under Major-General Cannon in the 
spring of 1690. Attainted. 

3 Appointed Capt. of a " Company of Dragoons," 21 May, 1678. Capt. in the Regt. of 
Scots Dragoons, 25 Nov. 1681. Served at Drumclog and Bothwell Bridge and had a share 
of the " Forfeitures." Fell into disfavour with Claverhouse who did not think him a 
competent officer. On the accession of James VII. Inglis was superseded ; but before he 
quitted his post he served with his Troop in the West of Scotland against the Rebels. It is 
evident that Inglis was employed in April, 1685, to escort some prisoners to Edinburgh, and 
that, designedly or not, he lost them ! " I hope Captain English (sic) will be punished as 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 23 

he deserves," wrote the Earl of Moray to the Duke of Queensberry, 3 May, 1685, " for 
losing the prisoners. I had before I heard of that signed a commission for George Windram, 
for English his troop." Report on the Duke of Bucileuch'n MSS. at Drumlanrig Castle, 
Vol. I., p. 107. 

4 Moncrei/ of Moncreiff. Succeeded his father as 2nd Bart, in 1650. Sold the estate of 
Moncreiff in 1663. D. unm. 1679. 

5 Promoted Capt. 15 Jan. 1676. Major 20 June, 1682. Lt.-Colonel 13 Sept. 1687. 
Under date of 19 April, 1688, Sir John Lauder chronicles: "It was insinuated to Lt.- 
Colonel James Murray, Philiphaugh's uncle, that the King was to put the Lord Fendraught, 
a Papist, in his place [as Lt.-Colonel of the Guards] which was afterwards done in June and 
ane pension given to him fixed him upon the pay " ( ffixtoriciil Notices, p. 866). " On the 
3 Aug. 1689 Lt. -Col. James Murray was appointed Lieut, of the Indep. Company in Edin- 
burgh Castle, and Lieut.-Governor of said Castle by Warrant dated 30 Nov. same year " 
( Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XIV.). Superannuated in Aug. 1692 and a pension of 
250 per annum allowed him. Luttrell's Diary, Vol. II., p. 557. 

B Brother to Sir John Moncreiff. Promoted Lieut. 15 Jan. 1676. See last-named Com- 
mission on p. 24 where he is called " Hugh Moncreef " and note thereto. 

7 Comn. as Lieut, renewed by James VII. 1685. Believed to have accompanied the 
Foot Guards to England in Oct. 1688. Out of the Regt. before Jan. 1689. 

Out of the Regt. before 30 March, 1685. 

24 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



The Commissions given below appear in the Warrant Book for 

Scotland, Vol. III. 

James Murray ' to be Captain of the new Cy. of Foot 
added to Our Guards, in which Regt. he is at present 
Lieut, to Sir John Moncreef - Whitehall, 15 Jan. 107(5. 

Patrick Ogilvy 2 of Murie to be Lieut, to Capt. James 

Murray - Whitehall, ,, 

Patrick Auchmoutie s to be Ensign of above Cy. ,, ,, 


Hugh Moncreef 4 (brother german to Sir John Moncreef 

of that Ilk) to be Lieut, of Sir John MoncreefsCy. 

Whitehall, 15 Jan., 1G70. 
George Murray 6 (brother german to Mr. Thomas Murray 

of Glendoik, one of the Senators of the College of 

Justice) to be Ensign of Sir John Moncreef's Cy. 

John Strachan 6 to be Ensign of Lt.-Col. the Earl of 

Kellie's Cy. in the Guards Whitehall, 21 Feb., 1C7G. 

Alex. Livingstoune 7 to be Ensign to Capt. John Winram 

of Libertoun (in place of Ensign James (sic} Alexander 

lately deed.) in Our Regt. of Guards- - Whitehall, 25 June, 1070. 

* Charles II.'s letter to the Privy Council, dated 23 Dec. 1675, orders " 100 men to be 
chosen and drawne out of the severall disbanded Companies [of Sir George Monro's Regt. 
of 800 men] and to be formed into a new Company which is to be added to Our Regt. of 
Guards." Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III. 

1 See p. 23, note 5. 

2 Served previously as Lieut, in Sir G. Monro's Regt. Attained the rank of Captain in 
the Scots Foot Guards 28 Feb. 1689. Left the Regt. 25 Dec. 1690. 

3 Commission as Ensign renewed by James VII. Lieut. 13 Sept. 1687. Out of the Regt. 
before Oct. 1688. In a " List of Rebels in France, 1695," appears " Lieut. Patrick Auch- 
moutie, sometime of the Guards." Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, Vol. IX., App. 115u. 

4 Hugh Moncreiff was succeeded as Lieut, of this Company by his brother David. See 
List of the Foot Guards on the accession of James VII. given in this volume. 

5 Left the Regt. 3 Jan. 1680. 

6 Possibly son of Sir John Strachan named on p. 68 as having mustered Lord Annandale's 
Troop. John Strachan was appointed Lieut, in Sir George Monro's Regt. of Foot in 1674. 
Said Regt. was disbanded in the autumn of 1675. On 21 May, 1678, John Strachan was 
appointed Capt. of a " Company " of Dragoons in Scotland ; and on 25 Nov. 1681 received a 
Commission as Capt. in the Regt. of Scots Dragoons. This officer, as a cavalry soldier, left 
his mark in the Western shires and on the Borders. He accompanied his Regt. to England 
in Oct. 1688, and is believed to have left the Army soon after the accession of William III. 
On 31 July, 1706, a Royal Warrant was signed at Windsor granting " a yearly pension of 
50 per ann. to Captain John Strachan sometime Captain of a Troop of Dragoons in 
Scotland." Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XXII. 

7 Elder son of Sir Alexander Livingston of Craigengall and Beldormie, knt. (descended 
from a younger son of the 6th Lord Livingston) who md. Susanna Walker. Ensign Living- 
ston was appointed Dep. Governor of Blackness Castle, 19 Oct. 1681, and re-commissioned 
by James VII. 30 March, 1685. He md. in 1683 Henrietta Scott, dau. of Alex. Scott, 
goldsmith, burgess of Edinburgh, by whom he had a numerous family. D. 13 Nov. 1720. 
See Burke's Vicissitudes of Families. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 25 



Captain James Maitland 1 to be Capt. of the Cy. lately 
commanded in Our Guards by John Drummond of 
Lundin - Whitehall, 1 Nov., 1677. 

[George] Lord Rosse a to be Lt.-Col. of the King's Regt. 
of Guards in Scotland, vacant by the decease of the 
Earl of Kellie, and to be Capt. of a Cy. - Whitehall, 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV. Son of Robert Maitland of the Bass, who was 
connected with the early Lauderdale family. " Had been page to the Duke of Lauderdale 
but was ... a French officer and was making his leavyes in Scotland in the year 167(5 " 
(Hist. AfSS. Comn. llth Report, Appx. Pt. IV., p. 34). He fought at Bothwell Brig, and 
had a share of the " Forfeitures "( Treasury Register, 1673-1682). Major of the Scots 
Foot Guards, 13 Sept. 1687. Lt.-Colonel of do. 1 March, 1689. Bt.-Col. 1 March, 1691. 
Served with distinction as Brigadier-General in Flanders and was chosen to succeed the 
Earl of Leven as Colonel of the Regt. now known as the " King's Own Scottish Borderers," 
19 March, 1694. Major-General 1 Feb. 1705. Lt.-General 1 Jan. 1709. Governor of Fort 
William temp. Queen Anne. Retired in 1711. D. in 1716. Will proved at Edinburgh 
17 Dec. 1716. A pedigree of the family is in the possession of Mr. J. T. Maitland of 

" Ibid. Eleventh Baron Ross of Hawkhead. Commanded at Glasgow on the memor- 
able Sunday, 1st June, 1679, and marched with reinforcements to Claverhouse's assistance 
on hearing of the latter's defeat at Drumclog. Defended Glasgow when attacked by the 
late victorious Rebels, on 2 June, and repulsed the Covenanters with great loss. In his 
despatch to Lord Linlithgow, written the same evening, Ross says of the attack on Glasgow : 
" I am sure thes was the warmest day I saw the year " (Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., p. 166). 
D. in 1682 and was succeeded by his son Wm. Master of Ross, who had a Troop in Claver- 
house's Regt. 


Mr. John Creichton 1 to be Ensign to Lord Rosse's Cy. 
of Foot in H.M.'s Regt. of Guards, whereof the 
Earl of Linlithgow is Colonel and the Lord Rosse 
Lt.-Col. in said Regt. Whitehall, 27 Sept., 1678. 

Archibald Douglas 2 to be Ensign to Capt. [James] Car- 
negie of Phinhaven in above Regt. Whitehall, ,, 

Lewis Maitland 8 to be Ensign to Capt. James Maitland 

in above Regt. Whitehall, ,, ,, 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV. Com. renewed by James VII. in 1685. Out 
of the Regt. 13 Sept. 1687. 

a Ibid. Lieut. 19 June, 1688. Capt. 25 Dec. 1690. Bt.-Lt.-Col. 11 Sept. 1691. Served 
in Flanders. Out of the Regt. in 1697. 

3 Ibid. Served previously as Ensign in Sir George Monro's Regt. of Foot, and as Lieut, 
in Lord James Douglas's Regt. Out of the Foot Guards 9 Feb. 1684. 

26 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Wm. Innes * to be Captain of the deceased Sir John 
Moncreef's Cy. of Foot in the Regt. of Guard - 

Windsor Castle, 20 August, 1679. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. Third son of Sir Bobert Innes, Bt., of Inneg. 
Believed to be identical with Lieut. Wm. Innes of the English Foot Guards, who, in 1678, 
was appointed Captain-Lieut, of Sir John Goodricke's new-raised Regt. of Foot, which 
corps was disbanded in March, 1679. Capt. Wm. Innes's Comn. in the Scots Foot Guards 
was renewed by James VII. in March, 1685. Out of the Eegt. 30 Sept. 1690. 



Charles Auchmoutie 1 to be Ens. to Captain Innes's Cy. 
in the Regt. of Guard in place of George Murray 

Whitehall, 3 Jan., 1680. 

Alexander Livingstoun 2 to be Captain of that Cy. in 
the Regt. of Guard which was formerly commanded 
by James Carnegie of Phinhaven - Whitehall, 9 Jan., 1680. 

William Hay 8 (son to the deceased Mr. John Hay of 
Aberlady) to be Lieut, to the Lord Livingstoun's 
Cy. in the Regt. of Guard Whitehall, 11 Feb., 1680. 

George MacGill 4 (brother to Viscount Oxenford), to be 
Captain of that Company in Our Regt. of Guards, 
which was formerly commanded by Captain Archi- 
bald Steward (sic) - Windsor Castle, 1 June, 1680. 

Patrick Lyon 5 (2nd lawful son to the Earl of Strath- 
more) to be Captain in above Regt. in place of 
George, Lord Livingstoun - Windsor Castle, 18 July, 1680. 

I Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. Left the Regt. in Nov. 1683. 
* Ibid. See p. 20, note 1. 

II Hid. Aide Major 19 June, 1688. Capt. in same Regt. 28 Feb. 1689. Out of the 
Guards before Sept. 1691. 

4 Ibid. Major 1 March, 1689. 2nd Lt.-Colonel of the Foot Guards 1 Sept. 1691. Suc- 
ceeded Col. Maitland as Lt.-Colonel of the Guards 7 May, 1694. Served in Flanders 1689- 
1695. Colonel of a Regt. of Scots Foot, rice Robert Mackay, 13 Nov. 1695. Said Regt. 
was reduced in 1697. Col. McGill was appointed 2nd Colonel of the Scots Troop of Horse 
Grenadier Guards 12 May, 1702. 

5 Ibid. Of Auchterhouse. Left the Guards about Dec. 1688. Joined the Earl of Mar's 
insurrection in 1715, and was killed at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Nov. of same year. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 27 



John Winram 1 to be Major and Captain in Our Regt. of 
Guard in Scotland, commanded by the Earl of Lin- 
lithgow - Whitehall, 8 Jan., 1681. 

John Hay a of Baro to be Captain of that Cy. in Our 
Regt. of Guard, whereof Col. Wm. Borthwick was 
late Captain - Whitehall, ,, 

Robert Murray 3 (lawful son of Sir Robt. Murray, 
deed, sometime Provost of Edinburgh) to be Capt.- 
Lieutenant of the Earl of Linlithgow's own Company 
in latter's Regt. in place of John Hay of Baro - Whitehall, ,, 

Lieut. James Maitland 4 (Lieut, to Capt. John Hay's Cy.) 
to be Qr.-Mr. of the Regt. of Guard in place of 
Lieut. Wm. Dundas - Whitehall, 4 March, 1681. 

Robert Keith 5 to be Lieut, to Capt. James Maitland in 

above Regt., as also Aid Major to said Regt. Whitehall, 

Alexander Hamilton 6 to be Ensign to Captain MacGill's 

Cy .in Our Regt. of Guard - Whitehall, 7 April, 1681. 

Alexander Livingstoune 7 to be Ensign to Captain Lyon's 

Cy. in Our Regt. of Guard - " Whitehall, 27 Oct., 1681. 

George Winram, 8 Yr., to be Ensign to his father, Major 
John Winram, in his Majesty's Regt. of Guard 

Whitehall, 22 Nov., 1681. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. See p. 19, note 3. 
9 Ibid. See p. 20, note 3. 

3 Ibid. Of Melgum, Aberdeenshire. Captain 13 Sept. 1687. Major and Lt.-Col. 
1 Sept. 1691. Bt.-Colonel 1 June, 1693. Lt.-Col. of the Scots Foot Guards 13 Nov., 
1695. Served at the battle of Landen in 1693, and at the siege of Namur in 1695. 
Appointed Colonel of a Scots Regt. in the service of Holland 30 May, 1697 ; Brigadier- 
General 9 May, 1702 ; Major-General 14 April, 1704 ; Lt.-General 1 Jan. 1709. Served 
throughout Marlborough'a campaigns, and was Gov. of Tournay at his death in 1719. Is 
said to have been father of General Count Murray, who was Commander-in-Chief of the 
Emperor Joseph's forces in the Netherlands. 

* Ibid. See p. 21, note 4. 

4 Ibid. Capt. of Grenadiers in the Scots Foot Guards 19 June, 1688. Appointed Major 
of the Scots Fusiliers in 1689. In the Regimental Records of the last-named corps (21st 
Foot) Major Keith is stated to have been killed at the battle of Steinkirk. But Luttrell, in 
his Brief Historical Relation of State A/airs, 1678-1714, says, under date of 26 July, 1692 : 
" The following officers, said to be killed, are prisoners in the French camp, Colonels Eaton 
and Courthop and Major Keith" (Vol. II., p. 531). Major Robert Keith was appointed 
Lt.-Colonel of the Earl of Leven's Regt. of Foot 14 Sept. 1693 ; a Brigade-Major to the Foot 
in Flanders 18 June, 1695 ; Bt.-Colonel 23 Feb. 1705. 

'Ibid. Comn. renewed by James VII. in March, 1G85; Lieut. 19 June, 1688; 
additional rank of Captain 1 Oct. 1691. Possibly the Alex. Hamilton appointed Lt.-Col. 
of Sir David Colyear's Regt. of Scots Foot 9 May, 1694. 

7 Ibid. Lieut. 1 March, 1689. Out of the Regt. before 1 Oct. 1691. 

8 Ibid. Accompanied the Guards to England in Oct., 1688. Appointed Lieut, in Col. 
John Buchan's Scots Regt. before 1694. Wounded at the siege of Namur. Capt. in 
Buchan's Regt. 1 Aug. 1697. Half-pay same year. Appointed Capt. in Lord Mark Kerr's 
Regt. of Scots Foot in 1706. Was Major of last-named corps at the battle of Almanza in. 
1 707, where he was taken prisoner. Placed on half-pay as Lt.-Colonel in 1712. Living 1714. 

28 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Henry Straton 1 to be Lieut, to Major George MacGill in 

his Majesty's Regt. of Guard - Whitehall, 16 Jan., 1682. 

George Home 2 to be Captain of the new Company of 

Granadeers to be added to Our Regt. of Guard 

Windsor Castle, 19 June, 1682. 
Robert Somervell 3 (sic) to be 1st Lieut, to Capt. Home's 

Cy. of Granadeers in above Regt. - Windsor Castle, 

[Wm.] Davidson 4 to be 2nd Lieut, to above Cy. in said 

Regt. - Windsor Castle, 

John Winram 6 to be Lt.-Colonel of the Regt. of Guard 

in place of the deceased Lord Rosse, and Capt. of 

a Cy. - Windsor Castle, 20 June, 1682. 

James Murray 6 to be Major of the Regt. of Guard in 

place of Major John Winram, and Capt. of a Cy. 

Windsor Castle, ,, 

Charles Straton 7 to be Capt. of a Cy. in the Regt. of 

Guard in the place of deceased Lord Rosse 

Windsor Castle, ,, 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VI. Brother to Lieut. David Straiton of the Scots 
Fusiliers. Appointed Qr.-Mr. to the Scots Foot Guards 18 June, 1688. Out of the Eegt. 
same year. Living in 1710. See Will of Lieut. David Straiton in Appendix. 

' Ibid. Vol. VII. See p. 9, note 3. 

3 Ibid. Promoted Capt. 28 Feb. 1689. Out of the Regt. before Sept. 1691. Served 
as a Private in the Scots Company of Foot in the French Army, 1693. His name appears 
in the "List of Rebels in France, 2 July, 1695." See "An Account of Dundee's Officers 
after they went to France," in Memoirs of Viscount Dundee (printed in 1714), p. 105. 

4 Ibid. Promoted Capt. 28 Feb. 1689. Served in Flanders, 1690. Out of the Regt. 
before Oct. 1691. His name appears in the " List of Rebels in France, 2 July, 1695." Actt 
ofihe Parliament of Scotland, Vol. IX., Appx. p. 115. 

6 Ibid. See p. 19, note 3. 
Ibid. See p. 23, note 5. 

7 Ibid. Son of Capt. Robert Straiton, who was brother to Alexander Straiton of that 
Ilk (see Straiton Wills in the Appendix). Comn. renewed by James VII. in March, 1685. 
Left the Regt. as Capt. and Lt.-Colonel about Dec. 1688. " Creditor to Viscount Dundee 
for 5,000 marks by bond dated some years before the Revolution 1 ' (See his Petition in 
Thomson's Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, Vol. IX., Appx. p. 65). Appointed Qr.-Mr.- 
General in Scotland 27 March, 1707. Md. a dau. of Sir Andrew Forrester. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 29 


GUARDS, 27 JULY, 1683.* 

The Earl of Linlithgow, Colonel. 
John Winram, Lt.-Colonel. 
James Murray, Major. 
Lieut. James Maitland, Qr.-Mr. 
John Stevenson, Marshall. 

COMMISSIONS, 1683-1 084. 

Samuel Winram 1 to be Ensign to Capt. VVm. Innes in 

Our Regt. of Guards - Whitehall, 27 Nov., 1683. 

John Loudian 8 (sic) to be Ensign to the Earl of Linlith- 

gow's own Cy. in above Regt. Whitehall, 11 Dec., 1683. 

* From an original Muster Koll quoted in A Constable of France, by James Grant. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VIII. Promoted Lieut. 1 March, 1689. Out of the 
Guards before 1 Oct. 1691. In the "List of Scots Officers serving in France in 1693" 
appears " Capt. Samuel Winrame," and it is recorded that he served in Catalonia, and d. at 
Tourelles in the winter of 1693-4. Memoirs of Dundee's Officers, p. 113. 

" Ibid. Lothian. Lieut. 19 June, 1688. Believed to have accompanied the Guards to 
England in Oct. 1688. Out of the Regt. before 1 March, 1689. A certain " John Lawthian, 
portioner of King's Barns," had a Grant of Arms from the Lyon Office late in the 17th 
century. Add MS. 20701, Brit. Mug. 

30 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



John Baily * to be Surgeon to the Regt. of Our Guard 

Whitehall, 31 Jan., 1684. 

\Vm. Maine a to be Ensign to Capt. James Maitland's Cy. 

in above Regt. - Whitehall, 9 Feb., 1684. 

Alexander Urquhart 8 to be Captain of the Cy. of Grena- 
deers lately added to Our Regt. of Guard in Scot- 
land in room of George Home - - Whitehall, 21 May, 1684. 

Colonell James Douglas 4 to be Colonell of the Regiment 

of the Guard - Whitehall, 13 June, 1684. 

[Captain Thomas Hamilton 5 to be Capt. of the Cy. of 
Grenadiers in his Majesty's Regt. of Guards, in place 
of Capt. Alex. Urquhart killed in action - Whitehall, Jan., 1685] . 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VIII. Comn. renewed by James VII. in March, 
1685. Believed to have accompanied the Guards to England in Oct. 1688. Out of the 
Regt. before 1 March, 1689. 

Ibid. Lieut. 1 March, 1689. Out of the Regt. before 1 Oct. 1691. 

3 Ibid. Fifth son of Patrick Urquhart, of Meldrum, Co. Aberdeen. Had been Capt. 
in Dumbarton's Regt. An account of the action in which this officer lost his life is given 
in the special memoir of Lieut.-General James Douglas, in Part I. 

4 Commission register among the Earl of Moray's MSS. See special memoir. 

s Commission register not forthcoming, but referred to in Hist. MSS. Commission 
Report on the " Duke of Buccleuch's MSS. at Drumlanrig Castle," Vol. II., p. 203, in 
a letter f rotn the Earl of Moray to the Duke of Queensberry from " London, 3 Jan. 1685. 
. . . . Yesterday I receaved your Grace's [letter]. . . . I shoued it to the Duke [of York]. 
1 spock to him according to your Grace s commands for Capt. Hamilton and he most 
graciously accorded my desire ; and I have ordered his Commission to be wreaten and I 
hope to have it amongst the first peapers to pass his Majesty's Royall hands." The Capt. 
Hamilton in question was Thomas Hamilton of Little Preston, whose commission as Capt. 
in the Duke of Hamilton's Regt. of Militia, dated " 10 June, 1679," is preserved at the 
Register House, Edinburgh. Left the Guards at the Revolution. Served heir to his 
father, Sir Patrick Hamilton of Little Preston, Co. Haddington, in 1705. Shortly after 
1688, Col. Thos. Hamilton purchased "Olivestob" from his elder brother William. This 
estate is thus described in and its Surroundings (pp. 224-5) : 

" Olivestob, a gentleman's scat hard by Preston, was previously called ' Holy Stob,' 

i.e. the place where the ' Host stopt ' in the way of the procession from Preston to 

Newbattle, an abbey of the Cistercian order." 








i = 

1 t 

^ /"' 

| 5 


e ^ 
. i 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 31 



[John, Earl of Middleton, Constable and Governor]. 
[Capt. Robert Straiton, 1 Lieut. Governor]. 


[Charles, Duke of Lennox and Richmond, 3 Captain and Governor]. 
[Major George Grant, 8 Deputy Governor]. 

[John, Earl of Mar, 4 Captain and Governor]. 



John, Earl of Lauderdale, 5 Constable and Governor 8 June, 1664. 

[Sir Charles Erskine 6 of Cambo, Lieut.-Governor]. 


[Charles, Earl of Mar, 7 Captain and Governor in his 

father's place - 1668]. 

[Capt. George Erskine, 8 Deputy Governor 1668]. 

1 " Third lawful son to the ancient Baron of Lauriston or Straiton of that Ilk." 
(Matriculation Hegitter of Lyon's Office-of- Arms, 1672-1721). On 4 June, 1663, the King 
signed an order at Whitehall, which was countersigned by the Earl of Rothes, for liberating 
Lord Lome from Edinburgh Castle and said order was addressed to " Captain Bobert 
Straiton, Captain of Edinburgh Castle" (Wodrow, Vol. I., 1829 edition, p. 380). Robert 
Mein writing from Edinburgh, on 4 March, 1664, to Henry Muddiman says : " Edinburgh 
Castle was given up by Captain Robert Straton, deputy governor, to the Earl of Kelly, 
deputed by the Earl of Lauderdale who appointed his (Kelly's) brother, the Lord Lyon, 
as deputy governor. . . . The Earl of Rothes, Lord Treasurer, delivered up the keys 
of the Castle to the Earl of Kelly and the old Captain drank the King's health and gave 

32 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

them a dozen guns" (Cal. S.P.D.). Capt. Robert Straiten d. in 1674. See his Will in 

2 Sixth Duke of Lennox in Scotland and third Duke of Richmond in England. Created 
Earl of Lichfield in 1645. Raised a Company of Foot for garrisoning Dumbarton Castle 
in Sept. 1662. From his letter to Lauderdale given below it appears that Richmond had 
his eye on the Captaincy of the King's Life Guard in Scotland : 

"Cobham y e 11 of Sp 67 

" My Lord 

" I have heard from my Lord Duglas that my L d Nubrough is ded and w" 1 all 
your lo phs kind advice w ch I asure you I shall follow & if in any thing I can be 
servisable to you I shall be glad to expres my selfe 

" My Lord 

" Your lo phs most humbel Servant 

" Richmond & Lenox." 

(From the original at the Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 35125, f. 163). Drowned at Elsinore 
12 Dec. 1672, being at that time Ambassador to Denmark. Bd. in Westminster Abbey 
20 Sept. 1673. All his honours, excepting the Barony of Clifton (which devolved on his 
only sister Catherine, Lady Ibracken) became extinct. 

3 Fifth son of Sir John Grant of Fruichy. Major George Grant witnessed a document 
as " Governor of Dumbarton " on " 15 Aug. 1668." ( The Chiefs of Grant, Vol. III., p. 467). 
In 1675 he received a Commission to suppress robberies in the Highlands. His kinsman 
Wm. Grant of Cardells, writing to George Grant's brother, the Laird, on 30 Jan. 1661, 
says : " I wiss your mother had borne a grey ston quhen scho did bring forth Georg." 
(Ibid.) D. as Lieut.-Governor of Dumbarton Castle in 1681. 

4 Fourth Earl of Mar and ninth Lord Erskine. D. in Sept. 1668. See reference to his 
Company of Foot on p. 13. 

5 Comn. referred to in the Marquis of Queensberry's Comn. as Constable and Governor 
of Edinburgh Castle. Created Duke of Lauderdale in 1672. There is no need to enumerate 
the high posts bestowed on this historic personage by Charles II., who owed him a debt of 
gratitude for faithful service in the past, and for the nine long years spent by Lauderdale 
in the Tower of London after being taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester. For good 
or for bad, Lauderdale virtually governed Scotland from the Restoration until increasing 
bodily infirmities incapacitated him from work, and the uphill task of holding his own 
against the many enemies anxious to pull him down from his high position. The Duke 
died 20 Aug. 1682 at Tunbridge Wells, and was buried with great pomp in Haddington 
Church. He was succeeded as Constable and Governor of Edinburgh Castle by Wm., 
Marquis of Queensberry, in the Royal Warrant for whose Commission the date of Lauder- 
dale's appointment as given in the text is quoted. 

6 Younger brother to Alexander, 3rd Earl of Kellie. Governor of Dumbarton Castle 
1651. He served under Lieut.-General Middleton in the Scottish campaign of 1654 and 
was taken prisoner at the Braes of Angus same year. Appointed Lyon King of Arms in 
1663, and installed in Holyrood Abbey by the Earl of Rothes (Lament's Diary). Had the 
temporary appointment of Lieut.-Governor of Edinburgh Castle under the Earl of Kellie, 
the acting Constable. The Archbishop of Glasgow, writing to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury from Edinburgh, 26 Sept. 1664, refers to a riot which was quelled by " my Lord Lyon 
who came downe, with a few musquetiers, upon whose approach all fled " (Lauderdale Paj/ers, 
Vol. II., Appx. p. xiv.). Created a Bart, in 1666. Appointed Lieut, of the Earl of Lau- 
derdale's Company in Edinburgh Castle, 5 March, 1672. A letter from the King to the 
Lords of the Scottish Treasury, 5 Sept. 1673, directed them to appoint Sir Charles Erskine 
of Cambo " Overseer of the Arms and Keeper of the Magazine in Edinburgh Castle." And 
on 26 Feb. 1675 the King writes and orders Erskine as Lieut.-Governor of Edinburgh 
Castle to receive Wm. Carstairs, a political prisoner, into his safe keeping. A touching 
anecdote is told in McCormick's Life of Wm. Carstairs of Sir Charles Erskine's twelve-year 
old son who relieved the dreary monotony of Carstairs' imprisonment by sympathy, com- 
panionship, and kindness. Sir Charles retained his posts till his death in Feb. 1677. He 
was succeeded as 2nd Bart, by his son Alexander who was inaugurated Lyon King of Arms 
27 July, 1681. 

7 This nobleman raised the Regt. now known as the Scots Fusiliers in 1678. 
D. in 1689. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 33 

8 The following extract from the Acts of the Privy Council of Scotland refers to the 
above officer : 

"Apud Edinburgh quarto die Junii 1668. The lords of his Majesties Privy 
Council being informed that by y e care and diligence of Capt. George Erskein, 
Mr. Michaell Bruce a pretended minister who these diverse years by past hath made 
it his work to abuse y" people, and in contempt of the lawes presumed to keep 
frequent conventicles, preach, baptise, and administer y e sacraments, without any 
lawf ull warrand is made prisoner within y Castle of Stirling, ffor qch service the 
said lords doe think fitt to returne him their thankes, and order and command him 
that he keip the said Mr. Michaell Bruce in close prison and suffer no person to have 
access to him except it be phisitians or chirurgeons till further order." 

Capt. George Erskine was 2nd son of John, Earl of Mar, by his 2nd marriage. He was for 
many years Lieut, of the Independent Company in garrison at Stirling Castle. His death 
is said to have taken place at " Muckall, 21 June, 1676." The New Scottish Peerage. 

34 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 




Alex. Earl of Kellie. 1 



Robert Maitland. 

1 The following extracts from unpublished letters among the Lauderdale MSB. at the 
Brit. Mus. refer to Lord Kellie's appointment as Capt. of the Indep. Cy. in Edinburgh 
Castle, of which fortress he was temporary Governor from March-Sept. 1664 : 

" Kellie the 8 of feb 1664. 

"... there is a general report in this country that your Lordship hath prevailed 
with His Majesty to make me Captain Kellie in good earnest ... I do give some 
credit to it." (Add. MS. 23121, f. 42, modern spelling). 

" Edinburgh Castle the 

19 of March, 1664. 
" My dear Lord 

" These are to acknowledge the receipt of your Ldps two last letters, which are 
very satisfactory ; according to your order I shall give twenty soldiers to the Earl of 
' Lithkow,' of the most successful I can choose, and as soon as the gentleman who 
hath a commission from his Ma" 51 to be Ensign Bearer to this company doth arrive I 
shall swear the soldiers to their colours. I shall have a care of Serjeant Sibbald as your 
Lordship doth command me to do, and although he had no relation to Sir Robert 
Murray he is really useful. There is another Serjeant here whose name is Gil (? Gib) 
who doth understand every thing in the garrison better than any within it, and my 
Brother (who under your Lordship is to have a care of the magazine) cannot want him 
conveniently. For the 3rd Serjeant, I do expect him this night from ' Kilkerbris ' 
where he hath been for some months with 36 of the soldiers belonging to this company. 
As soon as he cometh I do intend to dispatch him. But I am engaged to put an 
honest, pretty lad in his place (who was an officer of mine at Worcester, and did lately 
serve your Ldsp in the citadel at Leith). But if your Ldp that (sic) the person whom 
you do mention in your letter should be preferred, it shall be done. There are two 
very good gunners belonging to the castle, and honest men, and a 3rd an English fellow 
who doth assist them at solemnities who doth not lay within the castle and hath but 
the wages of a private soldier ; the Serjeants and the gunners hath had hitherto but a 
shilling on the day, which indeed is too little, for less than eighteen pence it should 
not be in any place and far less in this garrison. There was not any clerk to this 
company formerly and therefore Robert Maitland will come behind if your Ldp. does 
not prevail with His Maty for an establishment to him of 2 shillings per diem. I shall 
send to your Ldp a list of what officers doth and should belong to this garrison and 
what the pay should be, and in my opinion it will be fit that your Ldp. prevail with 
his Maty to superscribe that establishment, and then there will be no difficulty in 
procuring of our pay from my Lord Treasurer and my Lord Bellendyne. . . . 

(Add. MS. 23121, f. 66, modern spelling). 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 35 

" Edinburgh Castle the last of March 1664. 
" My dear Lord, 

" I have this day sworn the company at this garrison unto their colours. . . . send 
firelocks for them, for it is not convenient that matchlocks should be in a garrison 
where there is a magazine. Your old servant Ro. Maitland is already established in 
his place and hath already received His Maty's pay. 

(Add. MS. 23121, f. 77, modern spelling.) 

Alexander Erskine, 3rd Earl of Kellie, was a devoted Royalist. He was Colonel of 
Foot in Duke Hamilton's Army (1648) and was taken prisoner at Worcester. Excepted 
out of Cromwell's Act of Grace, 1654. Lt. -Colonel of General Dalyell's Foot in 1666. 
Appointed Lt.-Colonel of the Foot Guards in Oct. 1667, which post he retained till his 
death in 1677. 



John, Earl of Lauderdale, 1 to command all garrisons that 
shall from time to time be placed in the Bass with 
power to appoint a Lieutenant and inferior officers - 7 Sept., 1671. 


" ordering two soldiers out of every Company in Lord 
Linlithgow's Regiment, and four out of the Com- 
pany garrisoning Edinburgh Castle, making eighteen 
in all, to be transported to the Bass as soon as the 
place is ready to receive them - - 7 Sept., 1671." 


[Robert Maitland 8 to be Lieut, and Deputy Governor of 

the Bass - 7 Sept., 1671.] 

1 Col. S.P.D. 1671. The Bass was purchased from Sir Andrew Ramsay, Lord Provost 
of Edinburgh, by the Government, at Lauderdale's suggestion, as a state prison, for 4,000. 
Charles Maitland of Soutra, Lauderdale's kinsman, acted as Governor from 1678 (? ) to the 
Revolution. This officer, with sixty soldiers from the Bass, attempted to disperse a large 
conventicle of about 1,000 persons assembled on Whitekirk hill, Co. Haddington, 5 May, 
1678. " In the scuffle which ensued one soldier was killed and the rest surrounded and 
disarmed. Five of the conventiclers were afterwards apprehended and tried by the Privy 
Council. One of them, James Learmouth, was sentenced to death and executed, though he 
had not killed the soldier " ( Hist, of Co. Haddington). When the Bass Rock was seized by 
the Jacobites at the Revolution and held for the exiled monarch, Charles Maitland was 
arrested on a charge of treason and imprisoned. On 23 Dec. 1692 William III. issued a 
" Warrant for a letter of Remission of treason to Charles Maitland late Lieut, of the Bass " 
Cal. S.P. Dom. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Commission not forthcoming, but referred to in the Grant of Arms to his son Captain 
James Maitland from the Lyon Office (Matriculation Register, 1672-1721). Robert Mait- 
land was dead before 19 June, 1682, when Charles Maitland of Soutra, said to be a son of 
the late Governor, was appointed Lieut, and Deputy Governor of the Bass. 

I 2 

36 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Sir Charles Erskine l of Cambo, Lyon King at Arms, to 
be Lieutenant to the Earl of Lauderdale's Foot 
Company now in garrison in Edinburgh Castle 

Whitehall, 5 March, 1672. 

Royal Grant to William, Earl of Wigton, 2 to be Governor 

of Dumbarton Castle Whitehall, 5 Feb., 1673. 

Commission to William, Earl of Wigton, 2 to be Captain 
of the Foot Company in garrison in Dumbarton 
Castle whereof the late Duke of Lenox and Rich- 
mond was Captain - Whitehall, 

John Auchmoutie 8 to be Ensign of the Duke of Lauder- 
dale's Company of Foot in garrison in Edinburgh 
Castle - Whitehall, 1 Nov., 1673. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. II. See biog. notice on p. 32, note 6. 

2 Ibid. Wm. Fleming, 5th Earl, served as Ensign in Gen. Dalyell's Eegt. in 1667. 
Appointed Lt.-Colonel of Sir G. Monro's newly-raised .Eegt. of Foot in 1674. D. in 1681. 

3 Ibid. Believed to be eldest son of Sir Alex. Auchmoutie of Gosf ord, which property 
latter sold to the Wedderburn family. John Auchmoutie's Commission was renewed by 
James VII., 26 Feb. 1685. Promoted Lieut. 31 Dec. 1686. During the siege of Edinburgh 
Castle in 1689 this officer refused to obey the Duke of Gordon's orders when latter wished 
to surrender the Castle. 


John Drummond * of Lundin to be Lieut, of the Foot 
Company in Edinburgh Castle whereof John, Duke 
of Lauderdale is Captain and Governor of said 
Castle - - Whitehall, 13 Oct., 1677. 

[Do. 1 to be Lieut.-Governor of Edinburgh Castle in suc- 
cession to Sir Charles Erskine of Cambo - Oct., 1677.] 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV. (see biog. notice on p. 21, note 1). His Com- 
mission as Lieut.-Governor is not forthcoming, but is referred to in Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage and other works. The date of his appointment as Lieut.-Governor is given aa 
" 1680 " in some Peerages, but it was undoubtedly in Oct. 1677. See the King's letter 
regarding Lundin to the Lords of the Treasury, dated 13 Oct. 1677, quoted at length in the 
chapter on " Artillery," p. 42. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 37 


John Areakin 1 (brother german to the Laird of Alva) to 
be Ensign to the Earl of Mar's Company in Stirling 
Castle - - Whitehall, 10 Sept., 1680. 

James Ramsay a to be Ensign to the Company of Foot in 
garrison in the Castle of Dumbarton whereof the 
Earl of Wigton is Captain - Whitehall, 

Charles, Duke of Lenox and Richmond, 3 to be Com- 
mander of Dumbarton Castle in place of the Earl of 
Wigton, deceased, and to be Captain of a Company 
in garrison there - Windsor Castle, 12 July, 1681. 

Major George Arnett 4 (sic) to be Lieut, of the Company 
of Foot in Dumbarton Castle in place of Major 
George Grant - - Windsor Castle, 

Alex. Livingstoune 5 of Bedlervy to be Dep.-Governor of 
Blackness Castle under the Earl of Linlithgow 

Whitehall, 19 Oct., 1681. 

Charles Maitland 6 to be Lieut, and Deputy Governor of 

the Island of the Bass - - Windsor Castle, 19 June, 1682. 

Warrant for Commission to Wm., Marquis of Queens- 
berry, 7 to be Constable and Governor of Edinburgh 
Castle in room of the Duke of Lauderdale, deceased 
(who was appointed Constable and Governor by 
Commission under the Great Seal of Scotland dated 
8 June, 1664) - - Whitehall, 21 Sept., 1682. 

Commission to Wm., Marquis of Queensberry, 7 to be 
Captain of the Company of Foot in Edinburgh 
Castle - - Whitehall, 

Warrant for a Commission to Major Andrew White 8 of 
the Earl of Mar's Regt. of Foot to be his Majesty's 
Lieut. -Governor of the Castle of Edinburgh - 


Commission to Major Andrew White 8 to be Captain of 

the Company of Foot in Edinburgh Castle Whitehall, 

Commission to James, Earl of Perth, 9 to be Captain and 

Governor of the Isle of the Basse - - Whitehall, 24 Oct., 1CX2. 

Warrant for a Commission to Captain Archibald 
Stewart, 10 brother german to Alex., Earl of Moray, 
to be Lieut.-Governor of Stirling Castle in room of 
the late Capt. Erskine, Dep.-Governor Whitehall, 1 Dec., 1682. 

Commission to Capt. Archibald Stewart 10 to be Lieut, of 
the Company of Foot in garrison at Stirling Castle 
under Charles, Earl of Mar, the Governor Whitehall, ,, 

Warrant for a Commission to Major George Arnot 11 to 

be Lieut.-Governor of Dumbarton Castle- Whitehall, 15 Dec., 16.S3. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. The Hon. John Erskine of Carnock, 3rd son to 
David, Lord Cardross. Was for some time an exile in Holland. Appointed Lieut.- 
Governor of Stirling Castle in 1689 and Lt.-Col. of Lord Cardross's Dragoons same year. 

' Ibid. Comn. renewed 30 March, 1685, by James VII. 

38 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

5 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. Comn. renewed 30 March, 1685, by James VII. 
Natural son of Charles II. by the Duchess of Portsmouth. Born 29 July, 1672. Md. in 
Jan. 1693, Anne 2nd dau. of Francis, Lord Brudenell, and relict of Henry, Lord Belasyse of 
Worlaby. D. 27 May, 1723. Progenitor of the present Duke of Richmond and Gordon. 

4 Ibid., Vol. VI. See biog. notice on pp. 11-12, note 5. 

6 Ibid. See p. 24, note 7. 

6 Ibid., Vol. VII. See p. 35, note 1. 

I Ibid. Third Earl and first Marquess. In May, 1682, constituted Lord High Treasurer 
of Scotland and one of the extraordinary Lords of Session. Advanced to the Dukedom of 
Queensberry 3 Feb. 1683. D. in 1695. 

8 In his Grant of Arms from the Lyon Office (Matriculation Register, 1672-1721) he is 
styled : " Andrew White, Major to the Earl of Mar's Regiment, eldest lawful son to 
Wm. Whyte of Markle and representer of that family." Believed to be identical with the 
Andrew White who was commissioned Ensign in Lord George Douglas's Regt. of Scots 
Foot, 5 July, 1666. Sir James Turner, in his Memoirs, refers to a Captain White in con- 
nection with the disbandment of three Companies of the Scots Guards in Sept. 1667, which 
companies were to be sent to France to join Lord George Douglas's Regt. to which they 
had formerly belonged. On 23 Sept. 1678, Andrew White was commissioned Major of the 
Earl of Mar's newly-raised Regt. of Foot. Was sent from Lanark, in March, 1679, with 
Lieut. Dalzell and Ensign Menzies, in command of a small party of dragoons (the distance 
being too great for foot to march) to disperse a large conventicle at Lesmahago where a 
sharp fight occurred (The Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., pp. 162-3). Served at Bothwell 
Brig and had a share in the subsequent " Forfeitures." Among the MSS. of the Duke of 
Buccleuch at Drumlanrig, printed by the Hist. Tl/SS, Commission, are several letters to and 
from Lord Queensberry referring to Major White's repairs of Edinburgh Castle when 
Lieut.-Governor. He d. at his post in 1686. His widow, dau. of John Skene of Hallyards 
and first married to Sir James Anstruther of Airdrie, petitioned the King for a pension 
(Letter from James VII. to the Privy Council of Scotland, on behalf of Dame Katherine 
White, relict of Major Andrew White, dated 18 Feb. 168?). Mrs. Katherine White 
married thirdly Lord Edward Murray, Capt. in the Royal Scots, youngest son of the 
Marquis of Atholl. 

9 Ibid. Fourth Earl. Chancellor of Scotland. In Dec. 1688 embarked at Burntisland 
for France, to join James VII., but was captured at the mouth of the Forth and imprisoned 
in Stirling Castle. Liberated 28 June, 1693. Allowed to proceed to France. Made titular 
Duke of Perth and Marquis of Drummond by James VII. D. at St. Germains 11 March, 

10 Ibid. See p. 20, note 1. 

II Ibid. See biog. notice on pp. 11-12, note 5. Major Arnot had been acting as Deputy- 
Governor of Dumbarton since July, 1681, but his Commission as Lieut.-Governor had, for 
some reason, been delayed. See the two Commissions in his favour from the Duchess of 
Portsmouth in the text. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688. 39 


"1682, January 30th. Commission by Louisa, Duchess of Ports- 
mouth, tutrix and guardian appointed by his Majesty to her son 
Charles, Duke of Lenox, heretable sheriff of Dumbarton, to Major 
George Arnott, deputy governor of the Castle of Dumbarton, to be 
sheriff depute of Dumbarton, and to hold the said office during 
pleasure ; dated at Whitehall. 

" 1682, January 30th. Commission by Louisa, Duchess of Ports- 
mouth (as above), to the said Major George Arnott, who has already 
been and must still be at considerable expense in his office of deputy 
governor of the Castle of Dumbarton during the absence of her son 
out of the kingdom of Scotland, and as the said charges ought in 
justice to be sustained by her said son as proprietor of the said castle, 
and captain of his Majesty's company in garrison there, she grants full 
power to the said Major George Arnott to uplift what is due of the pay 
of her said son as Captain foresaid which is eight shillings sterling 
per day and apply the same to his own use and behoof. Dated at 

* From the original Commissions preserved at the Begister House, Edinburgh. 

40 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Colonel James Wemyss.* 

* This distinguished artillerist and scientist was an officer of whom Scotland has every 
reason to be proud. The present writer takes some credit to himself for having con- 
tributed an exhaustive paper on Colonel James Wemyss's eventful career to the Royal 
Artillery Proceedings (Vol. XXIV) ; also a condensed memoir of this officer for the 
Dictionary of National Biography. James Wemyss, a direct descendant of Sir David 
Wemyss who fell at Flodden, came to London in the winter of 1629-1630 with his uncle 
Colonel Robert Scott and the latter's family. This same Colonel Scott, who belonged to 
the Scotts of Balwerie, had served under Gustavus Adolphus and had, according to his 
epitaph in the porch of Lambeth Parish Church, invented " the leather ordnance." Soon 
after Colonel Scott's arrival in London, Charles I. granted him a pension of 600. On 
Scott's death in 1631, his mantle fell on the shoulders of his nephew James Wemyss, who, 
in 1638, was appointed Master-Gunner of England, for which post he was in every way 
fitted. The army levied in 1639 to march to Scotland, and overawe the Scots, had a train 
of artillery attached to it under Wemyss's command. In 1640, we find among the notes 
taken at the Council of War by Secretary Nicholas, on 30 Jan., this memorandum : 
" Secretary Windebank to move his Majesty for Mr. Wemyss, the Master-Gunner of 
England, and to give him his Majesty's command that he serve in the present army for the 
same pay he was listed to serve the last year. The train of artillery is settled and ordered 
to be drawn up by the Office of Ordnance." On the outbreak of the Civil War Wemyss 
cast in his lot with the Parliamentarians. He commanded the artillery in Sir Wm. Waller's 
army at the battle of Cropredy Bridge, 29 June, 1644, and was taken prisoner. On this 
occasion, " leather ordnance," made after Scott's invention and improved upon by Wemyss, 
was first used in action by an English army. Lord Clarendon gives an account of the 
guns captured by the Royalist troops in above engagement. It is uncertain when Wemyss 
obtained his release, but, on 12 June, 1645, we find his signature attached to a Memorial 
for arrears of pay due to him and 130 Scots officers then in England. This proves that he 
was then serving with General Leslie's Army. In 1646 and 1648 Wemyss received monetary 
grants from the Navy Commissioners for proving naval ordnance and fitting the ships with 
the same. In March, 1648, Wemyss returned to Scotland, and on 27 March, same year, an 
Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament "granting to Col. James Wemyss the privilege 
of making leather ordnance for three terms of nineteen years with power to enforce 
secrecy." For casting in his lot with the " Engagers," Wemyss was deprived of his military 
post in England by the Parliament, 1648. On 10 July, 1649, the Scottish Parliament 
passed an Act nominating " Col. James Wemyss to be General of Artillery in the room and 
place of Col. Alex. Hamilton." His pay was fixed at 600 Scots marks per month, and he 
was given, in addition, the command of a regiment. In his new capacity, Weymss fought 
at Dunbar and escaped capture ; but thirty guns fell into Cromwell's hands. At Worcester, 
Wemyss was taken prisoner and confined in Windsor Castle. Early in 1654 Wemyss 
obtained leave to go to Scotland for six months on the score of ill health. In May, 1658, 
we find him approaching Cromwell on the subject of light ordnance which he (Wemyss) 
had invented. Wemyss's petition to the Protector was read in Council, but had no further 
result. At the Restoration Wemyss brought his services, artillery inventions, and monetary 
losses to the King's notice (see petition in the Appendix). Wemyss was restored to his 
posts of General of the Artillery in Scotland and Master Gunner of England. On 1 March, 
1661, a new Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament, granting him " the privilege of 
making, selling, and exporting to friendly countries leather ordnance for three terms of 
nineteen years from the date of the passing of said Act." A month later the Scottish Parlia- 
ment passed a new Act " in favour of James Weems, General of Artillery and Colonel 
Ludovic Lesley for draining mines." Two years later Charles II. granted a patent " to 
James Wemyss, and his son James, for the former's invention of light ordnance." In 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 41 

1666 Wemyss left England forgood and returned to Scotland. From his petitions to the 
King dated 24 August, 1666, and 29 November, same year, it is evident this great 
artillerist suffered many privations in his old age. He died in Dec. 1667. By his wife 
Katherine, widow of John Guilliams and daughter of Thomas Bayment, poulterer, of 
St. Botolph's parish, Wemyss left a son James, who owned the estate of Caskyberrie, 
Fifeshire, and was created, in 1672, Baron Burntisland for life. He married Margaret, 
Countess of Wemyss in her own right, and at his death, in 1685, left a son David, who 
eventually succeeded as 3rd Earl of Wemyss. Colonel Wemyss had only been dead a few 
weeks when Colonel Wm. Borthwick, of the Foot Guards, wrote as follows to Lander- 
dale : 

"Edinburgh the llth of febru : 1668. 

". . . . I did for see when that Company was bestowed on me, that being the 
youngest, I could not be so vsef ull to his Ma tles service as I desired, and your Lop. 
then nobly promised whill you Could hold a pen not to permitt any place Convenient 
for me that should fall, to go by me. I am Confident not only in what relaitts to the 
magazins, but also to any party, post, or guarisone, I shalbe in a better Capacity to 
show my Deuty to the Kings Service : Iff this motione relish with yo r Lop now whill 
ther is annes Come & more Comeing it is fitting they be tryed befor they come into 
the Kings Magazine, and weell looked into after. And therfor seasonable to his 
Ma H to signify his pleasour to the Counsell theranent, and that all marches may be 
red, jo' lop may Cause the lefr to the Counsell to be somwhate of this nature ; 
Considering ther is no generall artillery at present, and finding it Convenient to have 
one to oversee those affairs therfor nominatts (vpon what Considerations you please) 
[ sic. in original] to be Livetennant generall of the trane of artillery, and who is to 
Comand in any party post or guarisone as a generall Staff or f eild officer next and 
imediatly vnto the Earll off Kellie Liveten : Colonell to his Ma ties regiment off foott 
guards Comanded by the E. of Linlithgow. 

" Yo r lop most humbl faithful and obedient Servant, 

(Add. MS. 23128, fol. 303.) 




James Gairdner to be Gunner with same allowance as 
the Gunner at Edinburgh Castle, viz. 8s. Scots per 
diem W'hall, 12 Dec., 1674. 

Cal. S.P. Dom. 1673-5. The Lords of the Treasury wrote to Lauderdale, 31 July, 
1674 : 

". . . . There is no Gunner allowed in the Establishment for the Castle of 
Stirling. James Gairdner having discharged that employment as occasion offered, 
for which he has had little or no allowance. They recommend that his Majesty will 
put him on the establishment, as gunner with the same allowance as the gunner of 
Edinburgh Castle which is Eighteen (sic) shilling Scots per diem " (Add. MS. 35125, 
fol. 262.) 

42 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


" Right trusty etc, Wheras by our letter of the 5th September 1673, 
wee did signify our royall pleasur to the (then) Lords Commissionars of 
our Thesaurey of that our auncient Kingdome for giving their commission 
to the deceast Sir Charles Erskin of Cambo, Lyon King at Armes as his 
warrand in the right oversieing the keeping of the armes and amunition 
in good condition which were bought and layd up some yeirs before in our 
Castle of Edinburgh for our service, and also did authorize them to pey 
unto him a yeerly allowance of the sowme of fifty pounds sterlin moe for 
his paines and care about the said armes and amunition. And wheras 
by the late deceas of the said Sir Charles Erskin, the said trust and 
charge is now vacant in our hands, these are to authorize and requyre 
you to grant your commission to our trusty and well-beloved John 
Drumond of Lundin (who is now, by our commission to command our 
garison of our said castle under our right trusty and right entirely 
beloved cusing and cowncellor, the Duke of Lauderdale, etc.) for his 
warrant in the right oversieing and keeping of the said armes and amuni- 
tion in good condition. And for this to pey to him, as a yearly allowance, 
the sume of fifty punds sterling money, at tuo termes in the year, Whit- 
sonday and Mertimes by equall portions, beginning the first terms pey- 
ment at Mertimes next ensueing the date of these presents, which wee will 
to be continued to him during his dutyfull ansuering this trust, of which 
(as often as you shall sie cause) you shall call for a particular accompt, 
and shall take a care and that the said armes and amunition be preserved 
in good condition. For doeing wherof this shall be your warrant. Given 
at our Court at Whythall 13th day of October 1677, and of our raigne 
the 29th yeer. Subscribitur by his Majestys command, 

* Treasury Register (2), 1673-1682, fo. 184. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 43 


Royal Warrant for a gift to [John] Schlezer, 1 a Gentle- 
man of the German Nation, of the Office of Chief 
Engineer in Scotland at a salary of 10 sterling a 
month - Whitehall, 8 Sept., 1671. 


" directing them to give orders for building fortifications of Castle of 
Stirling according to a design drawn by Slezer, the King's Engineer in 
Scotland, and to provide a Train of Artillery of twelve brass guns four 
to carry a bullet of six pounds and eight of three pounds and to provide 
carriages for them and all other things requisite for such a train. 

" Whitehall, 30 November, 1672." 

(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. II.). 

Royal Warrant 2 for a gift of the office of Lieutenant of 
the Artillery in Scotland to John Slezer, his 
Majesty's Chief Engineer there with an allowance of 
five shillings per diem Whitehall, 4 Mar., 1677. 

Royal Warrant s for a gift of the office of Master of 
his Majesty's Ordnance in Scotland to John 
Drummond of Lundin - Whitehall, 19 Oct., 1680. 

44 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



(Miscellany of the Maitland Club, Vol. III., pp. 81-2.) 

Conductor and Engineer - 3s. Od. per d. stg. 

Master Fireworker - 3s. Od. 
2 Master-Gunners and Fireworkers each 

2s. 6d. - - 5s. Od. 

1 Master-Gunner and Quarter-Master - - 2s. 6d. ,, 

Battery Master - - 2s. 6d. 

1 Corporall - - Is. 3d. 

1 do. - Is. Od. 

15 Under Gunners, each 8d. - 10s. Od. 

Carpenter and his man - 2s. 6d. 

Commissary and Store Keeper - - 2s. Od. 
Which severall allowances doe in 12 

months extend to the sume of - 550 4s. Od. 
The Master of the Ordnance his pay or 

yearly fee is - - 150 Os. Od. 

In all - - 700 4s. Od. 

By his Majesty's Command, 


15 March, 168f. 


16 June, 1684. 

Lieutenant to the Artillery his pay is - 5s. p. d. 

And as Engineer 120 sterling yearly - 7s. ld. ,, 


[Lt.-General Wm. Drummond 4 of Cromlix to be Master 

of his Majesty's Ordnance in Scotland - 3 Sept., 1682.] 

Royal Warrant 6 for a pension of 150 sterling to Lt.- 
General Wm. Drummond, Master of his Majesty's 
Ordnance in Scotland Windsor, 

[Commission to Theodore Dury 6 to be Second Engineer 

with pay at the rate of 5s. per diem - Whitehall, 3 Jan., 1685.] 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. I. Lieut, of the Artillery in Scotland, 4 March, 
1677. He was sent to the Low Countries in 1681 to enlist master-gunners, fireworkers, and 
gunners for the Scots Artillery. (His letters to Lundin, while abroad, are printed by the 
Hist. MSS. Commission, Beport X., Part I., pp. 132-135.) Served at Bothwell Brig, and his 
name occurs in the List of those to whom shares were granted out of the forfeited estates. 
At the Revolution Slezer was in command of the Scots Artillery Train, and did not give 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 45 

in his adherence to William III. till after the battle of Killiecrankie. Was a well-known 
engraver on copper, and in 1693 brought out the first vol. of his Theatrum Scotite, which 
contained " prospects " of the most notable palaces, castles, noblemen's seats, &c., with 
descriptive letter-press. He was patronized by King William and Queen Mary, and had 
an Act passed in his favour by the Parliament of Scotland granting him a royalty on every 
ton of foreign ships which came into any Scottish harbour for the space of five years. But 
the expenses entailed by his magnum opus, and the irregular payment of the royalties 
granted to him, dragged Slezer into irretrievable debt, and obliged him to betake him- 
self to the sanctuary of Holyrood House, where he remained many years. His Commission 
as Captain of the Scots Artillery Company and Surveyor of Magazines, granted by 
William III. was renewed by Queen Anne in 1702 ; but his affairs became so hopelessly in- 
volved that he had to leave Scotland about 1708. The family tradition is that Slezer re- 
turned to Scotland and d. at Holyrood in 1717. Captain A. K. Slessor, late of the Derby- 
shire Regt. (grandson of Major-General John Slessor, who d. in 1850), is the present repre- 
sentative of Capt. John Slezer. 

3 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV. 

3 Ibid., Vol. VI. See his Comn. as Capt. in the Foot Guards (p. 21) and biog. notice 
thereto. Fountainhall thus refers to Lundin's appointment as Master of the Ordnance : 
" Drummond of Lundin is made General of the Artillery and conjunct with Dalzeell to 
officiate as General when he is absent which Dalzeell took ill." Historical Observes, p. 

4 Royal Warrant not forthcoming, but the King's Warrant, quoted in the text, for a 
pension to Genl. Wm. Drummond, as " Master of his Majesty's Ordnance in Scotland " is 
proof sufficient. 

5 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII. See special memoir of Genl. Wm. Drummond. 

6 Comn. register not forthcoming, but referred to in a letter from the Hon. John 

Drummond, of Lundin, to the Duke of Queensberry, from " London, 3 Jan. 1685 

I had by the same post a Commission for Dury & had upon your Grace's accompt bef or 
that time procured the King's order for his pay .... to make up 5 [shillings] in all out of 
the mony appointed for contingent expenses" (Hist. JUSS. Comn., Report XV., Appx., Pt. 
VIII., p. 203). Theodore Dury, a Frenchman, is named in the List of Officers of the Royal 
Engineers, p. 1, as having been appointed a Capt. in Mackay's Foot, 1 March, 1689, but the 
Comn. register is not forthcoming. He is also said in same List to have served with the 
" sea expedition of 1692," and " in Italy, 1694." He was appointed Chief Engineer in Scot- 
land, 25 Aug. 1702 (English Army Lists and Comn. Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. V, p. 226). D. 
17 May, 1742. One of this officer's descendants is the present Theodore Henry Dury of 
Bonsall, Co. Derby, late 10th Hussars, whose daughter Antoinette md. the late Walter 
Macmillan Scott of Wauchope, Roxburghshire. 

46 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


[Lieut.-General Wm. Drummond 1 to be Major-General of 

the Forces in Scotland - - July, 1666.] 

[Do. to be Colonel of a Regt. of Horse - ] 

General Thomas Dalzell 2 to command all the Forces in 

Scotland as Lieut.-General - Whitehall, 19 July, 1666. 

Do. 2 to be Capt. of a Troop of Horse which he is autho- 
rised to raise with all speed for the King's Service 
in the Regt. of which Lieut.-General Drummond is 
Colonel - Whitehall, 

Do. 2 to be Colonel of a Regt. of Foot to be forthwith 
leavied in Scotland, consisting of ten Companies 


Do. 2 to be Captain of a particular Company which he is 
to raise with all speed in the Regt. of which he is 

Sir George Monro 3 to be Major-General of the Forces in 
Scotland as well Horse as Foot, and to be Colonel 
of the newly-raised Foot Regt. and Captain of Com- 
pany in the same - - Windsor Castle, 25 Aug., 1674. 

King's Letter 4 to Sir George Monro authorising him to 
command in chief His Majesty's Guards and all such 
other Forces, both Horse and Foot, " as shall be by 
Warrant of Our Privy Council of Scotland drawn 
together for opposing any Rebellion or Insurrection 
there " Whitehall, 27 Oct., 1677. 

Commission to George, Earl of Linlithgow, 6 to be Major- 
General of all his Majesty's Forces in Scotland, " in 
place of Sir George Monro, Our late Major-General 
whose Commission is hereby declared void " - 

Whitehall, 18 Dec., 1677. 

Do. 6 to Do. to be Major-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of all his Majesty's Forces in Scotland - 

Whitehall, 17 May, 1678. 


Royal Warrant for a Commission to James, Duke of 
Buccleugh and Monmouth 6 to be General of all his 
Majesty's Forces in Scotland - - Whitehall, 14 June, 1679. 

General Thomas Dalzell 7 to be Lieut.-General of his 

Majesty's Forces in Scotland - - Whitehall, 19 June, 1679. 

Royal Warrant for a second Commission to James, 
Duke of Buccleugh and Monmouth 8 to be Captain- 
General of all his Majesty's Forces in Scotland 

Windsor Castle, 29 July, 1679. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 47 


(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V.) 

King's Letter to the Privy Council of Scotland : 


" Wee have lately thought fit to recall the Commission granted by 
Us to James Duke of Buccleuch to be General of Our Forces in that 
Our ancient Kingdome. Wee have also thought fit now to acquaint 
you that Wee look upon Our Lieut.-Generall (Generall Thomas 
Dalzell) to be the Commander in Chief of all our said Forces. White- 
hall, 1st Nov., 1679." 

[John Drummond 9 of Lundin, Master of the Ordnance 
and Lieut.-General, to officiate conjunctly with 
Lieut.-General Dalzell as General when the latter is 
absent - 19 Oct., 1680.] 

I Commission register not forthcoming. See special memoir of Genl. Wm. Drummond 
as a Commander-in-Chief . 

II The originals of Genl. T. Dalyell's five Commissions named on p. 46 are at Binns. 
Copies of the same are given in Hist. MSS. Commission, 9th Report, Pt. II., pp. 236-237. 
See special memoir of Genl. Dalyell as a Commander-in-Chief. 

3 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III., pp. 339-40. See special memoir of Sir G. 
Monro as a Commander-in-Chief. 

4 Ibid., Vol. IV. 

5 Ibid. See special memoir of Lord Linlithgow as a Commander-in-Chief. 

6 Ibid., Vol. V. See special memoir of the Duke of Monmouth as a Commander-in- 

7 " This Commission was at the request of the Privy Council of Scotland." Note to 
Commission register in Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V. 

8 The Royal Warrant for this Commission is printed in full by Dr. Osmund Airy in the 
Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., pp. 258-260. 

9 Commission register not forthcoming, but quoted by Lord Fountainhall in his 
Historical Notices of Scottish A fairs (p. 355), who adds that Dalyell took Lundin's appoint- 
ment ill. 

48 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


AUGUST, 1666.* 


Genl. Dalyell's. 

Lt.-Genl. Drummond's. 

Duke of Hamilton's. 

Earl of Atholl's. 

Earl of Airlie's. 

Hon. Charles Maitland's. 


Earl of Annandale's. 
Earl of Kincardine's. 
Earl MarischalPs. 
Earl of Dundee's. 
Lord Drumlanrig's. 
Lord Carnegie's. 

* See Muster Bolls of all the Troops in Genl. Drummond's llegt. of Horse (with the 
exception of Lord Carnegie's Troop), under date of Sept., 1667, on pages 49-51 ; 55-77. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 49 



Genl. Thos. Dalyell. 


James Halket. 1 

* See Muster Roll of this troop at its disbandment in Sept. 1667, on p. 55. 

1 Referred to in the letter given below (Add. MS. 23125, f. 28, modern spelling) : 

"My Lord 

" I thought at my being with your Lordship, by your L's procurement, his Majesty 
had conferred on me the choosing of the officers of my regiment and troop so that I 
must intreat your L. to know the meaning of His Majesty's recommending James 
' hakit ' and Mr Ines ; if it be absolute and without exception of any other chosen by 
me. Which if it be I shall discharge all I have written to, and cheerfully obey his 
Majesty's command and expect such officers as his Majesty shall be pleased to make 
choice of. Now My Lord as my only patron I must beg a line to direct me in this 
business though I believe I could accommodate James hakit, according to your Lord- 
ship's command, without any breach of engagement to others. So being a bad scribe I 
shall conclude with this that I am and shall continue, My Lord, 

" The humblest and most obliged 
" of all your Lordships servants 

" Newcastle the 3 

of August 1666." 
" For the Earl of Lauderdale 
sole secretary to his Majesty 
for the Kingdom of Scotland." 

Cornet James Halket, of the Pitfirran family, had served in 1664 at Tangier as Cornet of 
Capt. Fitzgerald's Troop of Horse (English Army Lists and Commission Registers, 1661- 
1714, Vol. I., p. 42). Resigned his Comn. in Genl. Dalyell's Troop in March, 1667. 
Obtained a Comn. in Lord George Douglas's Regt. in the service of France. Attained the 
rank of Major before April, 1679, when Dumbarton was quartered in Ireland (Irish Army 
Lists, by Charles Dalton, pp. 127-129). Commanded the sixteen Companies of his regiment 
at Tangier and greatly distinguished himself against the Moors. A doggerel drinking song 
of the Royal Scots (printed in 1681) records the bravery of Halket and other officers. 
Verse 12 runs thus : 

" Hacket led on the Van, 
Hey boys, ho boys : 
Hacket led on the Van, 


Hacket led on the Van, 
Where was killed many a man, 
Hey the brave Scottish boys, 

On his return home Halket was knighted by Charles II., and given a pension of 150 per 
annum on the Scottish Establishment " in consideration of the many and acceptable services 
performed to his Majesty by Sir James Halket, not only in many places of Europe but also 
upon several occasions in opposition to the Moors" (King's Letter to the Scottish Treasury 
dated 4 July, 1681). Sir James Halket d. in Oct. 1684. 


50 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

AUGUST, 1666.* 

(See Muster Roll of this Troop at its Disbandment in Sept., 1667, 

on p. 59.) 

Wm., Duke of Hamilton. 1 


Sir Thos. Hamilton of Preston. 3 


Lt.-Colonel Ker. 

*London Gazette 1666 

(Numb. 81 col. 1). 
" Edinburgh, August 14. 

" This day the Duke of Hamilton mustered his Troop of 95 Horse compleat, and 
Sir William Murrey his of 60, all able brave persons, for the most part old Officers, and 
few under the quality of Captains of Horse." 

1 See biog. notice on p. 59, note 1. 

a The following unpublished letter is among the Lauderdale Papers at the Brit. Mus. 
(Add. MS. 23125, f. 11) : 

" Ed'- 17 July, 1666. 
" My Lord, 

" Since it has pleased his Ma He to honor me with the comand of on off the 
troopes to be raised here, I shall endever to answer that trust w' as much care and 
fidelitie as I can. I have thought on Sir Tho : Hamilton of Preston to be my lieutenant. 
I shall not offer to give your lo s a carracter of him because I beleeue he is better known 
to you then to me. He is said to be a good and gallant officer. The rest I intend to 
pitch on shall be such as may suply my unskilf ulnes in that Imployment, and I dout 
not but to be as soon ready as some others, and shall leave nothing undone w'in my 
power to witnesse my affection to his Ma ties service. . . . 


Sir Thos. Hamilton succeeded by entail to the estate of Preston on the death of his grand- 
father, Sir John Preston, in 1644. He fought for Charles II. at Worcester. Besigned 
his Commission in above Troop, Nov. 1666 ; D. in 1672, and was succeeded by his son 
William, who was created a Bart, of Nova Scotia, 5 Nov. 1673. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 51 


Col. Harry Maule l in room of Sir Thos. Preston. 

1 " Upon Preston's quiting being my Leut." wrote Duke Hamilton to Lauderdale, 
8 Nov. 1666, "I was spoke to by Coll. Maule and some others in his behalf to bestow that 
charge on him which I agreed to" (Add. MS. 23125, f. 136). Col. Harry Maule of Balma- 
kellie, 2nd son of Patrick, Earl of Panmure, served as Colonel of one of the Aberdeenshire 
levies raised in 1648. Fought at Preston, where he was taken prisoner. Had a command 
at Dunbar. Md. Lady Jane Wemyss, daughter of John, Earl of Wemyss ; contract dated 
" 3 Aug., 1649." He d. the beginning of April, 1667, and was bd. in Holyrood Abbey 
Church, 8 April. Registrum de Panmure, p. 375. 


Lord Forrester 1 to be Lieut, in room of Col. Harry Maule, deed. 

1 "James Baillie, aliai Forrester, Lord Forrester of Corstorphine, son-in-law of Sir 
G-eorge Forrester, Bt., 1st Lord. Son and heir of Major-General Wm. Baillie of Letham 
and Torwoodhead, Co. Stirling. Fined 2,500 by Cromwell's Act of Grace, 1654. D. 
26 Aug. 1679, aged 50, being murdered by Christian Nimmo, his first wife's niece " (G.E.C.'s 
Complete Peerage). It appears from the following extract out of General Drummond's 
letter to Lauderdale dated " Edinburgh, April 16, 1667," that Duke Hamilton hoped to 
have had the appointment of his own Lieut., but the King ordered otherwise : " I hear 
my lord Duke who is at present in Hamylton intended to have his cornet for lieut. And 
now I shall acquaint him of the King's purpose for the lord forrester" (Add. MS. 23126, 
f. 161). 

A month later Lord Forrester took up his appointment as Lieut, of the Duke's Troops, 
as mentioned in Hamilton's letter to Lauderdale. 

" Hamilton 14 May 1667 
" My Lord, 

" When I was called to Edinburgh with my Troop on the appearance of the Dutch 
fleet my Lord Forrester come to me and presented his Majesty's Commission to him to 
be my Lieutenant and having that same day received your first I looked on it as fit 
for me to give obedience so I placed him. . . . 

(Add. MS. 23126, f. 212, modern spelling.) 

52 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

AUGUST, 1666.* 

(Disbanded in Sept., 1667.) 


Lt.-General Thos. Dalyell, 

19 July, 1666. 

[Alex. Earl of Kellie. 1 ] 



Lt.-Col. John Hay. 2 
Sir Wm. Bannatyne. 8 
Patrick Vans. 4 
[ Innes.] 6 

* No list of this regiment is forthcoming, but Genl. Dalyell's Commissions as Colonel 
and Captain of a " Regt. of Foot to be forthwith leavied in Scotland consisting of ten 
companies," dated at Whitehall, 19 July, 1666, are preserved at Binns. Dalyell's Eegiment 
took part in the action at Bullion Green, and was subsequently quartered at Ayr. Early in 
1667 the regiment came to Leith, where they did good service, in April, when some Dutch 
Men-of-War appeared in the Forth, as narrated by Capt. John Strachan in a letter to the 
Navy Commissioners, dated " Leith, 30 April, 1667." See p. 27. 

1 See his former Commission on p. 34 and note thereto. In a letter to the Earl of 
Lauderdale from the Earl of Kellie, dated " Leith the 1 of 10*** 1666," the latter refers to 
"Gem-all Dalyel my Colonel" (Add. MS. 23125, f. 173). It is uncertain whether Lord 
Kellie was Lt.-Colonel or Major of Dalyell's Begt. 

3 Of Baro (or Barro), Co. Haddington. See reference to his Company in the P.S. to 
General Dalyell's letter to Lauderdale, dated 15 Jan. 1667 (fac-simile given in this volume). 
Third son of Sir John Hay of Baro and Lands, Clerk Register temp. Charles I. In Nicoll's 
Diary it is recorded that in the action of 27 April, 1650, at Strathechell, Co. Boss, 
"Lt.-Colonel Hay was taken prisoner." D. in 1675. The Greyfriars' Burial Register 
contains this entry : " Col. John Hay in the Castle of Edinburgh, 21 May, 1675." 

3 See Muster Boll of his Company when disbanded, 18 Sept. 1667, on page 79. 

4 Of Barnbarroch, Co. Wigton. In a letter from Dalyell to Lauderdale from " Kilmar- 
nock, 27 Dec., 1666," the former writes: "I beg his Majesty's pleasure concerning the 
supplying what vacant charges shall fall out in my regiment. Barnbaro (sic) has given 
up his Commission, and I will do nothing in supplying the place till your Lordship orders." 
(Add. MS. 23125, f. 267, modern spelling.) Patrick Vans was son of Sir John Vans of 
Barnbarroch. He md. Grizel, daughter of John Johnston of Annandale, Lord Justice 
General of Scotland, by whom he left at his decease, in 1673, a son, John Vans of Barn- 
barroch. Burke's Commoners, Vol. I., p. 438. 

6 In a letter to Lauderdale from General Dalyell, dated " Edinburgh, 14 August, 1666," 
the latter writes : " According to his Majesty's command I have placed Capt. Ines (tic), 
and have sent your Lordship here inclosed the list of all the officers that are as yet placed " 
(Add. MS. 35125, f. 137, modern spelling). It is uncertain who this officer was ; also 
whether he was " placed " in Dalvell's Begt. of Foot or Troop of Horse. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 53 


Major [Wm.] Arnot, 1 1666. 

Sir Wm. Bruce, 2 Knt., Jan. 1667. 


Commission to Christopher Irvin, 3 M.D., Chirurgeon- 
Major to the Guards in Scotland to be Physician 
and Surgeon-Major to all the Forces - Whitehall, 23 Dec., 1674. 

Commission to John Jossy, 4 Chirurgeon of Edinburgh, 
to be second Surgeon to all the Forces in Scotland 



Commission to Sir Thomas Elphingstoune 5 (sic) of 
Calderhall to be Muster-Master-General of all the 
Forces in Scotland - - Whitehall, 19 Feb., 1675. 


Royal Warrant for a new Gift (the old Patent being 
dated 31 Aug. 1660) to Sir John Keath 6 (sic) and 
his second lawful son John Keath, of the Office of 
Knight-Marshal of Scotland with fee of 400 per 
annum - - Whitehall, 23 Dec., 1675. 


Robert Johnston 7 [1675]. 


Commission to Mathew Hamilton 8 to be Adjutant- 
General of his Majesty's Forces in Scotland 

Whitehall, 27th Sept., 1678. 


Commission to Wm. Borthwick 9 (Chirurgeon-Burgess of 
Edinburgh) to be Chirurgeon-Major of his Majesty's 
Forces in Scotland - - Whitehall, 15 June, 1679. 


Commission to Andrew Middleton, 10 of Pifcgarvie, to be 
Muster-Master-General of all his Majesty's Forces 
in Scotland - ... . Whitehall, 7 July, 1683. 

54 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

1 Sir James Turner, in his Memoirs, refers to Major Arnot, the Muster-Master-General, 
having " marked out the ground " when the Scots Forces were about to engage the 
Covenanters at Pentland. Brother to the Laird of Ferny (Lament's Diary, p. 186). 
Under date of 1 670, Lament records that " Major Arnot about this time came to live in the 
dwelling house of Achmoutie (sic) and the Lady Achmoutie . . . went to live in Dysarf 
(Ibid., p. 223). Appointed Captain in Sir Wm. Lockhart's Regt. of Scots Foot, 14 March, 
1672. From the " Testament Dative of Major Wm. Arnot in Auchmouty, in the pariah of 
Markinch," it appears that he d. in Dec. 1676. 

3 General Drummond, in a letter to Lauderdale, dated 10 Dec. 1666, says, " Remember of 
Sir Wm. Bruce who is most necessary for us and the good of the service " (Add. MS. 23125, 
fol. 205). General Dalyell had already requested, in a letter to Lauderdale, dated 
" 29 Nov. 1666," that Sr Wm. Bruce might be appointed Commissary-General (Add. MS. 
28747, fol. 8). Bruce received the appointment and the Army benefited considerably. He 
and General Dalyell advanced a considerable sum " upon their particular credits and sureties " 
to pay the arrears of the standing forces (Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 279). Sir Wm. 
Bruce, of Balcaskie, Co. Fife, was created a baronet 21 April, 1668, and was appointed the 
King's Surveyor-General in Scotland. He designed and built the quadrangular additions 
to Holyrood House as it now stands. Sir Wm. Bruce d. in 1710. 

8 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III., pp. 145-6. See biog. notice on p. 4, note 4. 

4 Ibid. Attended the Bishop of Orkney when wounded in the arm by a shot fired by 
James Mitchell, Covenanter, and gave evidence at the trial of the said Mitchell. Out of 
the Army before the accession of James VII. Fellow of the College of Surgeons of 
Edinburgh, 1686. 

6 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III., p. 184. " Sir Thomas Elphinston, of Calderhall, 
born 8th March, 1629, espoused 24th April, 1650, Jean, eldest daughter of Richard Lauder, 
of Hatton, and had issue. He was appointed 4th March, 1671, Muster-Master to the 
Militia in Scotland, and in the September of the following year received the honour 
of knighthood from the King's Commissioner, the Earl of Lauderdale. ... He died in 
1678." Burke's Commoners (first edition), Vol. II., pp. 371-2. 

6 Ibid., p. 383. See biog. notice on p. 73, note 2. 

7 Comn. not forthcoming, but referred to in the " Protection " in his favour granted by 
the King on 8 Jan. 1675 for two years (Cal. S.P.D. 1673-1675). Under date of 15 Aug. 
1682, the King made a "Presentation of the lands of Bogleholl, &c., in Co. Lanerick (sic) 
to Major Robert Johnstoun, Town Major of Edinburgh." Warrant Book for Scotland, 
Vol. VII. 

8 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III. Had served previously as a Gentleman Private 
in the King's Troop of Life Guards, and was " Adjutant in the Expedition to the West " 
(see Muster Roll given in A Military History of Perthshire, edited by the Marchioness 
of Tullibardine, p. 15). Narcissus Luttrell, in his Brief Relation of State A/airs, 1678- 
1714, recoids, as Edinburgh news, under date of 10 June, 1693, that " Adjutant-Generall 
Hamilton, who ivas committed for refusing the oath, died in prison," Vol. III., p. 114. 

' Ibid., Vol. V. " Chirurgeon Burgess of Edinburgh," eldest son of Wm. Borthwick 
designed of Maysheill and Pilmore, and father of Captain Henry Borthwick of Pilmore, 
who served with the Cameronians (26th Foot) at Blenheim, and was killed at Ramillies in 

10 Ibid., Vol. VIII. Comn. renewed by James VII., 30 March, 1685, and had a pension 
granted to him same year. Youngest brother of John, Earl of Middleton. In 1687 he 
purchased the estate of Balbegno, Co. Kincardine, from Andrew Wood. "Andrew 
Middleton got the lands of Caldhame and Pitgarvie by his marriage with Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Charles Ramsay of Balmain. From a minute of Presbytery in 1683, 
he appears, some four years before his purchase of Balbegno, as an heritor of the parish, 
and an office-bearer in the church, with the oversight of Earl Middleton's lands. After his 
death, in 1688, his son Robert became proprietor of Balbegno and married a daughter of 
George Ogilvy of Lunan." Cameron's History of Fettercairn, p. 102. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 55 



[Troop raised in August, 1666.] 

George Campbell, 1 corporall ; Robert Dourie 2 ; Coline Pittscottie 8 ; 
Harie Scott ; Robert Scott ; James Stewart ; William Jacksone ; William 
Monteath 4 ; Cristopher Seattone 6 ; John Lilburne ; Alexander Seattone 6 ; 
John Scott; John Edmondstoun ; James Hendersone ; William Thomsone; 
James Grahame ; John Hamiltoun ; Thomas Hart ; Patrick Herroune ; 
Archibald Erskine ; (Quartermaster)* William Broune ; William Broun, 
clerk : 

Francis Dalzell, corporall ; Alexander Home ; John Turnbull ; Robert 
Sands; John Halyday ; Fetter Hay 7 ; Henry Moir ; John Patersoun ; 
Matthew Brisbane ; Alexander Andersone ; John Beverlie ; Charles 
Andersone ; William Garrioch 8 ; Thomas Hendersone; Gawin Dalzell; 
Robert Dalzell, elder ; Robert Dalzell, younger ; Thomas Clerk ; John 
Knox ; (Generall) William Wallace ; (idem) William Grein ; Fetter Branton, 

Hary Stewart, 9 corporall ; David Muschett ; Georg Rutherfoord ; 
William Halyburten ; William Kirkwood ; Patrick Gib ; (p : ab :) John 
Red ; Patrick Thomsone ; John Oynes ; Robert Bell ; Patrick Dalzell ; 
Francis Turner ; Robert Douglas ; William Campbell ; John Dalzell ; 
Mungo Campbell ; William Craufurd ; Andro M'Carsie ; (L.) James 
Gibsone ; (L.) Hugh M'Lellan ; (Generall) William Little ; Duncan 
Ochiltree, trumpet ; Andro Barcley, trumpet. 

(Signed) WILL. ARNOTT. 

* Words or letters in ( ) are inserted in the margin of the columns against the name 
following them. 

1 In a letter from the Earl of Argyll to Lauderdale, dated 5 June, 1668, the former 
writes : " I am now thinking on one Major George Campbell for my Major, but am not yet 
resolved." (Add. MS. 23129, fol. 141.) Said letter refers to the Militia. 

2 Robert Dury belonged to the old Fifeshire family of this name which was nearly allied 
to the Earl of Eothes. In 1672 he was appointed Lieut, in Sir Wm. Lockhart's Eegt. of 
Scots Foot. Subsequently served as 1st Lieut, to Sir James Halket's Company in the 
Eoyal Eegt. of Foot. Served at Tangier. Had 20 Royal Bounty for wounds received at 
Sedgemoor. Promoted Capt. 31 Dec. 1688. Believed to have served at Steinkirk and 
Landen. Died or left the Eegt. in May, 1696. 

3 Possibly Dalyell's old comrade Sir J. Balfour has left it on record that Thomas 
Dalyell of Binns and Colin Pitscottie, were chosen by the Committee of Estates, 6 May, 
1651, to be "Generall Majors of Foot" (Vol. IV. p. 297). It is also on record that 
" Pitscottie's Eegt. was ordained to attend the town of Perth during his Majesty's 
[Charles II.] abode there" (Ibid., p. 117). Served as a Major-General at Worcester. Was 
taken prisoner and sent to the Tower. The name of Pitscottie was doubtless derived from 
the place of that name in Fifeshire. 

56 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

4 Probably Wm. Menteath of Caribber, Co. Linlithgow. General Dalyell's elder 
daughter Magdalen md. James Monteith of Auldcathy. 

5 Christopher Seton, 5th Baron of Cariston, son and heir of George Seton, 4th Baron. 
Born 1645, md. firstly, Eliz. dau. of Patrick Lindsay of Woolmerston, Co. Fife, and 
2ndly, Helen, dau. of Watson of Atherny, and had issue by both wives. He d. 1718. 

Family, by George Seton. 

6 Younger bro. to Christopher Seton. Md. Isabel, dau. of Lindsay of Pitskanly. " It 
was probably under the roof of Alexander Seton that Archbishop Sharp passed the night 
of the day before his murder (3 May, 1679) at Magus Muir, near St. Andrews.' 1 Ibid. 
p. 590. 

7 Of Nauchton ? 

8 Of Tilliebethie ? Appointed Capt. of the Grendr. Company in the Earl of Mar's 
Regt. 19 June, 1682. Comn. renewed by James VII. in March, 1685. Left the Regt. 
4 Sept. 1686. 

9 A certain " Captain Harry Stewart, one of His Majesty's Life Guards," was buried 
in Greyfriars' Churchyard, 17 March, 1674. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 57 


[Troop raised in August, 1666.] 

Major Hary Drumond, 2 Brigadeir. 

Archibald Rolls ; 8 Robert Sincklare ; George Hoome of Argadie ; Hary 
Osburne ; Captain George Monro ; Captain Walter Leslie ; Captain George 
Norwall ; William Moncreife ; William Paton ; Thomas Drumond ; Patrick 
Drumond of Dubheids; James Taillor; Captain William Kenedie ; Archi- 
bald Auchinlek of Balmano ; William Blaire ; Adam Bell ; Francis Brown ; 
Alexander Glass ; Thomas Lidell. 

Major Hewgh Crawfoord, 4 Brigadeir. 

George Murray ; William Fleming ; Captain James Edmiston 5 of 
Newton; John Dalap ; William Graham; Mungo Graham; Alexander 
Hamilton ; Umphray Stewart ; William Drumond in Pitkenatie ; Robert 
Graham in Monteith ; William Crawfoord of Sillihill ; David Moncreife of 
Tippermalloch ; Hewgh Moncreife ; John Watters ; Captain James 
Crichton ; 6 Livtenent John Crichton ; William Drumond of Cowhallie ; 
Captain Robert Forbes ; John Haliburton ; Thomas Sime ; John Dove. 

Patrick Cramond, Brigadeir. 

James Graham of Breaco ; Robert Graham of Cairnie ; John Strawchan ; 
James Dumbar; James Linton ; James Landaills; George Lawson ; Alex- 
ander Cramond ; Lawrance Graham ; Hewgh Kenedie of Ardmillan ; 
Robert Dumbar : William Lenox ; James 1 1 anna ; Thomas Dawling ; 
Edward Makbryd of Balmurie ; Captain John Drumond of Strathell ; John 
Chalmers ; James Moore ; William Moore ; John Fraizer. 

Sterling, 18 September, 1667. The troup conforme to the list abon- 
written wes seen and mustered this day by me conforme to the publick 
order given as witnes my hand the day and date forsaid. (Signed) GEO. 

According to the instructions given to Captain Erskine and Thomas 
Bunten, the wholl troop had intimation given them, and all of them 
declared they wold keep them for the King's service soe long as they live. 
Stirling the 20th September 1667 ; I say the 20th. (Signed) Jo. DRUMOND. 

1 See special memoir, pp. 70-77, Part I. 

1 " The Convention of Estates Ordaines and oomands Harie Drummond rootmaister (ic) 
to marche with all expedition with his troop from Perth to Dumfries & to be there on 
Thursday nixt the 18 of this instant [April, 1644] to attend Colonel Campbellis regiment " 
(Thomson's Acti of the Parlt. of Scotland). "In July, 1644, Montrose surprised the 

58 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

garrison of Dumfries making prisoners of the Provost & men of a troop of horse, in the 
absence of their captain Harry Drummond of Pitcairne." Major Harry Drummond was 
Major of Lord Drnmmond's Kegt. 1659. Balfour's Annals, Vol. IV., p. 226. 

8 Second son of the 2nd Lord Rollo by his 2nd marriage. Served with the Royal Regt. 
of Foot, as a Captain, in the campaign against the Moors, 1680-1682. Left the Army on 
the accession of James VII. Is called " Major Hollo " in the Peerages. 

" Payment was made by the Convention of Estates to a certain Captain Hew Crawford 
of Clobarhill for 300 to the garrison of Berwick, 19 June, 1644. In 1651 a certain Hugh 
Crawford was a prisoner in the Tower of London. Cal. S.P.D. 

6 " James Edmonstone of Newton of Doune " was attainted by Act of Parliament 
14 July, 1690. He had been with Major-General Cannon's troops in the Highlands. Hist. 
MSS. Comn., 15th Report, Appx., Pt. IX., p. 94. 

6 Probably grandson of the Earl of Dumfries. On Committee of War for Dumfries 
in 1643. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 59 


TROUPE 1667. 


John Hamilton, corporall ; Archbald Dowglase ; John Reid ; Robert 
Dalzell ; John Hamilton ; James Hamilton ; Alexander Creuikes ; William 
Starke ; Alexander Brand ; James Forrest ; Robert Hamilton ; Robert 
Mackmorran ; Patrick Mackmorran ; John Bailie : William Bailie ; Thomas 
Lithgow ; 2 Androw Lithgow ; 8 Alexander Hay ; Herbert Carlile ; John 
Porterfeild ; William Fleming. 


Major William Murhead, 4 corporall ; Captain Jo. Miller ; Alexander 
Maxwell ; James Hamilton ; James Lightbodie ; William Cleland ; Jo. 
Miller; James Jordon; Jo. Hamilton; James Alexander; Robert Alexander; 
James Hume ; Adam Boyde ; William Kennedy ; Jo. Dicke ; Gilbert 
Kennedy ; George Weir ; Richard Ker ; Mr. Androw Herriot ; Thomas 
Forrester ; John Browne. 


Jo. Dowglass, corporall ; Captain Jo. Kar ; David Melvill ; David 
Wood ; Patrick Seatoune ; Francis Dowglass ; James Dowglass ; Alexander 
Hamilton ; Thomas Abernathy ; Ja. Forsayth ; James Lockhart ; Captain 
James Inglis; James Inglis ; Jo. Wood ; Jo. Twedie; Thomas Eldertoune ; 
William Hamilton; James Tod; Robert Crewkes ; Thomas Padzen; James 

Greirsone, trumpett ; Wallace, trumpett ; Alexander Cobren, clerke ; 
Levetenent Collonell Ker, qertermaister. 

(Signed) WILL. ARNOTT. 

1 Lord Wm. Douglas, eldest son of the Marquis of Douglas by his 2nd marriage, was 
created, 4 Aug. 1646, Earl of Selkirk. He was a devoted Royalist, and fought against the 
Cromwellians in Scotland till obliged to capitulate to Monk. Selkirk md. Anne, Duchess 
of Hamilton in her own right, and by the latter's petition to Charles II. was created 
Duke of Hamilton for life, 12 Oct. 1660. President of the Council, 1667. When the 
Militia was raised in Scotland Hamilton was appointed Colonel of a regiment and Captain 
of a Troop of Horse. Deprived of these two Commissions for his opposition to the Duke of 
Lauderdale (MSS. of the Duke of Hamilton, printed by the Hilt. MSS. Commission, Report 
XI., Appx., Pt. VI., p. 155). When the Highland Host was let loose by Lauderdale upon 
the western counties of Scotland Hamilton went to Court, with 14 other noblemen and 
50 country gentlemen, to complain to the King against Lauderdale's high-handed actions. 
Charles II. refused to receive Hamilton and his deputation. After Lauderdale's death 
Hamilton was restored to favour, and the King bestowed on him Lauderdale's vacant 
Garter. Hamilton died in 1694. 

J Thomas Linlithgow, or Lithgow, of Blainslie and portioner of Redpath (son of James 
Lithgow of Drygrange, Co. Roxburgh), was a Gentleman Private in one of the Troops of 
Scots Life Guards, 1667. D. before 1690. See pedigree of above family in Nisbet's 
Heraldic Plates, p. 57. 

3 Brother to above Thomas Linlithgow. Born 1649. A Gentleman Private in one of 
the Troops of Scots Life Guards, 1667. TMd. 

60 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

4 Served with distinction against the Cromwellian Army in Scotland. General Monk, 
writing to Oliver Cromwell under date of 8 Feb. 1654, says : " I have written to yonr 
Highness before concerning two arrant rogues, Major Moorehead (lie) and Captain Wish- 
hart (sic) who being sent (among those late sent) to the Barbadoes are now returned into 
Scotland. One Lt.-Col. Browne, a Scotchman who had a good plantacion in the Barbadoes 
bought the men and set them at liberty." In 1655, when the Earl of Selkirk's party in 
Scotland surrendered on terms to General Monk, Muirhead was specially referred to in the 
Treaty, dated 19 May, as follows : 

" That Major Wm. Moorheade, formerly of his Lordship's partie, giveing in good security 
bound in a bond of five hundred pounds sterling for his future peaceable deportment 
towards his Highness and the Commonwealth, shalbee alsoe indempnified in his person and 
estate for any thing done during the late warn .... and to have the benefit of these 
Articles and to give his security to Captain Hilyard within six weekes after the date 
hereof " (Scotland and the Protectorate, pp. 247 and 283). 

Joined the King's Troop of Life Guards in Nov. 1677. Described in Muster Boll of 
said Troop for 5 June, 1678, as "son to Lauchop." (Military History of Perththire, p. 13.) 
See also reference to Lachop in letter from James Murray, Clerk to the Life Guards, in his 
letter to the Earl of Strathmore, dated 15 Aug. 1678, given in the Appendix. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 61 


Liewtenant Sir William Murray. 2 

Cornet George Murray. 8 

Quarter Master Allexander Murray. 4 

Capitaine Ramsay, 6 corporall ; William Murray ; 6 Charles Karr ; 
Jo. Hume ; David Ramsay ; George Murray ; Abraham Hume ; Jo. Murray; 
Ja. Hume ; Adam Haswell ; Allexander Byers ; Patrick Edmistoun ; 
Lawrence Bruce : Walter Maxwell ; Jo. Brown ; Ja. 'Fyffe ; Jo. Murray, 
Atholl ; Henrie Moncreiffe ; Allexander Murray ; Ja. Lindesay. 

Capitaine Innis, corporall ; William Stewart ; Mark Hume ; Robert 
Lewingstone; Ja. Welsh ; Jo. Arroll ; Ja. Oiswalld ; Ja. Monteith ; William 
Hendersone ; Ja. Murray, Tillibarden ; Jo. Moncreiffe ; Jo. Kirk ; Thomas 
Hunter ; Archibald Campbell ; William Cowper ; George Hamiltoun ; 
Jo. Edger ; Gedeon Watsone ; Allexander Seatton ; Ja. Murray. 

Ja. Murray, corporall ; Harie Douglase ; Charles Achinmoutie ; Harie 
Scott; Ja. Adamsone ; Jo. Johnstone; William Stewart, Atholle ; Patrik 
Murray ; William Aitchisone ; William Duncane ; Patrick Chisholme ; 
Nicoll Carnecroce; Robert Deanes; William Wilsone ; Ja. Smyth; Ja. 
Achinmoutie; Jo. Murray, Falkland; Edmond Burion ; Walter Rodome. 
In all 59 corporall and souldiours. 

William Smyth, trumpet. 

By wertew of an order directed to me from my Lord Commissionare 
his Grace and remnant Commissionares of the Thesaurie, the above named 
officiers and souldiours of the forsaide troop was exactlie mustered by me 
day and yeere and place forsaide as witnes my hand. (Signed) ROBERT 

[next page] 
Dunce, 16 September 1667. 

From the other syd-59 men quherof ) 5g souldiours . 
of three corporalls, remains - J 

Item thers absent four men, viz. 
George Murray, minor 
John Strange - 
Ja. Moncreef 
John Thomson - - 

60 men. 

62 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Item absent the Captan. 

Item absent one trumpet cald J no . Ferguison. 

Item absent Ja. MGie, clerk. 

Item absent John Brown, ferior. 

Wee, Sir William Murray, Livtenant, George Murray, cornet, and 
Alexander Murray, quartermaster, declares that the four men above named 
with the trumpet, clerk and feriour, are absent upon forlof, and realy 
upon pay, conforme to the establishment. In witnes quherof wee have 
subscryvit these presents day and place forsaid. (Signed) W. MORAY, 
Lieutenant ; G. MURRAY, cornet ; ALEX. MURRAY, quartermaster. 

* Robert Mein, postmaster at Edinburgh, in a letter to Joseph Williamson, dated 
14 Aug. 1666, reports that : " The Earl of Atholl'l troop 60 well appointed gentlemen of 
quality, most of them old officers, was mustered" (Cal. S.P. Dom.). See also reference to 
this Troop in footnote to the Duke of Hamilton's Troop on p. 50. 

1 Succeeded his father, when a child, as 2nd Earl of Atholl, of the house of Murray, in 
1642. Took up arms in 1650 " to rescue Charles II. from the tyranny of the Covenanters " 
(Diet. Nat. Biog.) ; but was compelled by the King and the Estates to send in his submis- 
sion on pain of high treason (Ibid.). Joined General Middleton and the Earl of Glencairn, 
1653, with 2,000 men. Forced to surrender himself and his 2 regiments, 2 Sept. 1654. 
Excepted from Cromwell's " Act of Grace," 1654. At the Restoration Atholl was appointed 
a Privy Councillor and Sheriff of Fifeshire. Justice General of Scotland, 16 Aug. 1661. 
Captain of the King's Troop of Life Guards in July, 1670, and succeeded to the Earldom 
of Tullibardine same year. Keeper of the Privy Purse, 1672. Created Marquis of Atholl, 
17 Feb. 1676. At the head of 2,400 men he accompanied the Highland Host on " the 
Western raid," in 1678 ; but being disgusted with the excesses committed against the 
Covenanters and their families, he separated himself from the Lauderdale faction and 
joined the deputation of noblemen who went to the King to plead for more lenient 
measures to be pursued in the West of Scotland. On 26 Oct. 1678, Atholl was deprived 
of his command as Captain of the Life Guards. In a contemporary journal occurs this 
notice : " Atholl dispossessed of his place as Captain of the King's Guard by the 
Duchess of Luuderdale's caprice because his sone refused to marry her daughter " (Lauder's 
Historical Observes, p. 122). At the time of Argyll's insurrection, in 1685, Atholl was 
Lord Lieutenant of Argyllshire. The latter commanded the Militia forces sent against 
Argyll and his followers. It was chiefly owing to Atholl's untiring energy in following up 
the rebels that Argyll was captured and the rebels dispersed. James VII. conferred the 
Order of the Thistle on Atholl. At the Revolution this nobleman had difficult cards to 
play, as both Jacobites and Williamites made overtures to Atholl to secure his powerful 
influence for their respective sides, but he managed to steer clear of both Scylla and 
Charybdis. He d. 7 May, 1703. 

- Eldest son of Sir David Murray, Knt. of Stanhope, Peebleshire. For his fidelity to 
Charles I. during the Civil Wars, Charles II. created William Murray a Bart, of Nova 
Scotia, 13 Feb. 1664. He md. the Lady Janet Johnstone, dau. of the Earl of Hartfell, by 
whom he had 3 sons. 

3 Of Pittencrieff. 2nd son of 1st Lord Elibank by 3rd wife. Appointed Cornet of the 
King's Troop of Life Guards, 20 Dec. 1670. Lieut, and Lt.-Col. of the said Troop, 8 Jan. 
1682. On 31 March, 1696, " Lt.-Colonel George Murray of his Majesty's Horse Guards 
made a disposition to James, Earl of Panmure of his house and gardens in the Canongate 
of Edinburgh" (Registrum de Panmure, Vol. II., p. 345). Col. Murray left the Army 
before 1 Feb. 1698, and d. in 1702. 

4 Appears to have been the eldest son of Sir Archibald Murray, 3rd Bart., of Black- 
barony, Co. Peebles. Succeeded as 4th Bart. Sheriff Depute, Co. Peebles. Executed a 
bond of tailzie of his estate in favour of his son-in-law John Stewart of Ascoy, with 
remainder to Lord Elibank. D.s.p.m. 

6 Appears to have been Captain Win. Ramsay, 4th son of the 1st Earl of Dalhousie, who 
was serving as a Gentleman Private in the Life Guards in 1678. See Military Hist, of 
Perthshire, edited by the Marchioness of Tullibardine, p. 12. 

6 Possibly Lord Elibank's son who was a Gentleman Private in the Life Guards, 1678. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 63 


[Troop raised in August, 1666.] 

James, Earle of Airlie, 1 captaine ; 

Sir David Ogilvy s of Clovay, lieutennant ; 

James Lumsden s of Muntquhannie, cornet ; 

James Urquhart, 4 quartermaster ; 

Thomas Ogilvy, clerk ; 

Johne Peter, farrier ; 

Alexander Watt, trumpet ; 

Francis Bursie, trumpet. 


Johne Ogilvy of Peill, corporall ; Robert Dalzell ; Mr. William Gray ; 
Captain James Ogilvy; Majour Johne Lyon ; Colonell George Myllne; 6 
Robert Ogilvy ; James Ogilvy ; William Arrat ; Alexander Ogilvy ; James 
Ogilvy ; Patrick Ogilvy ; James Ramsay ; Johne Gordone ; Johne Gibsone ; 
James Wood ; George Wood ; Johne Ogilvy ; David Ogilvy ; Thomas 
Ogilvy ; David Ogilvy. 


Captaine Johne Inglis, corporall ; George Beattone ; George Lumsden ; 
Robert Guthrie ; James Campbell ; James Vetch ; Alexander Bruce ; 
Gilbert Annand ; William Ross ; George Ogilvy ; William Straton ; Francis 
Irnis ; Alexander Ramsay; Johne Haitly ; George Mushet ; James Sym- 
sone ; Thomas Ropley ; James Meldrum ; James Falconar ; James Ogilvy ; 
David Ogilvy. 


George Ogilvy, corporall ; Patrick Urquhart ; Lodovick Fletcher ; James 
Strachan ; William Johnstoune ; George Ogilvy ; Lodovick Ogilvy ; George 
Falconar ; George Nairn ; James Auchinleck ; David Ogilvy ; James 
Ogilvy ; William Ogilvy ; Robert Kerr ; Robert Wishart ; Johne Gentle- 
man ; David Fenton ; Donald Fenton ; James Ogilvy ; Patrick Ogilvy ; 
Johne Ogilvy. 

All the afoirnamed persones in this roll refuses to part with ther 
armes, viz* their pistolls and hulsters. (Signed) JAMES URQUHART, quarter- 

The roll of the Earlle of Airllies trowpe musterd at Dundee the 
17 September, 1667. (Signed) H. BONTEIN. 

64 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

1 Second Earl. Played a distinguished part in the Civil Wars. As Lord Ogilvy he 
fought under the gallant Montrose and was taken prisoner at Philiphaugh. " Was tried and 
condemned by the Parliament at St. Andrews, but had the good fortune to make his escape 
in his sister's dress, the very night before he was to have been executed " (Douglas's Peerage 
of Scotland). Appointed Lieut, of the Earl of Rothes's Tp. of Life Guards, 12 June, 1674. 
Capt. of a Tp. of Horse, 23 Sept. 1678. When Lord Airlie quitted this command in Nov. 
1682, Charles II. wrote him the following handsome letter : 

" Whitehall, 25 Nov. 1682. 

" Wee cannot remember the constant fidelity of your family, the eminent loyalty of 
your Father, and the many singular demonstrations thereof given by yourself in youractioni 
and sufferings for Our Royal Father and Ourselfe from the very beginning of the late 
accursed Rebellion until this day, without gracious and kind resentments suitable to your 
remarkable deserts. . . . Wee have given a Commission to your nephew the Laird of 
Meldrum to be Captain of that Our Troop of Horse which hitherto was commanded by 
you ; And doe reserve you for employments more proportionable to your quality and 
merits. . . . Wee have ordered 1,000 sterling money to be paid unto you forth of the first 
and readiest of the forfeited Estates therein mentioned" (Warrant Book for Scotland, 
Vol. VII.). Appointed Capt. in the Regt. of Scottish Horse, in room of his nephew, Adam 
Urquhart of Meldrum, deceased, 21 Nov. 1684. Commission renewed by James VII. in 
March, 1685. Retired 18 Oct. 1688. D. 1704. 

a Third son of the 1st Earl of Airlie. A devoted Royalist, who joined the Northern 
Cavaliers, under General Middleton, after the rout at Dunbar, and subscribed " The Northern 
Band and Oath of Engagement." A Scottish writer thus refers to Sir David Ogilvy in 
connection with the above-named party : " One whose name compels attention . . . like 
most of the others just told over, was Sir David Ogilvy, to whom belonged the chief credit 
of the camisade or night attack [21 Oct. 1650] that had brought Sir John Brown's northward 
errand to an abrupt end. It was not the first affair of the sort in which that Ogilvy had 
taken part, whether on the winning side or the losing. It had been his lot to join in the 
memorable surprise and rout of the Campbells at Inverlochy, where his brother, Sir Thomas, 
got his death wound ; his too, as we suppose, to cut his way out of the betrayed ranks 
at Philiphaugh, where another brother, Lord Ogilvy, fell into the Covenanters' hands. 
The whirligig of time had brought over to the same side as the Ogilvies one of the 
commanders who had stolen a march upon their great leader on the latter occasion ; so that 
now it was in concert with Middleton though we know not whether by his direct orders 
or by a move of his own at the head of the Cortachy and Clova men that Sir David had 
effected the rout of Sir John Brown's squadrons" (Cromwell's Scotch Campaigns, by 
W. S. Douglas, pp. 159-160). Appointed Lieut, of Lord Ross's newly-raised Troop of 
Horse, 4 Sept. 1674. 

3 ? Son of Robert Lumsdaine of Mountquhanie, Co. Fife, who was killed at the siege 
of Dundee in 1651. Appointed Capt. in Sir Wm. Lockhart's Regt. of Scots Foot, 14 March, 

4 Third son of Patrick Urquhart of Meldrum, and nephew to the Earl of Airlie. 
Ancestor of the Urquharts of Craigston, Co. Aberdeen. Wag appointed Qr.-Mr. to his 
brother's Troop in the Regt. of Scots Horse on the accession of James VII. Believed to be 
identical with the James Urquhart who was appointed Adjt. of Col. Ric. Cunningham's 
Dragoons in June, 1691, and subsequently became Capt.-Lieut. of said Regt. the present 
7th Hussars. 

6 Col. George Milne, of Co. Aberdeen, was one of the " Colonels appointed in several 
shires for putting the Kingdom in a state of defence, 8 Feb. 1649." Thomson's Acts of the. 
Parlt. of Scotland, Vol. VI., p. 164. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 65 


[Troop raised in August, 1666.] 

Hawick, the 18 day of September, 1667. 

A List of the officiers and souldiours in the Laird of Hatton his troop, 

mustered by me, wndersubscriwand as fallowes I- 
Charles Maitland, 1 capitaine; Major William Cockburne, 2 liewtenant; 

Ja. Foulles s of Colington, younger, cornet ; Robert Scott, 4 quarter master ; 

Jo. Maitland, clerk ; Jo. Booth, trumpett ; Ja. Broun, trumpett. 

Captain Lewes Lawder, 5 corporall ; Archibald Douglasse ; Jo. Logan ; 
George Gordoun ; Ja. Inglish ; Walter Patersone ; William Patersone ; 
Robert Maitland ; Jo. Wilsoun ; Jo. Dumbraicke ; William Scott ; Adam 
Muskett ; Mungo Andrew ; William Finlay ; Jo. Arnott ; Mr. James 
Lawder; Jo. Busbie ; Ja. Pollock. 

Major Ja. Gordoun, corporall ; Charles Lawder ; Jo. Colhoun ; William 
Hendersone ; Ja. Haliburtoun ; William Clealand ; Mathew Patersone ; 
Walter Pringell ; Hew Esdaill ; Archibald Aitchisone ; Robert Leitch ; 
Allexander Hoome ; Mungo Murray ; William Rosse ; Allexander Chis- 
holme ; David Dougleish ; Thomas Kennoway ; Gilbert Lewingtonne ; 
Jo. Geddesse. 

William Damahoy, 8 corporall; Mitchell Balfour; Thomas Ord; Arthour 
Hepburne ; Harie Pringell ; Francis Scott ; Walter Macdougall ; Thomas 
Craige ; William Macleshe ; Jo. Storie ; Ja. Weere ; William Smyth ; 
Ja. Sommerwaill ; Robert Shannan ; Ja. Wernar ; William Legatt ; William 
Temple ; Jo. Gordoun ; Jo. Binnie ; Ja. Gordoun. 

The totall of the souldiours besyds officiers is 54. By wertew of an 
order directed to me of the 13 of this instant from my Lord Commis- 
sionaire his Grace and remnant Lords of the Thesaurie, the abowewritten 
troop was exactlie mustered by me day yeere and place forsaide as witnes 
my hand. (Signed) ROBERT MAINE. 

[Next page.] 

Hawick, 18th September, 1667. 
From the other syd 54 men. 


David Merielies, feriour ; John Gardner, soldier, Ja. Cowan, William 
M c ith (?), Ja. Smyth, George Storie, William r^awfurd 06. In all 
60 troupers. 

We the officers of the troup within designed declares that these sex 
men with the feriour above named are absent upon forlofes, and are realy 

66 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

upon pay, as witnes our hands day and place forsaid. (Signed) CH. 

1 Third son of the 1st Earl of Lauderdale and brother of the Duke of L . Md. 

Elizabeth, dau. and heiress of Richard Lauder, of Hatton, Co. Edinburgh, and obtained a 
charter from Charles II., 4 Dec. 1660, conferring on " Charles Maitland and his heirs male 
by his said wife the lands of Hatton, Norton, north and south Platts, &c., in aforesaid 
county." The laird of Hatton wrote a graphic account of the engagement with the 
Covenanters at Bullion Green, in Nov. 1667, to his brother, the Earl of Lauderdale, which 
letter is printed in the Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., pp. 248-252. In 1672 Charles II. conferred 
a baronetcy on Charles Maitland. He held the appointments of General of the Mint, 
Treasurer Depute, and one of the Judges of the Court of Session. The King granted him 
and his heirs, in 1671, the reversion of the ancient office of Hereditary Royal Standard 
Bearer of Scotland held by the Earl of Dundee. The last-named nobleman d. in 1668 
without lawful male issue. At the Coronation of King Edward VII. Scotland's Standard 
was borne by Mr. Henry Scrymegour Wedderburn of Birkhill, Fife, but after lengthy 
litigation the Lord President of the Scottish Court formally ruled on 18 July, 1908, that the 
present Earl of Lauderdale, the heir-general of Charles Maitland, 3rd Earl of Lauderdale 
(who d. 1691), had proved his claim. 

2 Son of William Cockburn of Skirling. " He had a sasine in 1668 of some portions of 
the lands of Peilflat, in the parish of Newbottle and regality of Dalkeith, on charter from 
Wm., Earl of Lothian " ( The Souse of Cockburn of that Ilk and the Cadets thereof, by 
T. Cockburn-Hood, pp. 252-253). Soon after the disbandment of the Laird of Hatton's 
Troop, Major Wm. Cockburn was appointed Under-Lieutenant to the Troop of Life Guards 
under the command of the Earl of Newburgh. The Privy Council, by decree dated 2 Sept. 
1668, ordered Major Cockburn to march with a detachment of Life Guards to Galloway, 
and parts adjacent, " to make search . . . for any of the rebells, or excepted persons, and to 
persue them wherever they can be found." (See Appendix.) Major Cockburn appears to 
have retired from the Life Guards in April, 1681. He probably entered the Militia, as at the 
time of his death, which occurred at Stonie-flat, 6 June, 1683, he was styled Lieut.-Colonel. 
His wife was Mary Melrose, and by her he had a son named William, also in the Army. In 
Jan. 1692 this son was returned " haeres Vicecollonelli Gulielmi Cockburne de Standanflat 
et Peilflat." 


" Here lyes an honest heart, a valiant hand, 
Knew both how to obey and to command, 
A loving father, and an husband kind, 
A souldier both in body and in mind ; 
So stout that to the pale beholder's wonder 
He durst encounter the amazing thunder. 
And did the honour of the Scots advance ; 
By Prowess both through Germany and France ; 
His valour and his loyalty was seen 
Against the rebels at the Rullzion Green. 
He Hector and Ulysses both in one, 
Knew to match valour with discretion ; 
In point of honour when his spleen did rise, 
He quell'd his foes by lightning from his eyes. 
His martial frown it could at once controul, 
And cure the lethargie of a coward's soul. 
Nor did his worth alone consist in warrs, 
In him Minerva joyned was with Mars ; 
He owed a breast to which it did appeare, 
Valour and Vertue native tenants were ; 
Yea vertue sway'd her sceptre there, for both 
He fear and baseness equally did loath. 
And in his heart, which was a sign of grace, 
God, and the Church, and King, had chiefest place ; 
As King and Church did gratefully regard him, 
So God hath call'd him home now to reward him. 
Therefore let's modestly bewail our crosse, 
Heaven's gain and his can never be our losse." 

Scotish Elegiac Verset, 1629-1729, p. 34. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 67 

3 Son and heir of Sir James Foulis, Bart., titular Lord Colinton. Succeeded his father 
as 3rd Bart. Was a Lord of Session and sat in the last Scottish Parliament in 1706, and 
subsequently had a seat in the first British Parliament. D. 1711. 

4 Probably Robert Scott of Harwood, who had been a Justice of the Peace for 
Roxburghshire, 1656. 

6 Descended from Sir John Lander of Hatton. Probably father of Lewis Lauder, who 
was appointed Lieut, to Sir James Turner's Troop in the Regt. of Scots Dragoons, 
25 Nov. 1681. 

' Of Ravelrig. Brother to Sir Alex. Dalmahoy of that Ilk. Md. Helen Martine. 

L 2 

68 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


[Raised in Jan. 1667.] 

[Robert, Master of Maxwell, 2 Lieut.] 

[John, Lord Lindores, 3 Cornet.] 
[Sir James Johnstone, 4 of Westerhall, Qr.-Mr.] 

James Ingleis, corporall; John Herries; John Johnstoune; James 
Boyd ; William Mathers ; James Fergushill ; William Porteous '; Andruw 

John Broune ; James Carrutheres ; William Stewart ; Robert Lauder ; 
Thomas Kennedy ; William Johnstoune ; John Kerr, elder. 

Robert Kerr ; John Carrutheres ; Ninian Croser ; Patrick Gardner ; 
Robert Herries ; John Elliott. 

James Johnstoune, corporall ; William Warrand ; Thomas Birrell ; 
Patrick Blair ; James Johnstoune ; James Gibb ; Robert Johnstoune. 

Patrick Stoboe ; John Johnstoune, Breckensyde ; William Drybrugh ; 
Thomas Johnstoune ; Adam Law ; William Carrutheres ; John Irving. 

George Mercer ; Mungoe Johnstoune ; Bryce Blair ; 6 Androw John- 
stoune ; John Hendersone ; William Hendersone ; Robert Carrutheres. 

Robert Murray, corporall ; Alexander Maxwell ; William Inneis ; 
Thomas Litherdaill ; Thomas Charteres ; John Hoome ; George Douglas. 

Robert Collinwood ; Henry Gray ; Thomas Bredforth ; David Maxwell ; 
William Cairlyle ; Hew Maxwell. 

John Murray ; Alexander Huttoune ; William Cunynghame, Re[id] ; 
William Herries; John Ker, younger; John Maxwell; John Meinzies; 
James Wilsone. 

William Couper, 6 clerk ; Robert Greir, John Thomsone, trumpets ; 
Gabriell Oliphant, ferrier. 

(Signed) ANNANDALE. 

1 Original Commission in the Annandale Charter Chest, dated 1 Jan. 1667. James 
Johnstone, 2nd Earl of Hartfell. At the Restoration this nobleman was allowed to ex- 
change his title of Hartfell for that of Annandale, for which he got a patent with the 
original precedency of the Earldom of Hartfell. On 25 June, 1661, a special Act of Par- 
liament was passed in his favour in consideration " of the losses, fines, and sufferings 
sustained by the then Earl of Hartfell and his father for their loyalty. In 1644, father 
and son joined Montrose. The Earl of Hartfell was taken prisoner, kept in Edinburgh 
Castle for a year, and fined 12,000. In 1645 again joined Montrose and was once more 
taken prisoner at Philiphaugh, committed to several prisons, pursued for his life and after 
an expensive and tedious process fined 100,000 Scots" (The Annandale Family Book of 
the Johnstones, Vol. I., p. ccxxxvi.). Md. Lady Henrietta Douglas 4th dau. of William, 
1st Marquis of Douglas, by whom he had issue. Lord Annandale was hereditary Constable 
of the Castle of Lochnaben by charter dated 3 April, 1662. He d. at Leith, 7 July, 1672, 
at the house of the Marchioness of Douglas, mother of his Countess. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

J His name appears in the original pay lists in the Annandale Charter Chest. Succeeded 
as 4th Earl of Nithsdale. Was brother-in-law to the Earl of Annandale. D. 1685. 

3 His name and that of the Quarter-Master appear in the original pay lists in the Annan- 
dale Charter Chest. John Leslie, 4th Lord Lindores, succeeded his father in July, 1667. 
His name appears in the list of those to whom shares of the " Forfeitures " were granted, 
in Dec. 1679, for services at Both well Brigg. D. 1706. 

4 In 1679 this knight was cited as nearest of kin to William, Earl of Annandale. By 
Margaret, dau. of John Bannatyne, of Corhouse, he left at his decease, in 1699, a son John 
who was created a Bart, of Nova Scotia in 1700. 

6 A cadet of Blair of that Ilk. Appointed Lieut, in Sir Edward Hales's newly-raised 
Regt. of Foot 20 June, 1685. Capt.-Lieut. 27 Nov. 1688. Adhered to James VII, at the 
Revolution. He was mixed up with Sir George Barclay's " Assassination Plot " in 1695. 
A reward of 1,000 was offered by Royal proclamation, 23 Feb. 1696, for any of the con- 
spirators Bryce Blair being named as one of them. Blair turned King's evidence and 
saved his neck. Luttrell's Diary. 

Described in The Annandale Family Book of the Johnstones (Vol. I., p. ccxl.), as 
" servant to the Earl of Annandale and also as clerk to his troop." In the Annandale 
Charter Chest is "A bill of disbursements to the troop kept by Wm. Couper." From this 
document it appears that payments dated from 1 Jan. 1667. 

70 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


[Troop raised in March, 1667.] 


Major George Bruce, 2 corporall ; Hans Adams, trumpett ; Major James 
Mercer ; 8 Captain Archibald Colvill ; 4 Johne Maiatertone; David Seatton ; 
William Bruce ; Mr. James Ker ; James Broun ; John Christie ; James 
Henderson ; William Blaickburn ; Robert Muckill ; George Angus ; 
William Ker ; William Douglas ; Heugh Innes ; Thomas Bartle'y ; Chris- 
tian Diziner ; Archbald Campbell ; George Bruce ; John Broun. 


Patrick Ker, corporall ; James Inglis ; Michaell Bruce ; Robert Ramsey ; 
David Kennewie ; Thomas Fairbairne ; Harie Grahame ; John Bothwell ; 
Adam McKubie ; John Simpson, Dysart ; Robert Bruce ; Thomas Arbuth- 
nett ; John Sheills ; Robert Elliott ; David Chisholme ; Allexander Tay- 
lour ; Patrick McKleran ; Robert Scott ; Robert Taylour ; Thomas 
Taylour; John Donaldsone. 


Major David Lumsdain, 6 corporall ; William Wilsone, trumpett ; 
Andrew Rutherfoord ; George Ker ; John Buchannan ; William Trotter ; 
John Hull ; William Fleeming ; George Widhouse ; Andrew Ker ; John 
Stewart; John Sandis, Overton ; Henry Bairner ; Robert Ker of Shaw; 
William Gray; John Simpsone, Culros ; John Robertsone; John Taylour; 
John Mack ; Andrew Lessills ; Robert Ker ; Andrew Midelton. 

Captain Andrew Dick, 6 quarter master. 
George Mitchell, clerk. 
Andrew Walker, ferrier. 

Dumfermling, 16 September, 1667. This day the troup conform to the 
list abounvrytten wes seen and mustered conform to the publick order, 
as witnes my hand day and date forsaid. (Signed) GEO. ERSKiNE. 7 

Acording to the instructiones given to Captaine Erskin and Thomas 
Buntyn the whole troup had intimatione given them, and ther was non 
that willingly would condiscend to part with ther armes for money. At 
Dumfermling the 17th of September 1667. (Signed) ANDREW DICK. 

1 Second Earl. Bishop Burnet, in his History of his own time, says this lord " was the 
worthiest man that belonged to his country, fit for governing any affairs, a faithful friend 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 71 

and a merciful enemy." Lord Kincardine openly asserted that " he thought a well-ordered 
episcopacy the best of governments." (Letter from Kincardine to Archbishop Sharp, 
6 Nov. 1665.) D. 9 July, 1680. 

* Grand uncle to the Laird of Clackmanan and Brigadier in the King's Troop of Life 
Guards in 1678. See Muster Roll of the Troop printed in A Military History of Perth- 
shire, p. 13. 

3 Kinsman to Lord Kincardine. A cadet of the family of Mercer of Aldie. Living 
1 May, 1672. See Justiciary Records, Vol. II., p. 105. 

4 Given charge of the Fencibles in Linlithgowshire at 4bper mensem, in 1649. Acts of 
the Parliament of Scotland, Vol. VI. 

* Lumsdaine. Kinsman to Lord Kincardine, whose eldest sister had married Sir James 
Lumsdaine of Innergelly. 

* Probably of the Braid family. Lord Kincardine's aunt Nicholas Bruce had married 
secondly, a son of Sir Wm. Dick of Braid. Provost of Edinburgh. 

" See biog. notice on p. 33, note 8. 

72 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


[Troop raised in March, 1667.] 

The Earll Marischall, 1 captin ; Sir Johne Keith, 2 levtennent; James 
Hay, 8 cornet ; Captin William Keith, 4 quartermaster ; Captin William 
Barklay, 6 Alexander Moncreiff, and William Logic of Bogheid, corpralls ; 
Andro Ramsay, clerk ; Johne and James Getes, trumpeters ; Georg Wat- 
sone, ferrier. 


Alexander Mylne ; Mr. Murein ; Georg Kay ; Robert Keith ; Andro 
Muncur; Mr. Johne Grainger; Ja. Forbes; William Udney ; William 
Gray ; William Barklay ; Alexander Gordoun ; Hew Frisell ; Alexander 
Forgisone ; Alexander Hay ; Robert Keith, Brothertoun ; Ja. Ruther- 
furd ; Johne Wischart ; Robert Colysone ; Georg Dowglas ; Robert 


Lues Monteith ; Andro Balvaird ; Harrie Sinclar ; Paitrick Keith ; 
Alexander Hay, Blak ; Johne Grant ; Hew Smyth ; Alexander Lennox ; 
Thomas Wyr; Georg Ker; Johne Balvaird; Andro Gordoun; Ja. Gor- 
doun ; Johne Lumsden ; Mr. Ralph Hall ; William Gordoun ; Charles 
Hall ; Ritchard Barklay ; David Ogilbie ; Johne Cowie. 


Alexander Wilsone ; James Broun ; Mr. William Logic ; John Ross ; 
William Johnstoun ; Robert Irving ; Alexander Fraiser ; Rodger Keith ; 
Duncan Grant ; John Forbes ; Lewes Tullo ; Walter Stewart ; John 
Logie ; Alexander Gordoun ; John Stewart ; William Peirie ; Walter 
Lindsay ; Georg Pittendreich ; Georg Forbes ; William Ferquhartson. 

This is the just and trew list of the Earll Marischalls troup, that was 
mustered by Major Hew Buntin at Aberdein the 20 day of September 
1667. (Signed) H. BONTEIN. 

I doe hereby testifie that none of all the gentlemen of the said troupe 
wold sell their pistolls nor hulsters. As witnesse my hand at Aberdein 
this 20th September 1667. (Signed) W. KEITH. 

[In foot corner] 826" sterling. 

1 Succeeded his bro. William as 8th Earl Marischal in 1661. Of this nobleman Douglas 
in his Peerage of Scotland says : " A man of undaunted courage and intrepidity, who, in 
his younger days, served in the wars in France and soon rose to the degree of a colonel ; 
but when the unhappy civil war broke out, he returned to his native country, and imme- 
diately joined the loyalists, and suffered many hardships during the usurpation. He died 
in an advanced age in the year 1694, leaving issue by Lady Mary Hay, daughter of George, 
Earl of Kinnoull, one only son and successor." 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 73 

a On 2 Jan. 1676 Charles II. signed a warrant in favour of Sir John Keith, bro. of the 
Earl Marisehal. Said warrant "recited a grant by letters patent of 31 Aug. 1660 to 
Sir John Keith in consideration of his services in preserving the crown, sceptre and sword 
from the rebels, of the office of Knight Marisehal of Scotland for his life, for a new grant 
of the said office to the said Sir John Keith and to John his second son for their lives and 
the life of the survivor, fee 400 sterling per annum " ( Cal. S.P.D., 1675-6). Was created 
Baron Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall, and Earl of Kintore, 26 June, 1677. D. 
in 1714. 

3 Brother to Wm. Hay, 3rd Earl of Kinnoull and to the Countess Marisehal. James 
Hay's appointment as Cornet is referred to by Genl. Wm. Drummond in a letter to Lau- 
derdale : " April 16, 1667 ... I find my Lord Marshal at a stand as to his Cornet, having 
engaged himself to the E. of Kinowl's brother before he understood your recommending 
of E. of Morray's [brother]" (Add. MS. 23126, f. 161). A certain James Hay was 
appointed Captain in Lord James Douglas's Begt. of Scots Foot, 20 Feb. 1678. 

4 A certain Capt. Wm. Keith, son of Col. George Keith, was Sheriff Depute of Kin- 
cardineshire 1662-67. 

6 Probably brother to Col. David Barclay, a renowned Royalist officer. The latter 
purchased the lands and barony of Urie, Co. Kincardine, from Wm. Earl Marisehal. 

74 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


[Troop raised in March, 1667.] 

John, Earle of Dundie, 1 captaine ; Lord Napeir, 2 levtenent ; William, 
Maister of Ramsay, 3 cornet ; James Henderson, quartermaister ; William, 
Seatton, clerk ; Patrick Thomson, ferrier ; George Hump, trumpet ; 
William Bell, trumpet. 


Majour John Innes, 4 corporall ; Mr. Charles Irwing ; William Chaip ; 
James Logane ; Andrew Ker ; David Edingtoune ; George Storie ; Harie 
Logane; William Blair; William Seattoun; Gilbert Clerk; James Ayssone; 
Ritchard Storie; James Mochrie ; David Murison; John Porterfeild ; 
Patrik McArter ; Arthur Grahame ; James Hewart ; Peiter Sym ; James 

Captaine Hanse King, corporall; Captaine William Lyon ; John Gor- 
doun ; James Spense ; James Forbes ; Mr. Alexander Seattoun ; John 
Cruikshank ; James Sinclair ; John Davidsone ; Alexander Hendrie ; John 
Logane ; William Alexander ; Patrick Watt ; George Keith ; Mathew 
Murray ; John Logie ; Alexander Sibbald ; Robert King ; John Corstor- 
phing : James Ouchterlonie ; George Murray. 

Captaine George Bucham, 5 corporall ; Robert Symmers : John Scrym- 
sour ; Robert Ker ; Patrick Levingstoun ; William Lindsay ; Thomas 
Bailzie; James Pattoun ; John Edger; Alexander Crag; James Cochrane ; 
Thomas Burn ; John Lindsay ; David Phin ; James Cleppon ; William 
Logan ; David Thomsone ; Laurence Mortoun ; John Bairdie ; Andrew 
Balfour ; John Brysone. 

The roll of the Earlle of Dundees trowpe mustered at Dundee the 
17 September 1667. (Signed) H. BONTEIN. 

All the aforenamed persones in this Roll refuises to part with their 
pistolls and hulsters. (Signed) T. HENDERSONS. 

1 John Scrymgeour 3rd Viscount Dudhope and 1st Earl of Dundee. In Douglas's 
Peerage is the following notice of this nobleman : " He was a man of great honour and 
integrity, a firm and steady friend of the Royal family. He was colonel of the Forfarshire 
horse that were raised for Duke Hamilton's engagment anno 1648, and accompanied King 
Charles II. to the battle of Worcester anno 1651, and though he had the good fortune to 
make his escape, yet he suffered great and many hardships on account of his loyalty during 
the usurpation. But the King . . . was pleased to make him Earl of Dundee anno 1661, 
and appointed him one of his Privy Council. Had the office of Hereditary Standard 
Bearer of Scotland." He married Lady Margaret Ramsay, daughter of William, Earl of 
Dalhousie, but died without issue 23 June, 1668. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 75 

2 Archibald 3rd Lord Napier of Merchiston. Succeeded in 1660. Had a new patent 
dated 7 Feb. 1677. D. a bachelor 1683. His estate and honours in virtue of above patent 
devolved upon his nephew Sir Thos. Nicholson of Carnock. 

3 See mention of the duel he fought on p. 78. His father, Lord Ramsay, commanded 
the Midlothian Militia in 1667, as appears from General Dalyell's letter to Lord Lauderdale 
written from Leith 30 April : 

"... 17 dutch men of war appeared in this firth ... it is expected they will 
assault this place . . . sent order to the lord Ramsay to call the forces of Midlothian 
to this place. To the E. of Winton to bring the forces of east lothian to Musselburgh, 
and to the E. of Callander and sheriff of Linlithgow to bring those shires to Queens- 
ferry . . . Haltoun's troop and two companies more of the general's foot are come 
to this place " (Add. US. 23126, f. 184, modern spelling). 

Succeeded as 3rd Earl of Dalhousie. Appointed Lt. -Colonel of the Earl of Mar's newly- 
raised Regt. of Scots Foot (present Royal Scots Fusiliers) 23 Sept. 1678. D. in 1682. 

4 Under date of 19 Jan. 1652, the Council of State in London ordered 10 to be given 
to the searchers at Gravesend for their care in apprehending Lt.-Col. Montgomery and 
Major Ennis (sic) who had escaped from the Tower. Cal. S.P. Dom. 

5 " Son of John Buckholme in Belshiemline in Teviotdale." (A Military History of 
Perthshire, p. 9 and note). Serving as a Brigadier in the King's Troop of Life Guards in 
1678 (Ibid.) Comn. renewed by James VII. in 1685 as " Brigadier & Lieut." He held 
his Commission until 5 Nov. 1688 (Ibid.). 

76 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


[Troop raised in March, 1667.] 

George Wyndrome, 8 levetennent ; Robert Fergusone, 8 cornett ; William 
Douglas, 4 quartermaster ; James Halloway, David Drumond, trumpets. 


William Douglas, corporall ; Johne Douglas ; James Stewart ; James 
Menzeis ; William Douglas; James Jonstoune ; Robert Grahame ; Johne 
Wilsone ; Johne Douglas ; William Douglas ; Johne Fergusone ; Mathow 
Greir ; James Neilsone ; James Douglas ; William Sitleintoune ; Robert 
Allexander ; Robert Hendersone ; Andro Cunynghame ; Thomas Kirk- 
patrik ; Robert Cunynghame ; James Broune (deleted) ; Patrik Leslie. 


Patrik Leslie, Corporall ; Thomas Fergusone ; Archbald Douglas ; 
Samuell Douglas ; William Charters ; William Glendinein ; Robert Gor- 
doune ; James Maxwell; Johne Maxwell; Allexander Cunynghame; 
William Leslie ; Robert Stewart ; Johne Gordoune ; Hendrie Hathorne ; 
Allexander Inneis ; Johne Ewart ; Thomas Maxwell ; Robert Craik ; 
Edward Douglas ; James Wilsone ; George Kerr. 


Mathow Dewlie, corporall ; Johne Fetherstoune ; Johne Hiltoune ; 
Jerveis Burbeck ; Justeice Storie ; Thomas Craikenthrope ; Andro Lette- 
mer ; Lodovick Carlyle ; Johne Pearne ; Neall Lean ; Thomas Smith ; 
William Brohome ; Anthone Simpsone ; William Gordoune ; Ritchard 
Gibsone ; James Armstrong ; John Davidsone ; Hew Charters ; John 
Fergusone ; Steven Smith ; Ritchard Walker. 

Samuell Kirkpatrik, clerk ; Samuell Huntter, ferier. 

I, William Douglas, quarter master to my Lord Drumlangrigs troupe 
doeth declair that the gentlemen abovenamed mustered by Sir Johne 
Strachane is the just roll of my Lord Drumlangrigs troupe, and they all 
refused to delyver up their armes, being desyred be the Captan and the 
said John. This roll is delyvered be me to James Thomsone, Commissar of 
Kirkcudbright, as witnes my hand at Drumfreis the 19 September 1667. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 77 

1 Eldest son of Wm., 1st Duke of Queensberry. Appointed Lt.-Col. of the Regt. of 
Scots Horse 16 June, 1684. Accompanied his corps to England in Oct. 1688. Was one of 
the noble guests who supped with King James, at Andover, on the 24 NOT. 1688, and who, 
as scon as his Majesty had gone to bed rode off together to the Prince of Orange's camp 
(Lord Clarendon's Diary, II., p. 93). Appointed Col. and Capt. of the Scots Troop of Life 
Guards 31 Dec. 1688. "In 1690, he commanded a separate body of troops against the 
Highlanders, who had taken arms in favour of the late King " (Cannon's Records of the Life 
Guards'). Succeeded as 2nd Duke of Queensberry in 1695. Was subsequently Lord High 
Commissioner for Scotland. Created Duke of Dover in 1708. Appointed one of the 
principal Secretaries of State for both kingdoms in 1710. D. in London, 6 July, 1711, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles, as 3rd Duke of Queensberry and 2nd Duke 
of Dover. 

Winram or Winraham. Younger son of Lord Liberton who was mortally wounded 
at the battle of Dunbar. Appointed Major of Sir Wm. Lockhart's Regt. of Scots Foot 
13 March, 1672. Previous to that date is said to have been Major of Lord George Douglas's 
Regt. Major of Sir George Monro's newly-raised Regt. of Scots Foot 25 Aug. 1674. 
Major of Col. George Legge's Regt. of Foot 18 Feb. 1678. Capt. in the Scots Dragoons 
30 March, 1685. Lt.-Col. of last-named Regt. 30 July, 1686. Lt.-Governor of Edinburgh 
Castle 31 Dec. 1686. Pension of 200 granted him by James VII. same date. Sir John 
Lauder in his Historical Observes, writing under date of 1685, says : " Major George 
Winrame and other Popish officers got places in Scotland tho' our Test be stricter against 
them than the English " (p. 170). Col. Winram was Lt.-Gov. of Edinburgh Castle when it 
was held for James VII. by the Duke of Gordon in 1689. It is recorded by James Grant, 
the novelist, that : " Sir Robert Innes, Bart, of Orton served as a private under Col. 
Winram and married his daughter at a period long subsequent to 1689 " (A Constable of 
France,p.212 note). In a "London News Letter "of "7 Dec. 1689 "occurs this intelligence: 
" Letters from Scotland say that Colonel Windam (sic) late deputy governor of Edinburgh 
Castle, when it was under command of the Duke of Gordon, has endeavoured to make his 
escape out of the Castle where he has been kept prisoner, ever since the surrender of it, 
but was discovered and taken by the sentry." Cal. S.P. Dom. 

3 Younger son of Alexander Fergusson, of Isle, Co. Dumfries. Md. Agnes Graham and 
had sasine of the lands of Lago, &c., in 1665. Burke's Landed Gentry. 

* Possibly the Wm. Douglas appointed Cornet to Lord Wm. Douglas in the King's Regt. 
of Scots Horse 4 Dec. 1684. 

78 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Robert, Lord Carnegie. 1 


Sir James Hume. 8 

* The following unpublished letter, damaged by damp, from the Lauderdale MSS. 
(Add. ATS. 23126, f. 87), refers to this Troop : 

"Edgfeb: 16 6 

" I hope my Lord you will pardon me for this trpwble since it flowes from my sense 
of this last & great obligation in obtaineing me A troop from the Kyng all ye returne 
I ame Capable to make y r lop for so high ane act of fawor & kindnes is yt next my 
endeavoring to doe his Majes^ : all ye serwyce I ame able my sole inclinations shalbe to 
deserwe in some measure ye honor of [your friendship & believe it my Lord you shall 
euer find me most gratefull. Adieu]. 


1 Eldest son of James, 2nd Earl of Southesk. Is said to have been Captain of one of 
the Companies of Scottish Guards in France. On 12 April, 1666, Lord Carnegie fought a 
duel at Cupar " after cupps " with the Earl of Linlithgow ; the latter was severely wounded 
(The Wemyss Family Book, edited by Sir W. Fraser, Vol. I., p. 305 note). Lord Carnegie 
served at Pentland under Dalyell. Succeeded as 3rd Earl of Southesk in 1669. Colonel 
of the Forfarshire Militia. D. 19 Feb. 1688. 

5 Robert Mein, the Edinburgh postmaster, in a letter to Joseph Williamson (Lord 
Arlington's secretary), dated " Edinburgh, 13 April, 1667," chronicles : " A duel was fought 
in the Link of Leith between two parties and two seconds, the Master of Ramsay and Sir 
James Hume of Ackells [Eccles], William Douglas, brother to the laird of Blaikerston, 
and the laird of Spot, who were all wounded " (Gal. S.P. Dom., 1667). Sir James Hume, 
a Berwickshire knight, died from his wound. General Drummond in an unpublished letter 
to Lauderdale, dated " Edinburgh, 16 April, 1667," says : " My Lord Carnegie's cornet Sir 
James Hume is unhappily killed." Add. MS. 23126, f. 161. 


George Home 1 of Wedderburne to be Cornet of that 
Troop in Lieut.-General Drummond the King's Major- 
General's Regt. of Horse of which Lord Carnegie 
is Captain - Whitehall, 7 June, 1667. 

1 This officer's original Commission is in the possession of Col. David Milne-Home 
(Hist. MSS. Commission, 1902, p. 107). Son of Lt.-Colonel George Home who was 
killed, with hia father Sir David Home of Wedderburn, at the battle of Dunbar. George 
Home the yr. md. Isabel dau. of Sir Francis Liddell. He d. about 1715 leaving two sons 
who joined the Rising of 1715, were taken prisoners at Preston, tried, and condemned, 
but subsequently pardoned. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 "9 

TYNES COMPANIE [18 Sept. 1667].* 

[Company raised in August, 1666.] 

Captane Sir William Ballintyne 1 (sic). 
Ancient Williame Drumond. 
Lovetennant Patrik Hume. 
Scriver Johne Wischart. 
Serjant Johne Weir. 
Drumer Thomas Hewie. 
Serjant Johne Grahame. 
Drumer Gilbert Andersone. 

Corporall George Glenduning ; Williame Guthrell ; Johne Ingrame ; 
James Walker ; Johne Cowstein ; Edward Ingrame. 

James Park ; Patrik Rae ; William Gordoune ; George Greige ; Gilbert 
Banerman ; Johne Wilsoune. 

Williame Mathesone ; Johne Makcrae ; James Smith ; Johne Nasmith ; 
Kenneth Makcley ; Williame Vase. 

James Makillfarsone ; Daniell Spence ; Johne Allane, younger; Hen- 
drie Vyper ; Johne Allane, elder ; Thomas Procutor. 

Williame Scott ; James Allane ; John Weir, younger ; George Holme ; 
James Lange ; Johne Makcarrell. 

Johne Hamiltone, elder ; Johne Tode ; Gawin Rive ; David Hutche- 
sone ; Andro Donaldsone ; Johne Watsone. 

Gustavus Rae ; Lawrence Hoppertoune ; Robert Wilsone ; James 
Lokhart ; George Lawsone ; Johne Haliday. 

Corporall David Makculloche ; Thomas Rowane ; Michaell Stein ; 
George Gowdie ; Johne Browne ; Williame Law. 

Robert Holmes ; Alexander Andersone ; Johne Torrence ; Johne 
Younge ; Williame Meikle ; Johne Weir, elder. 

Johne Thomsone ; Ritchard Sevitour ; Daniell Rae; Johne Campbell ; 
Robert Hall ; Johne Parre. 

Johne Robiesone ; Johne Fleck ; Androw Watsone ; James Baird ; 
Williame Logane ; Johne Harkills. 

Corporall Johne Mair ; Johne Hamiltone ; Andro Jerdin ; Adame 
Greinla ; Johne Neiving ; Mungo W T eir. 

Johne Scheipheard ; Johne Gaitt ; James Harvie ; James Ritchard ; 
George Barcley ; Daniell Aikenheid. 

James Aitkin ; James Watsoune ; Williame Nicoll ; Johne Schaw ; Johne 
Harper ; Johne Makillfie. 

Johne Craill ; Johne Miller; Williame Glen ; Johne Neill; Archibald 
Mein ; Androw Fleiming. 

Johne Riddoche ; Johne Baird ; Alexander Stillie ; Williame Hamiltone ; 
Williame Campbell ; Williame Carmichaell. 

80 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Thomas Stillives ; Williame Hill; Mathow Thomsone ; Johne Armour ; 
Johne Lauchlane ; Johne Rewll. 
Thomas Bi-owne, pyper. 

This is the trew list off the officers and sowldiers belonging to the 
Company off Sir William Ballantyne, Captain, mustered and disbanded by 
James Kennoway nominat and appoynted for that effect the 18th of 
September, 1667. (Signed) W. BALLANTYNE; J. KENNEWIE. 

* Copy of the original Muster Boll at H.M.'s General Register House, Edinburgh. 

1 Second son of Lt.-Col. Bannatyne of Corhouse, Co. Lanark, and nephew to Col. James 
Bannatyne who was killed at the siege of York anno 1644. It does not appear when Wm. 
Bannatyne was knighted. He was sent into Galloway after the Pentland rising to harry 
the Covenanters and collect fines. These orders he carried out so obediently that there 
was a general outcry against him and the Privy Council in the west of Scotland. To save 
themselves from public contumely the Privy Council made a scapegoat of Sir Wm. Banna- 
tyne. He was recalled, tried, fined, and suffered a short imprisonment. Being forbidden 
to stay in Scotland he went to Court to represent his case. But meeting with little favour 
from the King and Lauderdale Bannatyne retired to Paris, from whence he wrote the fol- 
lowing touching letter to Lauderdale (Add. MS. 23131, fo. 117) : 

" Parise, March 26, 1669. 
" My Lord 

" It is not that I am in the least guiltie (as I wish god to have mercie ofi my soule) 
off entertaining any thoght prejudiciall to yowr Lo pp person that occasioned my retire- 
ment, bot the protestationes I made off my innocency not being satisfactorie, and the 
f eare I had to fall under your LOPP recentments, forced me to that resolution. At present 
so soone as I can dispatch my selfe I intend to som place where I may have the occa- 
sion to ffollow armes till your Lo pp displeasor be removed ; hoping such is yowr justice 
you will not desire without cawse utterlie to rewine a poore gentleman whoe is willing 
to bee 

" My Lord 

" Your low most faithf ull 

" and humble servant, 


From Paris, Bannatyne went to Holland and took service in the Scots Brigade. He was 
appointed Lt.-Col. of Colyear's fiegt. of Scots Foot and was to have succeeded Sir Walter 
Vane (killed at Seneffe, 1st Aug. 1674) in command of the British Troops, when he (Ban- 
natyne) was himself killed by a cannon ball while viewing the siege of Grave, 18th Sept. 
1674, as a spectator. His manner of death is thus recorded in God's Judgment on Perse- 
cutors: "At the siege of Graves, as he was walking somewhat carelessly, being advised to 
take care of himself, he said : ' Cannons kill none but fey folks.' At that very nick of time 
a bullet came aud severed his head from his body to a considerable distance." James, Lord 
Somerville, who wrote the Memoire of the Somervilles, speaks in eulogistic terms of his wife's 
brother Sir Wm. Bannatyne. The writer in question gives a pleasing description of Cor- 
house (the old home of the Bannatynes, situated just above the Cora Linn waterfall), and 
a charming word-portrait of the young lady who became the bride of the gallant young 
James Somerville who was de jure llth Lord Somerville. Sir Wm. Bannatyne's Will i* 
given in the Appendix. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 81 




Col. Ludovic Leslie.' 

1 Fourth son to Patrick, 1st Lord Lindores. " He was a Colonel in the wars of Ger- 
many." The following unpublished letter from Lord Bellenden to the Earl of Lauderdale 
gives all the information obtainable about the garrison of Shetland and their commander : 

" Ed r 4th Janu'y 1668. 
" My Dear Lord 

" Collonell Lodiwick Lesly having represented the condition he is reduced to, by 
disbanding the Gairison of Zetland, withall staiting his former just pretntions to the 
Commissioners of Thearsurie we have remited his inf ormatione, with our humble desyrs 
to your Lop, that by your Lop s mediation His Maties bountie and goodnes may in some 
measour be extended to him, bot he being doubtfull that your Lop s former kyndnes 
haith begun to grow cold towards him, and yow being the person allive to whom he doeth 
acknowledge himself most obleidged for your former goodwill and confidence in him, 
bot at your last being in this comitrie, he coming to pay his respects to yow, did observe 
that your countinance towards him, was not such as he expected, the ground of it he 
supposes to be the surrender of Berwick, which he sollemly protests with many asevera- 
tions that he did not doe it bot upon a writtin and positive order from the then E. of 
Lainrick (xic), nether did he at first upon recept of the order obey it untill that S r John 
Dowglas went expresly to know his Lop s further pleasour, who brought back a verball 
comand that the written order was to be obeyed, and this being the treuth of the matter 
(as he shall answer to God) he begs the continowance of your Lop s former favor with 
a serious profession that he will live and dye your faithf ull servant, all this I say from 
him : And now from my self I never knew him in any of his practises bot exactly 
honest, this trewth I hop your Lop will beleive from 
" My Dear Lord 

" Your Lop s most humble and faithfull servant 

(Add. MS. 23128, fo. 244). 

An Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament in April, 1662, and ratified by Charles ll., 
1 May, 1662, " in favour of James Weems General of Artillery, Colonel Ludovick Leslie, 
and James Scot for a new method of draining mines, &c." 

82 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Extracted from, Genl Dalyell's letters to the Earl of Lauderdale. 

" Kilmarnock, 15 Jan. 1667. 

"Upon your Lordships order I heve pleisit a brother 1 of my Lord 
fosters antiant [ensign] to Colonel haye so that I intret your Lorship 
for a comision to him." (See facsimile of Genl. Dalyell's letter in Part I.). 

1 Wm. Baillie younger bro. to James, Lord Forrester was de jure 3rd Lord Forrester, but 
did not assume the title in 1679. He d. 1G81. 

" Edinburgh, 5 March, 1667. 

" So soon as I hard of Haton's preferment I maid bold to promes his 
pleis to Sir Mungo Murray * according to that power your Lordship pro- 
curit me from his majeste for plesen my ofeseers." 

1 Above letter is printed in Thibeaudau's Catalogue of Autographs in the possession of 
Alfred Morrison. It does not appear what the appointment was which Dalyell bestowed on 
Sir Mungo Murray (who must not be confounded with his namesake the Lieut, of the 
King's Troop of Guards) in consequence of Charles Maitland of Ration's preferment. 

" Canegeit [Canongate], 

" 19 March [1667]. 

" My Loird, I am soray to heir of your Lordshipis displesur at Sir 
Mungo Muray ! for til I had it from G.L.P 2 1 aprehendit nothing leis and 
for anay letter I resevit from glP (sic) it moist heve miskareit for on 
my reputation I never saue a lyn to that purpos from no niortel and vhen 
I pichit on him for that pleis I apointit my quartermaister Kenane in his 
pleis and on Viliam Vales to be quartermaister to fuit vho lies formerle 
bein a resever for Dyoik Hamilton, bot all this to be aproven or revokit as 
your Lordship sal think fit. Just nowe I am toild Cornet Hakit intends 
to quit his Comision vhich if he dole I sal intret his pleis may be supleit 
be [by] a sun of the Eirle of Laudeans [Lothians] hes riden in my troupe 
this loing tym & to whom I heve promesit the first culors ar vaken 
[vacant] in my regement or troup, bot this I also submit in to your Lord- 
shipis comands, and restis, my Loird, your Lordshipis veray humble 


" My Loird, if I sould heve bein giltay in a busenes of this natur I 
moist confes my selfe the fulishes man and moist ongrait person liven." 

[Addressed] " For the Earle of Lauderdile Secretary to his Majesty for 
the Kingdome of Scotland 


1 Sir Mungo Murray of Tibbermuir (son of Sir James Murray, knt.) in the barony of 
Dunkeld and County of Perth, who had acted as Quarter-Master-General to the Earl of 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 83 

Glencairn in latter's expedition, 1653-1654, and had been taken prisoner (Scotland and the 
Protectorate, p. 244). "On the 22 Dec. 1651, the Presbytery of Cupar took up the 
complaint against Sir Mungo ' for his accession to the late unlawful engadgement against 
the Kingdome of England.' The knight appeared personally, acknowledged he had been a 
Colonel of Horse and cried ' Peccavi,' whereupon ... on the 16th January following, he 
was appointed to make public declaration of his repentance in the Kirk of Cupar the next 
Sunday" (The Spottiswoode Miscellany, Vol. II., p. 188, note 1). This officer was appointed 
Major in the Royalist Army in 1645. " Lost ten horses at Kilsyth." " Bootmaster " 1647. 
Knighted same year. Colonel of a Troop of 80 Horse from Dumfries in 1648. See his 
" Petition " in Thomson's Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, under date of 14 June, 1661, in 
which he refers to " his wife and family dwelling in his house of Torrie when he was a 
prisoner of war." Sir Mungo Murray's name appears as a Brigadier (Corporal) in the 
"Muster-Boll of the King's Life Guards, June 1678," printed in A Military History of 
Perthshire, 1660-1902, by the Marchioness of Tullibardine, pp. 8-18. The date of this 
officer's death is uncertain. 

2 The Earl of Glencairn, Lord President of the Council. 

* From the original letter preserved at the Begister House, Edinburgh. 

* " Lieth the ij Maye, 1667. 

" The namis of the ofesers vants comissions is Antiant Alexander beliay 
[Baillie], 1 Cornet John Car 2 quartermaisser to hors, valter Kennane 3 
quarter maister to t'uit [foot], [William] valis 4 [Wallace]." 

* Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 281. 

1 Possibly of the Poikmal family, one of whom was Cornet to Dalyell's Troop in the 
Scots Dragoons, 1681. 

* The Hon. John Kerr, youngest son of the Earl of Lothian, was born 3 Aug. 1647. In a 
letter from the Earl of Tweeddale to the Earl of Lothian, dated 24 Feb. 1667, reference is 
made to the latter's son serving under Genl. Dalyell (Correspondence of the Earls of Ancram 
and Lothian, Vol. II., p. 511*). See also Genl. Dalyell's letter printed in the text. Capt. 
the Hon. John Kerr died after 1722. See The New Scottish Peerage. 

3 and * See reference to these two officers in Genl. Dalyell's letter of 19 March. 

" ' Lieth sitaydeil,' 6 May, 1667. 

" I must entreat your Lordship for a Lieutenant's Commission and an 
ancient's for Major ' Jemis Laue ' [James Law] having given up his commis- 
sion to be the Earl of Kellie's lieutenant My ancient ' buchan ' * has suc- 
ceeded him and ' viliam flemen ' 2 [Fleming] brother to the Earl of Wigton 
is in his place." Add. MS. 23126, f. 186, modern spelling. 

1 Possibly Wm. Erskine 8th Earl of Buchan who inherited the title in 1664. D. 1695. 

2 Succeeded as 5th Earl of Wigton in 1668. Governor of Dumbarton Castle, 5 Feb. 

M 2 

84 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


[Ratified by the King, 4 Jan., 1667.] 



Forasmuch as all Lawes, Acts and Ordinances ought to be founded upon, 
and have their Originals from the Law of Almighty God : To the end 
therefore, that with y e more Confidence Wee may depend upon this Our 
God for a blessing upon Our selves & Our Army in all its undertakings 
and atcheivments. 

Whosoever shall be so desperatlie mad as to blasphem or speake 
against the Holy, Glorious and Blessed Trinitie, One GOD in thre Persons, 
Father, Sonne, and Holy-Ghost, shall die without mercy. 


All such and unlawfull Oaths and imprecations and Curses shall be 
Punished by amercing and fyning euery such swearer & Curser, For the 
first Transgression, in one days pay, For the secund in two, etc. And if 
any shall be found incorrigible, let him be left to the Courts severest 
Censures usuall in such Cases. 

Whosoeuer upon the Lords Day, shall unnecessarly absent themselves 
from Divine Worship, shall lose a Months Pay. 

Whosoeuer shall be found guiltie of uncleannes, shall be obleidged to 
satisfie the Church, in that Paroch where the trespass was Committed, 
And furthermore, be fyned by the Court sutable to the qualitie of the 
Offender, and proportionablie to the Act of Parliament in the like Case. 

All wilfull Murders, Rapes, raising of fyre, Thefts, Outrages, unnaturall 
abuses, and other notorious Crimes, and abominable shall be punished 
with Death. 


No common or notorious Whore shall be tollerated in Camp or Garrison; 
and whoseuer keepeth ane unmarryed woman, shall be Constrained to- 
Many her, or put her away. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 85 

Whosoeuer doth presume to speak in the least irreverentlie of the King, 
annent His Person or Government, Militarie, Civill or Ecclesiastick, Shall 
die without mercie. 


Whosoeuer shall be found to speake unbeseeminglie (except that qch-(sic) 
he is able to make out before a Court of Warre) against any of y e Generall 
Officers of the Army, shall die. 1 punishd at the discretion of the Court. 

1 Alteration sic. 


Whosoeuer shall be found to haue any intercourse w' the Emmie, without 
Permission from the Generall, shall die as a Traitor. 

Whosoeuer by any means shall releiue]a known publick enimie, shall die. 


Whosoeuer out of Contempt shall violat a Protection or salvo guardes, 
shall die. 


Whosoeuer without invincible necessitie, shall surrender Castle, fort or 
Garrison, shall die. 

But if the Governour of any such Place, shall be constrained to a surren- 
derie by his Officers or Souldiers ; Such officers shall surely die, and the 
Souldiers be decimated for hanging. 


Whosoeuer shall be found Loyterers in any point of Dutie, are to be Cen- 
sured by the Generall and' Court at discretion 

Whosoever concealeth any mutinous speeches, shall die. 


Whosoeuer shall be found drunk upon Dutie, shall die : and if, though not 
upon Dutie, any one shall committ outrage in his drink ; let him be Cen- 
sured, 1 for being drunk, 2 for the outrage ; as the Court shall iudge fitt. 


Whosoeuer shall use reproachfull speeches or other Provocations against 
his Comerads, shall be Censured at the Generals and Courts discretion. 

86 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Whosoeuer provoketh or apealeth another to the Combat, shall 4ie l be 

1 Alteration sic. 


Whosoeuer shall be found guiltie of Innocent blood, shall die. 


Whosoeuer shall w*out permission stay out of His Garrison or Camp, if an 
Officer, he shall be cashiered, & if a souldier, censured at the Court and 
Generals discretion. 


Whosoeuer shall grumble at his Quarter assigned to him, let him be 
accounted a Mutiner. 


Whosoeuer upon any Quarrell or Debate, arising betuixt him and others, 
(whether of the Army, Citie, or Country) shall call for assistance from 
his fellow Souldiers, Citizens, Countrymen, or any otherwayes related to 
him, for making of Parties or Faction, shall die without mercye. 


Whosoeuer in any Case shall behave himselfe cowardlie against y" Enimie, 
The Officer shall die without Mercy, and y" Souldier suffer decimation. 


Whosoeuer shall not giue readie obedience to any bank, or Order for 
y e well of the Army, howbeit upon some occasionall emergent not men- 
tioned in these Articles, shall be left to arbitrarie punishment. 


Let all and euery Officer of whatsoever Qualitie or Degree, take Care, that 
all under his Command behave themselvs civillie and Christianly Namelie 
that they frequent God's publict Worship when they are, where they may 
have it, as they will be answerable to the Generall. 


Whosoeuer defraudeth the Officers or Souldiers under him of any Part or 
Parcell of King's Pay, shall be obleiged first to refound the money And 
then to be disgracefullie Casheired. 


Whatsoeuer Officer shall suffer any under his Command to goe a Duelling 
or Combatting, shall lose his Place ; and if he be Serjeant or Corporall of 
the Watch, and did not hinder them, and yet might, he shall die. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 87 


Whosoeuer beis found ane habituall Drunkard, Quarreller or Brauler Let 
him be disgracefullie Cashired. 


But let all Officers whatsoever, upon their Perill, doe their endeavour to 
part quarells or tumoults arising amongst Souldiers of whatsumever Com- 
pany or Regiment, and Committ and arrest the same, untill those Officera 
be acquanted therewith, to whose particular Command they doe more 
immediatly belong: And what Souldier soever shall resist or lift up his 
hand against, yea shall resolutlie assist ane Officer so doing, shall surelie 


Whatsoeuer Captain, whether of Troup or foot Companie shall present in 
his Muster any others, then such who by their Pay are obleidged to follow 
him, shall be Cashiered. 


Let no Captain upon his perill, Cashier any Souldier, being once approoved 
off and enrolled by the Muster-master, without a speciall warrand from the 


Whosoeuer shall be found a miles distance out of his quarter, Garrison or 
Leagre, shall forfault a months pay for the first fault, and for the next 
shalbe Cashiered, or personally punished at the discretion of y e Court. 

Whosoeuer off'erreth violence to his Superiour shall die. 


Whatsoever Commissarie or other Officer, intrusted with money, Victuall, 
Armes or Ammunition, shall embezle, or spoile the same or give any false 
account thereof, shall die. 



Whatsoever Souldier shall come to be exercised, or mount the Guard, not 
Compleatlie Armed, with tixt and well kept Armes, shall be severlie 
amerced, fyned and Censured. 


Whosoever shall sell his horse or Armes, or otherways embezle y m Shall be 
kept in the Condition of a Pioner or Baggage man, untill he be again pro- 
vided at his own Charge & undergoe such other punishment as the courte 
shall inflict. 

88 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


But whosoeuer appignorats or sells their Armes, shall be liable to arbitrary 
Punishment; and whoso shall buy or resett the same, shall restore the 
Armes, and lose their money. 


Whatsoever Trooper spoileth his horss upon designe to gett offy" service, 
he shall lose his horse, and be turned in into a foot Companie. 

Whosoever borroweth anothers Horse or Armes, therwith to pass Muster ; 
Besids, that the lender looseth what he hath lent, the borrower shallbe 
severlie Punished. 


Whosoever shall spoile, sell, or otherways embezle his Ammunition given 
to him for the service, shall surelie die. 



Whosoever on his March through the Countrey, shall spoile, wast, or 
extort Money, Victualls or pawnes from any of his Maties Subjects upon 
pretext whatsoever, shall die. 


Whosoever shall brake doun, burn or Pillage, any Church, School, Hos- 
pitall or Colledge, or shall despightfullie use Churchmen, Schollars, Poor 
or Old People, Women, maids or Children, shall die. 


Whosoeuer, upon q*soever pretention, shall take ane horse out of y e Plough, 
or wrongeth the husbandman in his Person, Catle, or Goods, shall die. 


Whosoever on a March shall straggle from his Troop or Company ; shall 


Whosoever shall destroy or deface Mylnes, Gardens, Orchards, or Walks 
of trees, shall be most severlie Punished. 



Whosoever without leave from his Officer, shall be found a Mile without 
the Camp, shall die 1 be severely punished. 

1 Alteration sic. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 89 


Whosoever shall goe in or out of the Camp or Garrison, by any oy r ways 
then are appointed, shall die. 


Whosoever in Camp or Garrison draweth his sword upon any Privat 
Quarrells, or after the Watch is sett, shall die. 


Whosoever without Order from his Officer, discovereth the Watch-word 
Or giveth any other word then the true word, shall die. 


Whosoever committeth Violence upon Victuallers, or any others who bring 
Provision for the Armie, shall die. 


Whosoever without Order speaketh with Drum, or Trumpet, sent from the 
Enimie, shall die. 

Whatsoever Sentinell or Pardue shalbe found sleeping upon Duty, shall 

Whosoever carryeth Armes pretending to be a Souldier, and is not within 
three days, after he hath been in the Armie, enrolled in some Troop, or 
foot Companie, Shall die. 


Whosoever is enroled, if he goe away without licence from the Army, 
Garrison or Camp, or shall attemp to goe over to y e Enimie, shall die. 


Whosoever absents himselfe from the Watch when y e Sign is given, Shall 
be liable to arbitrary Censure. 


Whosoever in his Quarter shall frighten or abuse his Lands-Lord, or any 
other Person of the familie, or extort from them by Violence Money or 
Victuals, shall be most severlie Punished. 


Whosoever by Day or night, shall depart from his Sentinell before y e Cor- 
porall releive him, shall die. 


Whosoever absents himselfe from the Court de Guard, either by Day or by 
Night, without leave ; shall die. 

90 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Whatsoever Souldier without order, shall frequent any gatherings together 
to demand money, or any thing els, especiallie, if it be to demand money, 
when they are going against ane Enimy, shall die. 


Whosoever shall refuse to work any manner of work he can, at making of 
forts or Leaguers (need so requiring he be comanded to doe) shall die. 


Whosoever, Souldiers, Victuallers or others, shall polute ye Camp by dis- 
burdening of Nature or otherways (except Officers who are to have their 
own houses of Office appointed for them) shalbe Censured by the Court 
at Pleasure. 


Whatsoever Souldier presumeth to quarrell w* his Officer, shall die. 


Whatsoever Souldier deserteth his own Captain, or Servant His Master, 
howbeit he abide in the Armie, shall die. 

When the Armie is in Batallio, or on a March, or about to receive Orders 
for Quarter, let euerie private Souldier keep silence, or forthworth be Com- 
mitted to the Marshall. 


Whosoeuer shall resist the Provest Mershall, or any oy r yt belongs to him 
going about his dutie, or yet shall break Prison, shall die. 


Whosoeuer thinking himselfe injured, shall therupon attemp his own 
Revenge, shalbe Censured by the Court ; But if he make his adress to 
the Officer of him who gave the abuse ; The Officer shall be obleidged to 
give him full satisfaction. 


Whatsoever Trooper or foot Souldier shall presume to draw his Sword in 
ye presence of his Generall, Lew* Gen. or Major Gener 1 * meaning to doe 
harme therewith, shall have his hand cutt off. 




Let no Muster Master upon his highest Perrill knowinglie pass any, who 
are not of yt Troop or Company wherin they are Mustered. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 91 


Whosoever Victualler, freebooter or Souldier of another Troop or Com- 
pany, shall present himselfe or hia horse at ye Muster of a Troop, or 
Company, to which he doth not belong, thereby to abuse ye Muster master, 
or betray the Kings Service, shall die. 

Let euery Captain, upon his peril!, within two days after the Musterday, 
send to the Generall a perfect List of all his inferior Officers, and Soul- 
diers fitt for Present Service, setting doun at each mans Name, his Months 


Let every Cap' likeways at or upon every pay day, send to the Gen 1 * (or 
some one appointed be him for that purpose) the Controll of ye former 
List or Roll ; with ane exact account of all such new Troopers and Soul- 
diers as have been intertained since the last pay day, in place of such 
who may either have dyed, or have been Cashired, together with ye Dayea 
both wheron the one was Cashiered, & ye others Intertained. 


Neither let the Muster ffl r adventur to receive any Roll other yn this 
so attested, thereby to make his Musters : otherways, besids the lose of 
his Place, let him undergoe the Censure of a Court Marshell. 


Whosoever presents himselfe to be mustered or inrolled under a Counter- 
feet Name or Surname, Shall die. 


No officer of whatsoever degree, shall Muster more Servants yn what his 
Majestie allowes, And that His Ma tie may be pleased to determin unto 
each Officer his number of Servants to be Mustered Is hereby humbly 



Whosoever upon the Alarum given, doth not Instantlie (if able) repair to 
His Colors, shall die. 


Whosoever before, or at the fight, shall throw away his Armes, Pouder or 
Bandaliers, shall die. 


Whosoever killeth ane enemie, yeelding himselfe, besids y 9 Infamie, shall 
undergoe the Censure of the Court. 


Whosoever shall Protect ane enimie, having in his hand Arms Offensive 
shall lose his Prisoner. 

92 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

WhatsoeveY Souldier shall embezle any part of tVe Prey, (exceeding the 
value of sixjopunds Scots) untill it be disposed ofKby the Generals Com- 
mand, shall dr^. 1 \ 

1 Erased sic. 


Whatsover Souldier, yea or Officer, shall not present his prisoner to the 
Generall, or those by him appointed within 24 hours after he hath been taken, 
shall die. 


Whosoever upon Success (how good soever) shall fall a plundering or 
Pillaging, shall die. 


Whosoever shall middell with, or spoile y e Goods of him who shall die or 
be killed in the Service shall be found to refoundy 6 double to such as have 
best Interest, either by the Will of ye Dead, or otherwayes by blood, and 
further be obnoxious to y e further Censure of the Court. 



Whatsoever Victualler, Sutler or Mercalenter, shall vent or sell any Rotten 
or spoiled Victualls, besids his Imprisonment and Confiscation of his 
Drink and Victuals, he shall undergo most severe Punishment. 


Let no Souldier turn Victuals nor mercalenter without licence from the 


Let no Mercalenter intertain in his house, hutt, Tent or Cabine, any 
Souldier after Taptoo at Night, and befor the Dyenne in the Morning. 

Whatsoever Mercalenter shall forestall or sell any Drink or Victualls, 
before a price be sett thereupon by the provest Marshall, shall lose all he 
hath, & be liable to further Censure. 




To the end these formentioned Acts & Ordinances may be more orderlie 
execute : Let there be in the Armie two Councills of Warre or Courts, 
Martials : One Inferior in every Regiment, wherein the Colonell, or 
Lev* Coll: shall preceed with so many Captains, Lev tB & other Inferiour 
Officers as may amount to the number of 13, Besids or with the President. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 93 


In the other, which is the high Court Martiall shall proceed the Generall 
or one of the Generall Persons. His Associats (as assessors) shall be the 
Cofl" : of horse and foot ; Lev' Colonels, Majors, w* ye Cap' 8 of the Life- 
guards, and of the other Troops and foot Companies to y e number of 13 
w fc the President. 


The President sitting at the upper end of the Table, and his Assessors in 
each side according to their Qualitie, with the Secretary at y e lower end ; 
All of them shall take y 8 Oath following 


I A.B. doe hereby in Presence of Almightie God Declare and sweare that 
I shall freelie and readilie without feed or favour, fear or Revenge, Deliver 
my Judgment in every Particular at present to be debated or determined 
in this Court according to my Conscience, and knowledge in the known 
Laws and Articles of Warre. So help me GOD ! 


All Officers and Souldiers shall doe their best to detect, apprehend, and 
bring to due Punishment all Trangressors against these Laws, and to be 
assistant to y e Provest-Marshall, as they will answere the Contrairy, So 
that whosoever shall Shelter or rescue a Prisoner from the Marshall, are to 
be Censured as guiltie of the same offence for which the Prisoner was to 


The Marshall shall not be countable for any Prisoner sent to him, unles he 
who send, shall send together with y e Prisoner the ground and Cause of 
his imprisonment, and that in write. 


Whosoever upon evidence of Malversation shall be apprehended by, or 
delivered to the Provest Marshall, the Marshall be obleidged at the first 
Conveniencie to exhibit the Prisoner with his accusation before the Court. 


But if the Marshall shall suffer a Prisoner to escape, besids the loss of his 
Place, he shall be lyable to y e Punishment due to the Prisoner so escaped. 


All Civill Magrats q'soever, whether in Citie or Countrey are required to 
apprehend & send to the next Garrison, together w' the nature of their 
offence, all whomsoever belonging to y c Army, they shall find in any kind 
of enormitie, That so they may be sent to ye Gen* 4 , by whom, with advice 
of ye Court they are to be judged by Martiall Laws. Likeas, they are 
likeways required to sease and apprehend whatsoever Souldier they shall 
find straggling or gadding abroad in y c Country, and forthwith send him 
to the next Garrison. 

94 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Whosoever shall obstruct, threaten or minace the Court, or Draw his 
Sword where it is sitting shall die. 


Whatsoever pecuniall Mulct or fyn may be imposed by the Court, shalbe 
severlie exacted without respect of Persons and Collected by such whom 
the Generall shall appoint. 


If any casuall thing, or new emergent should happen, ag* qch there is in 
these Articles no speciall provision ; In such Cases the Offender shalbe 
liable to Censure, at ye Judgmet of ye Generall & the respective Courts 
Martiall. Otherways let him be proceeded against as dissobedient and 


Our will and pleasure is that these Lawes and Articles of War for the 
Goverment of our forces within our Kingdom of Scotland be forthwith 
prented and published : and that thy be dewlie exicuted & obeserved by 
all our officers & souldiers within that our Kingdom : Given at our Court 
at Whitehall the 4th day of January 1667 and of our Reign the 18 yeer. 

By his Ma ties Comand. 
Articles of War 

* Add. MS. 23126, ff. 5-11. These "Articles" were framed by General Dalyell in 
the autumn of 1666 and sent to London to be ratified. The following extracts from 
DalyelTs letters to the Earl of Lauderdale bear out this statement : 

" Leith, 2 Oct. 1666. 

" I shall send a draft of articles so soon as I have communicated it to the Commissioner 
who is at present in Fife . . . DALYELL." 

(Add. MS. 23125, f. 108, modern spelling.) 

" Kilmarnock, 

" 27 Dec. 1666. 
" My Lord, 

* " I have written so oft for articles and bandoliers that I am resolved to give over lest 
I offend . . . DALYELL." 

(Add. MS. 23125, f. 267, modern spelling.) 

" Kilmarnok the 15 

Januar 67. 
" My Loird, 

" I heue Eeseuit the artickles And sal be kairful to se[e] them publishit and puit in 
excution DALYELL." 

(See facsimile of this letter in Part I.) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 




N.B. The Major's Commission was dated at Whitehall, 
13 March, 1672 ; the others on 14 March. 


George Winrahame, 1 or 

Winrame, Major. 
James Douglas, 2 bro. to 

the Earl of Queens- 
John Dalzell, 3 2nd son of 

Earl Carnwath. 
Sir Charles Halkett,* of 

Pitfirren (sic). 
David Bruce, 6 eldest son 

of Bruce of Clack- 

Charles Monteath 8 (sic) 

of Randiford. 
James Lumsdaine, 9 of 

Major Wm. Arnott. 11 
Wm. Macdougal, 12 bro. to 

Henry Macdougal, of 

Wm. Sandilands, 18 eldest 

son of Sandilands, of 



Wm. Montgomerie. 
Patrick Ruthven. 

Gavin Muirhead. 
Mungo Arnot. 

John Graham. 7 
Robert Durie. 10 
James Sinclair. 

James Thomson. 
Robert Bruce. 

James Stewart. 

Alex. Winraham. 

Robert Henderson. 

Robert Charters. 
Henry Ker. 6 

Robert Bruce. 
John Drummond. 
George Bethune. 

David Balfour. 
Wm. Murray. 

Thomas Crawford. 


25 JULY, 1672. 

(See English Army Lists, 1661-1714, Vol. I.) 

Sir Wm. Lockhart, 14 Colonel. 

Major [Patrick] Menteath, 16 Lt.-Colonel. 

Paul Angier, 16 Capt. -Lieut. 

Win. Arnold, 17 Ensign to Sir Wm. Lockhart. 

James Thinly, 18 Ensign to Lt.-Col. Menteath. 

John Lewin, 19 Adjt. 

Claud Clerke, 20 Chirurgeon. 

James Lockhart, 21 Qr.-Mr. and Marshal. 

96 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-16S8 




(Extracted from English Army Lists, 1661-1714, Vol. I.) 

Robert Douglas 22 to be Ensign to Sir Win. Lockhart's 

own Company - - 23 March, 1673. 

John Seaton 2 to be Ensign in above Regt. ,, 

Robert Sewster 24 to be Adjutant 9 April, 1G73. 

Wm. Montgomery 25 to be Lieut, to Lt.-Col. Patrick 

Monteath 29 April, 1673. 

Henry Carre 26 (sic) to be Lieut, to Capt. Lumsdaine - [29 April] 1673. 

James St. Clare 27 (sic) to be Lieut, to Major Winrame - [29 April] 1673. 

Alexander Winrame 28 to be Lieut, to Major George 

Winrame 12 June, 1673. 

* Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. I. In the memoir of Sir Wm. Lockhart of Lee 
given in Noble's House of Cromwell, it is stated that a 2nd Battalion was added to his Regi- 
ment, and that the men " were raised in eight or ten days in the environs of Edinburgh " 
(Vol. II., p. 259). No 2nd Battalion was added ; but owing to desertions and to the fact 
that " six companies were captured at sea by the Dutch in the autumn of 1673 " (Sir W. 
Lockhart to Secretary Williamson, 28 Nov. 1673, Cal. S.P.D.), the Regiment had to be 
recruited in Edinburgh "to the full number of 1,200 men, including 200 men from the 
Earl of Linlithgow's Regiment of Guards" (Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. II., p. 366). 
It is believed that a portion of Lockhart's Regiment served at the siege of Maestricht, in 
1673, under the eye of their Colonel who greatly distinguished himself. Disbanded in 1674. 

1 See biog. notice on p. 77, note 2. 

2 See special memoir of Lieut. -General James Douglas as Commander-in-Ohief . 

3 Succeeded his brother James as 5th Earl of Carnwath in 1683. D.s.p. in 1702. 

4 Created a Bart, of Nova Scotia, 25 Jan. 1662. Son (by first wife) of Sir James 
Halket, of Pitfirran, who was knighted by Charles I. in 1633 when in Scotland. 

6 Eldest son of Sir Henry Bruce, of Clackmanan, by his first wife. He md. Lady 
Margaret Mackenzie, dau. of George, Earl of Cromarty. Appointed Capt. in the Earl of 
Mar's Regt. of Foot, 23 Sept. 1678. His name appears in the List of those to whom 
"Forfeitures" were granted after Bothwell Brig. Appointed Lieut, to the Earl of 
Balcarres's Tp. in the Regt. of Scots Horse, 28 Dec. 1682. In said Regt. when it was struck 
off the Establishment in Jan. 1689. 

6 Lieut, in same Regt., 30 April, 1673. Capt. of the Duke of Monmouth's Troop of 
Horse Grenadiers, 4 April, 1678. Major of the Duke of Beaufort's Regt. of Foot, 20 June, 
1685. Left last-named regiment, 27 June, 1688. He was one of the Gentlemen Ushers to 
Charles II. and James II. D. 25 Aug. 1690, aged 38. Bd. in Westminster Abbey. The 
inscription on his monument (where his name is spelt Carr) states that he was descended 
from the Earls of Ancram. He md. Venetia, only child of Edward Carew, of Newbold 
Pacey, Co. Warwick, by whom he left issue. 

7 Appointed Lieut, in Sir George Monro's newly-raised Regt. of Foot, 4 Sept. 1674. 

8 Charles Menteath, the last of Randiford, settled his estate on Robert Menteath, of 
Carubber, whose son, Charles, is said to have been killed in Queen Anne's Wars. Burke's 

9 See p. 64, note 3. 10 See p. 55, note 2. " See p. 53, note 1. 

12 Son of Sir Wm. McDougal, Knt. Served heir to his brother Walter in 1671. Pedi- 
gree of McDougal of Maccarston. 

13 Appears to have been grandson of Walter Sandilands, of Hilderstoun, younger brother 
to James and John, 3rd and 4th Barons Torphichen. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 97 

14 Third son of Sir James Lockhart of Lee, Lord Justice Clerk. Sir Win. Lockhart 
was a man of great force of character. From his boyhood, when he ran away from school 
sooner than put up with his schoolmaster's censure for a trivial fault, and attempted 
suicide rather than return to a stern father's roof, he showed his determination to carve 
out an independent career for himself. At the age of thirteen he made his way to Leith, 
and from thence passed over to Holland, where he enlisted in a Scots regiment in the 
service of the States. After a year's soldiering young Lockhart got leave to go to Dantzic, 
where his uncle, Sir George Douglas, Ambassador from Charles I. to the Courts o Sweden 
and Poland, then was. Two years later Sir George Douglas died at Damin, in Pomerania, 
in 1636, leaving Lockhart in a foreign clime without a friend ; " however," writes one of 
Sir William's biographers, " he attended the remains of his uncle into Scotland, acting the 
part of chief mourner, in the magnificent funerals that were given to his remains " (Memoir 
in Noble's House of Cromwell, Vol. II., pp. 236-7). Getting a sorry welcome from his 
father on his return home, Lockhart left his parents without informing them of his plans 
for the future, and took up his abode in France. From thence he wrote to his mother, 
who secretly remitted money to her son through Baillie Lockhart, of Edinburgh. With 
the moneys received, Lockhart made up for a neglected education by a diligent course of 
study for a year or two, and then joined the French Army as a volunteer. Good luck 
threw him in the way of the Queen Mother who, hearing that Lockhart was a Scotsman 
of good family, sent him a pair of colours. Promotion followed rapidly, and he became 
Captain in a French Cavalry Corps. On the outbreak of the war between Charles I. and 
his Parliament, Lockhart returned to Scotland and became Lieut.-Colonel of the Earl of 
Lanark's Regt. in the Scots Army. When the King surrendered to the Scots at Newark 
his Majesty conferred the honour of Knighthood on Col. Wm. Lockhart, " being anxious to 
win him to his interest and despatched him to his friend the Duke of Hamilton, in 1646, 
to procure the best terms possible for the Marquis of Montrose " (Ibid., p. 238). Lockhart 
now became an " Engager," and joined the Duke of Hamilton's Expedition into England. 
Served at the battle of Preston, where Lockhart commanded a regiment, and helped to 
cover the retreat of the Scots Army to Warrington, where he had to make terms with 
General Lambert and surrender as a prisoner of war. After a year's detention at Newcastle, 
Lockhart was granted his liberty on payment of 1,000. On his return to Scotland 
Lockhart was appointed " General of the Horse by the Committee of Estates, who 
modelled the Army, and he acted as such when Charles II. arrived in Scotland " (Ibid., p. 
240). Through the intrigues of the all-powerful Marquis of Argyll, the King was 
persuaded to appoint Lieut.-Generals Baillie and Montgomery to be joined in commission 
with Lockhart. This so offended the amour propre of Sir Wm. Lockhart that he threw up 
his Commission and withdrew himself from the Court and Army (Ibid., p. 241). Such 
conduct highly offended Charles II., and it is on record that when the Duke of Hamilton 
presented Lockhart to the King, when the Royalist Army was leaving Scotland for 
England, his Majesty turned his back on Sir William. It therefore came to pass that 
Lockhart did not accompany the Scots Army to Worcester. Cromwell now made over- 
tures to Sir William, which were accepted. The Protector brought about, in 1654, a marriage 
between his niece Robina Sewster and Sir Wm. Lockhart (then a widower), who received 
the fine appointment of Ambassador to Louis XIY. In this responsible post, Lockhart was 
a great success. But Lockhart's genius was not confined to diplomacy. He and General 
Morgan brought glory to the British and French arms at the siege and capture of Mardyke 
and Dunkirk. Lockhart was appointed Governor of the latter town ; but at the Restoration 
Charles II. gave this post to Sir Edward Harley. For ten years Lockhart was unemployed. 
In 1671, by Lauderdale's advice, Lockhart was sent as Envoy Extraordinary to the 
Protestant Princes of Germany, and in April was appointed British Ambassador at Paris. 
He gained fresh honours at the siege of Maestricht, in 1673, and taught the young Duke of 
Monmouth one of his first lessons in the art of war. This truly great man died at Paris, 
8 June, 1675, and his body was sent to Scotland to be interred (Cal. S.P.D., 1675-6, p. 287). 
At the time of his death Lockhart was Lord Justice Clerk, which post had been conferred 
on him by Charles II. on the death of Sir James Lockhart in 1674. 

15 Promoted Lt.-Col. before 29 April, 1673. Knighted. Pens, of 100 per ann., 3 Dec. 
1673. Cal.S.P.D. 

11 Accompanied Sir W. Lockhart to Paris. In April, 1678, was serving as Cornet in 
the Duke of Monmouth's Regt. of Horse. 

17 ', 18 Further services untraced. 

19 The following document was signed by " Robina [Lady] Lockhart, and John 
Lewin," in Nov. 1675 : 

"Account of the Equipage made for his Excellency Sir Wm. Lockhart his 
Majesty's Ambassador in France, and which marched from Paris for the campaign, 

98 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

15 May, 1675, with other extraordinary expenses as followeth, being for equipage, 
coaches, horses, liveries, provisions for the table, wardrobe, postage, plate for the 
field, expenses from his death, 8 June, N.S., till his body's leaving Paris, 8 Sept., 
being 12 weeks, expenses for her journey homeward, expenses in passing warrants, 
gifts on audiences, New Year's gifts, &c., amounting in all to 5,566 17s. Id." S.P. 
Dom. Entry Boole, 26, fol. 203. 
ao , 2I Accompanied Sir Wm. Lockhart to Paris when he was sent Ambassador to 

Louis XIV. in April, 1672. James Lockhart was Sir Wm. Lockhart's only son by his 

first marriage, and predeceased his father. 

w Fourth son of the Earl of Queensberry. Killed at the siege of Maestricht, in 1676, 

when serving as Captain in Sir Alex. Colyear's Regt. of Scots Foot. 

23 Probably John Seton, younger son to Sir John Seton, of Garleton. 

24 Brother to Robina, Lady Lockhart. 

25 Further services untraced. 

26 Kerr. See p. 96, note 6. 

27 Further services untraced. 

28 Appointed Lieut, in Sir George Monro's Regt. in 1674. Lieut, in Lord James 
Douglas's Regt., 20 Feb. 1678. Probably son of Major George Winram. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 99 



(The Captains' Commissions were dated at Windsor Castle, 25 August, 
1674 ; and those of the Subalterns bore date of 4 September.) 


Marquis of David, Lord Drummond of 

Douglas. 1 Madertie. 3 Machanie. 8 

Earl of Erroll. 4 Sir John Keath * John Hay. 6 
of Keath Hall, 
Knt. Marshal. 

[Richard] Elphin- 

Lord Rosse. 7 Sir David Ogil- stone, 9 Yr., of 

vy. 8 Calderhall. 

* Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III. These three Troops were disbanded in Jan. 1676. 
King's Letter to the Privy Council of Scotland, 23 Dec. 1675. 

1 Second Marquis. It is stated in The Douglas Book that James, Marquis of Douglas 
raised this Troop out of his own tenantry. His first wife was Lady Barbara Erskine, eldest 
dau. of John, 9th Earl of Mar. This marriage turned out unhappily ; and the quarrels of 
husband and wife became public property and have been handed down to posterity in the 
Old Scots ballad entitled Lady Barbara Erskine's Lament, beginning : 

" I was a lady of high renown, 
As lived in the north countrie." 

The Marquis of Douglas lent some of hia Ordnance to the Government of Charles II. 
ostensibly for the defence of Edinburgh Castle, as they were stationed in the " court of 
guard" there. They consisted of two brass guns capable of firing ball of 3 Ib. weight (The 
Douglas Book, Vol. II., p. 452). On 5 April, 1689, the Duke of Hamilton, President of the 
Council, issued a Warrant to the Marquis of Douglas to deliver his two cannon at Leith to 
Major-General Mackay, who gave a receipt for them which is still in existence. 

3 Third Baron. Dying in 1684 without male issue his title devolved on his younger 
brother General Wm. Drummond of Cromlix, who was created Viscount Strathallan. 

3 Sir John Drummond, Knt. of Machanie, Perthshire. Appointed 1st Lieut, of anlndep. Inverary, 16 May, 1687. Outlawed in 1690 for his adherence to the Stuarts. Md. Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir Wm. Stewart, Knt. of Innernytie. Father of the 4th Viscount 

4 Sir John Hay of Killour succeeded his cousin as 12th Earl of Erroll in 1674. Md. 
Lady Anne Drummond, dau. of James, Earl of Perth, and had issue. 

5 See biog. notice on p. 73, note 2. 

6 Probably a cadet of the Killour branch of Hays. 

7 See biog. notice on p. 25, note 2. 

8 See biog. notice on p. 64, note 2. 

9 Son of Sir Thos. Elphinstone, Knt. Appointed in Nov. 1672 Deputy Keeper of the Privy 
Seal. Is said (Burke's Commoners, Vol. II.) to have succeeded his father as Muster 
Master General of the Forces in Scotland, in 1678, but said Commission is not forthcoming. 
M.P. for Co. Stirling in 1681. Bought the barony of Elphinstone from Lord Elphinstone. 

N 2 

100 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 




(The Commissions of the Field Officers and Captains were dated at 
Windsor Castle, 25 August, 1674 ; the Subalterns' Commissions bore 
date of 4 September}. 


Sir George Monro, 1 Hector Monro. 9 John Monro. 14 


Earl of Wigton, 2 Alex Winrame. Pat. Hamilton. 

Lt. Col. 

Major George Winrame, 3 John Graham. Lewis Maitland. 


Laird of Blair. 4 Henry Foules (sic). Charles Scott. 

Laird of Boyne. 6 Mure 10 (sic). John Dalzell. 16 

Laird of Touch. 6 Wm. Carstairs. 11 James Stirling. 16 

Hayning Riddell. 7 John Strachan. 12 George Ker. 17 

Sir Robert Dalzell. 8 Alex Maxwell. 13 George Maitland. 18 

* Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. III. Disbanded in Jan. 1676. By the King's Letter 
to the Privy Council it was ordered that 100 men were to be chosen out of Monro's dis- 
banded regiment and drafted into the Foot Guards to form a new Company. 

1 See special memoir of Sir G. Monro as a Commander-in-Chief , Part I., pp. 34-42. 

J See p. 36, note 2. 

3 See p. 77, note 2. 

4 Wm. Blair 15th Laird. Granted a pension of 200 per annum, 28 Sept. 1678. Went over 
to William of Orange at the Revolution. Raised an Independent Troop of Horse in Scot- 
land at his own expense in April, 1689. Was taken prisoner with his lieutenant, the Laird 
of Pollok, at Perth, when that town was surprised by Dundee, in May, 1689. Dundee 
" carried these two officers about in an ungenerous triumph, on all his marches, for six 
weeks, and then sent them to the Isle of Mull, where Blair died in consequence of the 
barbarous treatment he received." Life of Lt. Gen. Hugh Mackay of Scoury, p. 25. 

5 Sir Patrick Ogilvy of Boyne, Co. Banff. On 21 July, 1675, Charles II. signed a 
" Warrant for a charter to Sir Patrick Ogilvy, of Boyne, his heirs male and assigns what- 
soever, of the lands of Ardinboth, Portsoy, and others in the parochine of Fordyce and 
barony of Boyne, Banffshire, on the resignation of James, Earl of Findlater" (Cal. S.P. 
Dom., 1675-6, p. 225). Appointed Captain in the Earl of Mar's new-raised Regt. of Foot, 
23 Sept. 1678. He was son of Sir Walter Ogilvy 6th Baron of Boyne. On 14 Oct. 1681, 
he was named an ordinary Lord of Session, and in Jan. 1686, received a pension from the 
King. Owing to debt he was obliged to sell the Boyne estate. " Distinguished by his 
loyalty to the exiled Stuart family since the Revolution " ( Correspondence of Nathaniel 
Hooke, Vol. I., p. 230). By his 2nd wife he had a son Patrick, from whom are descended 
the Ogilvies of Lintrathen. Diet. Nat. Biography. 

6 "James Seton of Touch got a charter from Charles II. dated 8 April, 1651, narrating 
and confirming a former gift by King James IV. in favour of Sir Alex Seton of Touch and 
Tillibody, and his lineal heirs, of the office of armour bearer and squire of the King's body, 
and after the Restoration the King provided an annual salary of 300 as armour bearer 
to the Laird of Touch, under the Privy Seal, 30 May, 1662. Sat in Parliament for Selkirk- 
shire, 1685-1686. He was succeeded by his son, Archibald Seton of Touch." The Seton 
Book, pp. 344-5. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 101 

7 John Riddell of Haining in Selkirkshire. Master of the King's Stud in Scotland. 
Son of Andrew Riddell who was the son by a 2nd marriage, of Andrew Riddell of Riddell 
and Haining. Colonel of the Militia Regiment for the Shires of Roxburgh and Selkirk, 
20 June, 1682. Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII. 

8 Son and heir of Sir John Dalzell of Glenae, who was brother of Robert 2nd Earl of 
Carnwath. Sir Robert Dalzell md. for his 3rd wife Violet dau. of Riddell of Haining 
(Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, 1st Edit.). He was appointed Capt. in the Earl of Mar's 
new-raised Regt. of Foot, 23 Sept. 1678. Left said Regt. in Dec, 1679 and was succeeded 
in his Company by his son John Dalzell. Appointed Lt. Colonel of the Dumfries Militia, 
20 June, 1682. D. 1685. 

9 Possibly Hector Monro, second son of Sir Robert Monro of Foulis. 

10 Patrick Ogilvie of Murie. See his Comn. as Ensign in the Scots Foot Guards, 15 Jan. 

11 Son of Sir John Carstairs, Knt. " Kilconquer's second son, by his 2nd marriage, who 
lately before had married the Lady Gosforde in Lothian " (Lament's Diary). A contem- 
porary diarist (Lament) records, under date of 1667, that Captain Win. Carstairs shot 
a man on Largo link through the thigh " for cutting his horse's tail four months before." 
The man fell down as if dead, and Carstairs swam his horse through the water of Largo 
" being a great spread of water." Cashiered in 1675, for a " riot committed by him " (Gal. 
S. P. D., 1675-6). Pardoned by order of Charles II., 21 July, 1675. Ibid. 

13 See his Comn. in the Foot Guards on p. 24, and note thereto. 
11 Of Tinwald. Md. a dau. of Sir Robert Dalzell and d.s.p. 

14 Son of Sir George Monro by his 2nd marriage with Christian Hamilton, sister to 
Gustavus Hamilton 1st Visct. Boyne. 

16 Son and heir of Sir Robert Dalzell. Succeeded to his father's Company in the Earl of 
Mar's Regt., 12 Dec. 1679 ; and to the Baronetcy of Glenae in 1685. Left Lord Mar's Regt. 
in Aug. 1686. D. 1689. See account of the skirmish at Lesmahago in March, 1679, where 
John Dalzell was severely wounded. Part I., p. 46. 

18 Younger bro. to Sir John Stirling of Keir. Born 29 June, 1652. Appointed Ensign 
to the Earl of Mar's own Company in latter's new-raised Regt., 23 Sept. 1678. The Earl 
of Mar, in a letter to Sir John Stirling of Keir, dated " Edinburgh, 1 Jan. 1681," writes : " I 
received yours and one from your brother. You need not doubt my kindness to Mr. 
James ; but as to that of Mr. Charles Flemming's change I know nothing, nor doe I believe 
it will be" (The Sterlings of Keir, p. 517). Promoted Lieut., 1 April, 1684. Comn. renewed 
by James VII. Appears to have left the Army at the Revolution. Lieut. James Stirling 
md. Mary, only dau. of Sir George Stirling, Bt. by his first marriage. 

17 A certain George Ker was appointed Lieut, in Col. John Buchan's Regt. of Scots Foot 
in 1694 and promoted Capt., 12 Sept. 1695, when on active service in Flanders. 

18 Of Eccles, Berwickshire. Appointed Ensign in the Earl of Mar's new-raised Regt., 
>3 Sept. 1678. Out of said Regt. 3 March, 1680. 


THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 




(All the Commissions bear date the 2Qth Feb. 1678.) 

[Lord James Douglas. 1 ] 


Robert Touris. 2 


James Haye. 
Charles Berkeley. 4 
George Humes. 
John Preston. 
Alex Urquhart. 6 
James Moncreif. 6 
Wm. Mackey. 
Charles Murray. 7 
Walter Maxwell. 8 
James ffountaine. 11 


James Lorrane. 
John Law. 
James Campbell. 
Pierce Semple. 
John Lockhart. 
Walter Moncrief. 
Walter Gaurden. 
Alex Seaton. 
John Bell. 


Patrick Lalis. 8 


James Graham. 
Charles Ashmole. 
Alex Stirling. 9 
David Preston. 
Alex Winrame. 10 
John Murray. 
Alex Sutherland. 
John Ashmole. 
Lewis Mateland 12 (sic). 
John Gurden. 

Wm. Douglas. 

QR. MR. 

Wm. Ennerwick. 


Jon. Campbell. 


Robert Chawell. 

* The list of officers in this Eegt. is taken from English Army Lists and Commission 
Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. I., p. 215. The Regt. was raised in Scotland, excepting Capt. 
Charles Murray's Company, raised in Ireland, by the King's Orders (Letter to the Privy 
Council of Scotland, dated 15 March,1678). Lord James Douglas's Regt. was placed on the 
English Establishment in July, 1678, and probably was sent to Flanders. The Regt. appears 
to have returned to Scotland before 18 Jan. 1679, when the King wrote to the Privy 
Council ordering the disbanding of Lord James Douglas's Regt. of Foot ( Warrant Book for 
Scotland, Vol. V.). It is said that this corps was incorporated with the Earl of Dumbar- 
ton's Regt. The Douglas Book. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 103 

I Younger bro. to George, Earl of Dumbarton. Is said to have been a Page to 
Louis XIII. Saw much service with the Scots Eegt. in France. In 1666 was a Captain in 
his brother's Regt. of Scots Foot which Charles II. brought over to England. Under date 
of 19 Oct. 1681, occurs this entry in Guy's Secret Service Schedule. " To George, Earl of 
Dumbarton as of free guif t for the funeral expenses of his brother. James, Lord Douglas, 
150," p. 37. 

3 Called "Robert Towers " in the list of Lord George Douglas's Regt. in 1666, in which 
year the former was serving as Captain in said corps. He was granted a pension by 
James VII., 31 Dec. 1685. 

8 Called "Patrick La Lisle" in the list of Lord George Douglas's Regt. in 1666, in which 
year the former was serving as Lieut, in said corps. 

4 Charles Barclay. Serving as Captain in the 2nd Batt. of the Earl of Dumbarton's 
Regt. of Foot in 1687. Not in any subsequent list. 

* See his Comn. as Capt. of Grenadiers in the Foot Guards, under date of 21 May, 1684, 
and note thereto. 

6 Youngest son of Sir John Moncreiff of that Ilk, a Bart, of Novia Scotia. Served at 
Tangiers and reed. 100 for wounds (Guy's Secret Service Payments'). Fought with Lord 
Dumbarton's Regt. at Sedgemoor, and was awarded 40 for wounds. Succeeded to the 
baronetcy on the death of his brother David. Appointed Colonel of a new-raised Regt. of 
Scots Foot, 1 Feb. 1693. D. same year. 

' Probably son of Colonel Charles Murray, who accompanied Prince Charles from Jersey 
to Paris and wrote a humorous letter (Clarendon State Papers) describing the Prince's 
arrival in the French capital. On the 24 June, 1678, the king wrote to the Duke of Lau- 
derdale, then at Edinburgh, concerning Captain Charles Murray's Company " which was raised 
in Ireland " and had received orders, on landing in England, " to march to Kendal and thence 
to near Edinburgh, there to receive their clothes, and arms which We have ordered to be sent 
forthwith by sea to Leith " ( Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV.). Capt. Charles Murray 
was subsequently Adjt. to and Captain in Dumbarton's Regt. and was knighted by 
Charles II. On 7 Aug. 1686 he was appointed Major of the Royal Regt. of Horse in Scotland. 
His Commission erroneously describes him as " Knight and Baronet." Brevet Col., 27 Sept. 
1688. Lt.-Col. of aforesaid Regt., 29 Nov. 1688. D. at Edinburgh 2 Dec. 1736. Gentle- 
man's Mag. 

8 Appointed Capt. of an additional Company in the Earl of Mar's Regt.of Foot, 20 May, 
1685. Left the said Regt. in July, 1686. 

9 In a letter from George Stirling, Chirurgeon, to the Laird of Keir (Sir John Stirling) 
dated "Edinburgh, 18 Aug. 1675," the writer says : "In that defeat the Frenches got near 
Straitsburgh .... we have loasd seven Scots Captains in that batalione of Duglas regement 
that was with De Turaine, vizt., Duglas, Hay, Lature, Kernie, Bercklay, Cotbrine, & Lawless 
your brothers Captaine. Whither George and Alexander [Stirling] was with him I can- 
not yet learne, but this list I saw in a letter written from the campe in Sir W. Sharp's 
chamber " (Fraser's Stirlings of Keir, p. 507). A certain Alexander Stirling was Lieut, 
to Lt.-Col. John Stirling in Lord Murray's Regt. of Scots Foot, 1694. 

10 See p. 98, note 28. 

II Believed to be son of James des Fontanen, Physician General to the Army in Ireland 
temp. Charles II. Both father and son adopted the Anglicised name of " Fountaine." 
Captain James Fountaine was appointed Capt. in the Duke of Beaufort's Regt. of Foot, 20 
June, 1685. At the Revolution he followed the fortunes of King James and had the rank 
of Lt.- Colonel in Major-General Cannon's Army, in Scotland, early in 1690. Attainted. 
Escaped to France. Under date of 9 Oct. 1702, Luttrell records : " Letters from Paris 
say Colonels Fountain, Parker, Major Ingram, Sir Adam Blair, and Henry Nevil Pain are 
committed to the Bastile for petitioning the late Queen to remove from her presence the 
Earl of Middleton, whom they allege corresponds with England." In 1708, James Fountain 
was appointed Capt. en second in the Earl of Portmore's Regt of Foot. He served in George 
I's army, and d. in 1738. The Will of " Lt.-Colonel James Fountaine " was proved at 
Dublin, 1738. 

15 See his Commission on p. 25, note 3. 

104 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



King's Letter to the Privy Council of Scotland con- 
cerning the levying of a Troop of Horse by James, 
Marquis of Montrose, " to be raised for Our service 
in the Regt. of Our dear brother James, Duke of 
Albany and York, which the said Marquis hath 
asked leave to levy in Scotland. - Whitehall, 15 March, 1678." 



James, Marquis of Montrose. 1 Patrick Graham. 2 John Graham. 8 

* Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV. This Troop was levied in Scotland by the 
Marquis of Montrose. It consisted of 60 horsemen, and marched to London by way of 
Berwick, where it was mustered by Henry Howard, Muster-Master General of England. 
(Ibid.) The Duke of York's Regt. of Horse, commanded by the Earl of Peterborough, 
consisted of eight troops (including Montrose's) and served in Flanders. This Regt. was 
disbanded in January and March, 1679. 

1 James Graham 3rd Marquis. Appointed Captain of the Troop of Life Guards in 
Scotland, 26 Oct. 1678. D. in 1684. 

J Second son of Patrick Graham of Inchbrakie who was descended from Patrick 
Graham, a younger son of William 1st Earl of Montrose. Commanded the Town Guard 
of Edinburgh during the reign of James VII. Brevet Lt. -Colonel 17 July, 1688 ; 
Lt.-Colonel of the Edinburgh Militia, 25 Sept. same year. The Edinburgh Town 
Guard was disbanded in 1689. Col. Patrick Graham adhered to James VII., and followed 
him to France. He obtained command of a Regt. of Dragoons, and d. abioad in 1720. 
Or and Sable: A Book of the Grcemes and Grahams, p. 215. 

* Third son of Patrick Graham, the elder, of Inchbrakie. Is said to have acted as Page 
to young Lord Napier at the siege of Kincardine Castle in 1646. (Or and Sable : The 
Grasmes and Grahams). On 2 May, 1678, the Privy Council of Scotland gave permission to 
leave the Kingdom to " John Grahame, Postmaster General ... he being called to abroad 
with the Marquis of Montrose his cheiffe, for his Majesties present service." (Privy 
Council Acts, 1673-8). John Graham succeeded his father as Postmaster General in 1674. 
He md. Margaret Drummond, eldest dau. of Lord Maderty. See further reference to 
John Graham in Pt. I., pp. 43-4. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 105 


(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV.) 


John Strachan 1 to be Captain of a Company of Dra- 
goons consisting of 100 men besides officers Whitehall, 21 May, 1678. 

John Inglis 2 to be Captain of a Company of Dragoons 

consisting of 100 men besides officers - Whitehall, ,, 

John Lauder 8 to be Lieut, to Capt. John Strachan's 

Company of Dragoons - - Whitehall, ,, 

John Livingstoune 4 to be Ensign to Capt. John Strachan's 

Company of Dragoons - Whitehall, ,, 

Wm. Cleland 5 to be Lieut, to Capt. John Inglis's Com- 
pany of Dragoons - - - Whitehall, ,, 

Henry Dundas 6 to be Ensign to Capt. John Inglis's Com- 
pany of Dragoons - Whitehall, ,, 

106 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV.) 


Viscount of Kingstoun 7 to be Captain of the new Com- 
pany of Dragoons to be raised for his Majesty's 
service and entertained in Scotland - Windsor Castle, 23 Sept., 1678. 

Francis Stuart 8 of Coldingham to be Lieut, to the Vis- 
count Kingston's Company of Dragoons - Whitehall, 27 Sept., 1678. 

Thomas Winram 9 to be Ensign to above Company of 

Dragoons - Whitehall, 


(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V.) 

Francis Stuart 10 of Coldingham to be Captain of a Com- 
pany of Dragoons in place of Viscount Kingstoun 
who gives up his Commission - - Windsor Castle, 24 July, 1679. 

Thos. Winram u to be Lieut, to Capt. Francis Stuart's 

Company of Dragoons - - Windsor Castle, 3 Sept., 1679. 

John Creichton 12 to be Ensign to Capt. Francis Stuart's 
Company of Dragoons " of which Company you 
have been lately eldest Corporal." - Windsor Castle, ,, 

1 Appointed Capt. in the Scots Dragoons, 25 Nov. 1681, see p. 24, note 6. 

5 See p. 22, note 3. 

3 Appointed Lieut, to Sir Jas. Turner in the Scots Dragoons, 25 Nov. 1681. D. before 
28 Dec. 1682. 

* Next heir male to Charles, 2nd Earl of Newburgh. Lieut, to Capt. Strachan in the 
Scots Dragoons, 25 Nov. 1681. Comn. renewed by James VII. Appointed Aide-Major 
23 Aug. 1688. Joined in Lt.-Col. Wm. Livingstone's conspiracy to take the Royal 
Scots Dragoons, in which he was then Captain, over to Lord Dundee, in the spring of 1689. 
Was imprisoned and deprived of his Commission (Creichton's Memoirs). Mentioned in 
Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England as being at the Court of St. Germains in 
Jan. 1702, when Lord Belhaven came over on a secret Jacobite mission. Capt. John 
Livingstone md. Elizabeth, sister to Sir Robert Hamilton, 2nd Bart, of Silverton Hill, 
which lady was sister-in-law to Lord Belhaven. 

' See biog. notice on p. 20, note 3. 

6 Appointed Lieut, to Capt. Inglis in the Scots Dragoons, 25 Nov. 1681. Out of the 
Regt. before Feb. 1685. 

7 The Hon. Alexander Seton, 2nd son of George 2nd Earl of Winton, was created Visct. 
Kingston, 6 Feb. 1650. Writing to the Earl of Lauderdale, 23 March, 1667, when there was 
an idea of levying fresh troops, Lord Kingston assured Lauderdale that he wished to be 
looked upon as "ane obedient loyall subject" (Add. MS. 23126, fo. 142). Resigned his 
Commission as Capt. of an Indep. Troop of Dragoons, 24 July, 1679. D. 21 Oct. 1691 and 
was succeeded by his eldest surviving son Archibald. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 107 

8 Served at Bothwell Brig. Capt. of an Indep. Troop of Dragoons 24 July, 1679. 
Capt. in the Scots Dragoons, 25 Nov. 1681. He was actively employed with his Troop in 
the West of Scotland and captured Cargill, Smith, and Brown, three well-known Covenan- 
ting preachers, on 12 July, 1681, at Covington Mill. (Letter from the Duke of Hamilton 
to the Earl of Queensberry, 13 July, 1681.) Resigned his Commission 11 May, 1683. This 
officer was son of John Stewart, Commendator of Coldingham (son of Francis Stewart 
Earl of Bothwell), and served as a trooper in the Scots Life Guards (Creichton's Memoirs). 
Francis Stewart figures in Old Mortality as " Sergt. Francis Bothwell " killed by a Covenan- 
ter at Drumclog. 

9 Lieut, to Lord Kingston's Indep. Tp. of Dragoons, 3 Sept. 1679. Lieut, in the Scots 
Dragoons, 25 Nov. 1681. Capt. Lieut, in same Regt., 11 May, 1683. Comn. renewed by 
James VII. in March, 1685. Resigned in Oct. 1685. John Skene writing from London, 
22 Oct. 1685, to his brother Mr. Thomas Skene, Advocate, Edinburgh, records that 
" Thomas Winraham quho was Captain liutenant is maid manadger of the invalids stock 
(Skene Correspondence in General Register House)." D. in Nov. 1689. A son of Sir 
George Winram of Liberton, one of the Senators of the College of Justice. See copy of 
Capt. Thos. Winram's Will in the Appendix. 

10 See note 8. 

11 See note 9. 

12 Son of Alex. Creichton who was of Scottish descent. Born at Castle-fin, Donegal, 
8th May, 1648. Went to Scotland in 1674, and through the interest of Dr. Christopher 
Irvine was accepted as a "gentleman private" in the King's Troop of Life Guards. 
Having earned a reputation as a relentless foe to the persecuted Covenanters, he was given 
a lieutenant's Commission as above. On the formation of the Regt. of Scots Dragoons in 
Nov. 1681, Creichton was appointed Lieut, to Capt. Fras. Stewart's Troop. His services 
with the Scots Dragoons have been handed down in his Memoirs which he related to Dean 
Swift, in Ireland, when 82 years of age. Making due allowance for the narrator's age, and 
tendency to exaggeration, the Memoirs bear the impression of truth in all the most 
important details. After the Revolution Creichton succeeded to Blair's Troop, but joining 
in Lt. Col. Wm. Livingston's conspiracy was deprived of his Comn. and imprisoned. 

108 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



King's Letter to the Privy Council of Scotland concerning 
the two Highland Companies to be raised for secur- 
ing the peace of the Highlands Whitehall, 4 Sept., 1678. 


Sir James Campbell 1 of Lawers. 
Colonel James Menzies. 2 

Mem. " That the Commission granted to Lawers was recalled and a new 
Commission of the same date granted to the Earl of Caithness, 8 to be 
Captain of the Company whereof Lawers was appointed Lieutenant." 

John, Earl of Caithness, 8 to be Captain of one of the 

two Companies of Highlandmen - Windsor, 5 Sept., 1678. 

Colonel James Menzies 2 to be Captain of the other 

Company - - Windsor, ,, 

Sir James Campbell l of Lawers to be 1st Lieutenant to 
the Earl of Caithness's new Company of Highland- 
men - - Whitehall, 27 Sept., 1678. 

Alexander Campbell of to be 2nd Lieutenant to 

above Cy. - - Whitehall, 

Alexander Mackarter (sic) to be Ensign to above Cy. 


Archibald Campbell 4 of Inveraw to be 1st Lieut, to Col. 

James Menzies' Company of Highlandmen - Whitehall, ,, 

John Campbell of Airdes to be 2nd Lieutenant to above 
Company - - Whitehall, 

Campbell of to be Ensign to above Company 


* Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV. The Privy Council ordered garrisons to be 
kept at Braemar, Inverlochy, and Euthven, by an Act passed 22 Dec. 1664. These garri- 
sons were drawn from the Foot Guards prior to 1678 (see chapter on the " Highland 
Watch " in Ross's Old Scottish Colours, pp. 23-28). The King's Letter to the Treasury, 
5 Sept. 1678, laid down the establishment and pay of the two new Companies. They 
were to consist of 150 men each. The soldiers were to receive five shillings Scots per diem ; 
each captain eight shillings sterling per diem, each lieutenant four shillings sterling per diem, 
and each ensign (or 2nd lieutenant) three shillings sterling per diem. There were to be 
three sergeants to each Company who were to receive respectively eighteen shillings Scots 
per diem ; and four corporals to each Company who were to receive respectively twelve 
shillings Scots per diem. These two Companies were disbanded in March, 1681, and were 
replaced by two new Companies added to the Earl of Mar's Eegt. 

1 Son of Sir Mungo Campbell of Lawers who was younger brother to John, Earl of 
Loudoun. This Sir Mungo was Colonel of a Hegt. of Scots Foot which served in Ireland, 
1642-1644, and was killed at the battle of Auldearn in 1645. His son James, who had served 
in his father's regiment, both in Ireland and Scotland, succeeded to the command of the 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 109 

above corps. " In 1645 Parliament passed an Act in favour of his mother and her family 
as to the arrears due to Sir Mungo.' 1 Col. James Campbell was appointed Lyon King of 
Arms by the Protector, but lost this post at the Restoration. Justice of the Peace for 
Perthshire, 1663. It is uncertain when he was knighted, but it was before 1655. He was 
twice married, and left issue. D. after 1689. See The Genealogist, Vol. V., pp. 135-6. 

* Of Culdares, Co. Perth. The first of the family of Culdares had married Margaret 
youngest dau. of Sir Andrew Kerr of Fernihirst. Col. James Menzies fought under the 
Covenant banner in the Civil Wars of Charles I. He captured the Marquis of Huntley for 
whose person 1,000 had been offered by the Estates. This sum was awarded to Menzies 
by Act of Parliament, 7 Jan. 1648. He subsequently went over to the Royalist side, and 
was Lieut.-Colonel to Argyll's Regt. of Foot in 1650. After Dunbar, the King's Crown 
and Sceptre were entrusted to Col. Menzies, who conveyed them to Dunottar Castle. On 
the 14th July, 1675, the King signed a Warrant for Charter of new infeftment to Col. 
James Menzies and his eldest son Archibald of the lands of Coldairs, &c., and an erection of 
all the said lands into the barony of Coldairs. Cal. S.P.D., 1675-6, p. 214. 

8 Sir John Campbell 5th Bt. of Glenorchy (only son of the 4th Bt.) being the principal 
creditor of George, 6th Earl of Caithness, the latter mortgaged his whole estate and earldom 
to the aforesaid Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy, who assumed the surname and arms of 
Sinclair, in 1672. The Earl of Caithness d. in 1676, whereupon Sir John, being then in 
possession of the earldom, obtained a Patent, dated Whitehall, 28 June, 1677, creating him 
Earl of Caithness. His title was, however, disputed by George Sinclair of Keiss, the heir 
male of the last earl. The Privy Council declared the said George Sinclair the rightful 
Earl of Caithness, and accordingly Glenorchy resigned the title and obtained a Patent, 
dated 13 Aug. 1681, creating him Earl of Breadalbane and Holland, with precedency of 
the former Patent, 28 June, 1677. Being implicated in the Massacre of Glencoe, Lord 
Breadalbane was committed for high treason to Edinburgh Castle, but was discharged 
without trial. D. 19 March, 1717. 

4 Commissioner of Supply for Argyllshire, 1678 and 1685. 

110 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV.) 

James, Earl of Airly, 1 to be Captain of a Troop of 

Horse to consist of 60 horsemen besides officers 

Windsor Castle, 23 Sept., 1678. 
[James] Earl of Home a to be Captain of another troop 

of Horse of same strength - Windsor Castle, ,, 

John Graham 8 of Claverhouse to be Captain of a 

similar Troop - - Windsor Castle, ,, 

Adam Urquhart*of Meldrum to be Lieut, to the Earl of 

Airly's Troop - - Whitehall, 27 Sept., 1678. 

Sir Francis Ruthven 6 to be Cornet to the Earl of Airly's 

Troop - Whitehall, 

Blank Commission for Quarter-Master to last-named 

Troop - Whitehall, 

The Master of Rosse 6 to be Lieut, to the Earl of Home's 

Troop - Whitehall, 

Sir Mark Carse 7 to be Cornet to the Earl of Home's 

Troop - Whitehall, 

David Home 8 of Woolstruther to be Quarter-Master to 

last-named Troop - - Whitehall, 

[Andrew] Bruce 9 of Earlshall to be Lieut, to Capt. John 

Graham of Claverhouse's Troop - Whitehall, ,, ,, 

Robert Graham 10 to be Cornet to Capt. John Graham 

of Claverhouse's Troop - - Whitehall, 

James Graham u to be Quarter-Master to last-named 

Troop - Whitehall, 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 111 


(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V.) 

Wm. Graham 18 to be Cornet to the Laird of Claver- 
house's Troop of Horse in place of the deceased Robert 
Graham - - Whitehall, 3 March, 1680. 

David Graham 18 (brother German to John Graham of 
Claverhouse) to be Quarter-Master to latter's Troop 
in place of [James] Graham deceased - Whitehall, ,, 

William, Master of Rosse, 14 to be Capt. of the Troop of 
Horse formerly commanded by James, Earl of Home, 
whose Commission is hereby declared void 

Windsor Castle, 4- Sept., 1680. 

Sir Mark Carse 1B of Cockpenne to be Lieut, to the Master 

of Rosse's Troop of Horse - - Whitehall, 10 Sept., 1680. 

Sir Adam Blair, 16 Yr., of Carberie to be Cornet to the 

Master of Rosse's Troop of Horse - Whitehall, ,, 

Blank Commission for Quarter-Master to last-named 
Troop - Whitehall, 

Adam Urquhart 17 of Meldrum to be Capt. of the Troop of 
Horse lately commanded by James Earl of 
Airlie - Whitehall, 25 Nov., 1682. 

Sir Francis Ruthven 18 to be Lieut, of the Troop of Horse 
commanded by Capt. Adam Urquhart of Mel- 
drum - Whitehall, 12 Dec., 1682. 

[Wm.] Keath 19 of Ludwharn (sic) to be Cornet to last- 
named Troop - - Whitehall, 

1 See biog. notice on p. 64, note 1. 

Fifth Earl. Besigned his Commission in the summer of 1680. D.s.p. 22 July, 1706. 

8 So far as can be ascertained this is Claverhouse's first Commission in the Scots Army. 

4 See his Commission on p. 11, and note thereto. 

5 Of Redcastle, Co. Forfar, Knight. Lieut, to Capt. Adam Urquhart's Troop of Horse, 
12 Dec. 1682. Lieut, to same Troop in Claverhouse's Eegt. of Horse, 27 Dec. 1682. Out 
of the Regt. 21 Dec. 1684. Md. Elizabeth, 2nd dau. of Lord Ruthven, of Freeland, and had 

6 Succeeded his father as 12th Lord Ross of Hawkhead in 1682. Capt. of the Troop of 
Horse whereof the Earl of Home had been Captain, 4 Sept. 1680. Capt. of same Troop 
in Claverhouse's Regt. of Horse, 26 Dec. 1682 ; Major and Captain in said Regt. 4 Aug. 
1684. He received 5/- p. diem as Major in addition to his pay as Captain of a Troop 
(King's Letter to the Lord Treasurer of Scotland, 4 Aug. 1684). Resigned his Commission 
7 Aug. 1686. Had been actively employed against the Covenanters in the West of 
Scotland, but forwarded the Revolution. Appointed Capt. of an Indep. Troop of Scots 
Horse in 1689. Was in great favour with William III. and Queen Anne. D. in 1738. 

7 Of Cockpenne. Lieut, to the Master of Ross's Troop 10 Sept. 1680. Lieut, to 
Lord Ross's Troop in Claverhouse's Regt., 26 Dec. 1682 ; Comn. renewed by James VII. 
in March, 1685 ; serving with the Rest, in England when it was struck off the establish- 

112 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

ment, Jan. 1689. In the Lyon Office Matriculation Register reference is made to " Sir 
Mark Carse of Fordelcarse." 

8 Appointed Qr. Master to Lord Boss's Troop in Claverhouse's Regt., 26 Dec. 1682. 
Out of the Eegt. 13 Jan. 1683. 

9 Claverhouse's right-hand man. Sheriff-depute, conjointly with his chief, of Dumfries ; 
Annandale, Wigton, and Kirkcudbright, 27 Jan. 1679. Son of Sir Andrew Bruce, knt. 
Fought at Bothwell Brig. Had a share of the forfeited estates. Tinder date of 20 July, 
1680, Wodrow writes : " Richard Cameron, Hackston of Rathillet, and their followers, 
were surprised by Earlshall and his party. Cameron killed on the spot. Rathillet taken 
prisoner." This was the action known as Ayrs-Moss, in the parish of Auchinleck in 
Kyle. Andrew Bruce accompanied his Regt. to England, in Oct. 1688, and returned with 
Dundee and his Troop to Scotland in Dec. same year. He remained true to his salt. D. in 
1704. See pedigree of " Bruce of Earlshall " in The Genealogist, Vol. VII., pp. 131-142. 

10 Kinsman to Claverhouse. " Slain by a musket shot at Drumclog from one John 
Alstoun, a miller's son, a tenant of Weir of Blackwood " (Kirkton's Church of Scotland, 
p. 442). " The rebels," says Creichton in his Memoirs, " finding the cornet's body, and 
supposing it to be that of Clavere, because the name of Graham was wrought in the shirt 
neck, treated it with the utmost inhumanity ; cutting off the nose, pulling out the eyes, 
and stabbing it through in a hundred places." Guild's Bellum Bothwellianum, quoted in 
Scott's Minstrelsy, mentions the same barbarity. It is only fair to the Covenanters who 
fought at Drumclog to disbelieve the above savage conduct attributed to them. " The 
tradition," remarks Professor Sanf ord Terry, in his John Graham of Claverhouse, " is no 
doubt wholly fictitious. Such mutilation as the cornet's body was subjected to was cer- 
tainly due to the horses riding over it in the fight," pp. 56-7, note 3. 

11 Dead before 3 March, 1680. 

12 Of Balquhaple. Appointed Cornet to Claverhouse's Troop in latter's Regt. 25 Dec. 
1682 ; Lieut, to Meldrum's Troop, 21 Feb. 1684. Accompanied his chief to England in 
Oct. 1688, and returned with him to Scotland in December. Had been promoted Major 
of Lord Dundee's Regt., 7 Dec. 1688 ; one of the last Commissions signed by the unfortunate 
James VII. Acted as godfather at the baptism of Dundee's infant son, 9 April, 1689. 
Fought at Killiecrankie. Attainted by Act of Parliament 14 July, 1690. 

13 Appointed Qr. -Master to Claverhouse's Troop in latter's Regt., 25 Dec. 1682. Cornet 
to said Troop 21 Feb. 1684. Accompanied his Regt. to England in Oct. 1688. Returned 
with his Troop to Scotland in Dec. 1688. Was at the battle of Killiecrankie. Succeeded 
his nephew as 3rd Visct. Dundee in Dec. 1689. Attainted by Act of Parliament, 14 July, 
1690. Retired to France in 1692, and was invested by King James with the Order of the 
Thistle. D.s.p. in 1700. 

14 See biog. notice on p. Ill, note 6. 
16 See p. Ill, note 7. 

16 Son of Robert Blair. Appointed Cornet to Lord Ross's Troop in Claverhouse's 
Regt. 26 Dec. 1682. Wounded in action at Stone Dyke Park, 20 June, 1685. Capt. in 
said Regt. 6 Nov. 1685. Accompanied the Scots Army to England in Oct. 1688. Adhered 
to James VII. at the Revolution and his Troop given to his Lieut. John Creichton. In 
July, 1689, Sir Adam Blair was arrested and imprisoned in the Gate-house, Westminster 
(Letter from Lord Melville to the Duke of Hamilton, 8 July, 1689). Impeached for high 
treason by both Houses of Parliament. Made his escape with Dr. Gray, another Jacobite 
prisoner, but they were retaken in an open boat, off Dover, making for Calais (Luttrell's 
Short Relation of State Affairs). Eventually Blair was allowed to retire to France, where 
he fell foul of his own party and was committed to the Bastile. Ibid, under date of 3 Oct. 

17 See biog. notice on p. 11, note 3. 

18 See p. Ill, note 5. 

19 Son of Sir Wm. Keith of Ludquhairn, a Bart, of Nova Scotia. Cornet in Claver- 
house's Regt. of Horse 27 Dec., 1682. Succeeded his father as Bart, before 7 Dec. 1688, on 
which date Cornet Sir W. Keith was promoted Lieut, in Lord Dundee's Regt. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 





The Commissions of the Field Officers and Captains were dated at 
Windsor Castle, 23rd September, 1678 ; the Subalterns' Commis- 
sions bore date 27th September. 

(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IV.) 


Charles, Earl of 
Mar, 1 Col. 

Earl of Dalhousie, 2 
Lt. Col. 
Andrew White, 8 

[David] Bruce 4 of 

John Balfour. 5 

James Murray. 8 of 

[Sir Patrick] Ogilvy 7 

of Boyne. 
Sir Robert Dalzell. 8 


Charles Fleming 9 

[Capt. Lieut.] 
Charles Scott 10 of 

[John] Dalzell " 

John Scott in Swans- 

Charles Straitoune. 12 

Walter Nairne. 

Kenneth McKenzie 18 

of Suddie. 
[Wm.] Trotter. 14 


James Wood. 21 


Alex. Livingstoune. 16 
Donald McKenzie. 
Duncan Menzies. 16 

[John] Bruce, 17 bro. to 

Bruce of Clackmanan. 
- Tyre, son to David 

[Wm.] Burnett 18 of 

John Innes, 19 son to the 

Laird of Innes. 
George Maitland 20 of 



(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vols. V., VI.) 

James Arnet 22 (sic) of Ferny to be Ensign of Capt. 

John Balfour's Company - Whitehall, 19 June, 1679. 

Alex. Stratoun 23 to be Lieut, to Capt. John Balfour's 

Company - Windsor Castle, 15 Sept., 1679. 

Thomas Douglas 24 (brother German to the deceased Laird 
of Cavers) to be Capt. of that Company whereof 
James Murray of Philiphaugh was late Cap- 
tain - - Whitehall, 15 Oct., 1679. 

114 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Wm. Burnett 26 of Barnes to be Lieut, to Captain 

Thomas Douglas's Company - Whitehall, 15 Oct., 1679. 

Michael Veitch 26 (lawful son to Sir John Veitch of 
Dawick) to be Ensign to Capt. Thos. Doug- 
las - - Whitehall, 18 Nov., 1679. 

John Dalyell 27 to be Capt. of the Company of Foot, 
formerly commanded " by Sir Robert Dalyell your 
father." - Whitehall, 12 Dec., 1679. 

Robert Dalyell 28 (formerly Sergeant of Capt. Morray's 
Company in the Guards) to be Ensign to Capt. John 
Dalyell - Whitehall, 3 March, 1680. 

John Areskin 29 (brother German to the Laird of Alva) 
to be Ensign to the Earl of Mar's own Company in 
latter's Regt. - Newmarket, 17 March, 1680. 

[John] Bruce 80 (brother of Bruce of Clackmanan) 
to be Captain of " your late brother's Com- 
pany." - Windsor Castle, 31 May, 1680. 

Alex. Stewart 81 to be Ensign to Capt. [John] 

Bruce. - - Windsor Castle, 1 June, 1680. 

James Stirling 82 (brother German to the Laird of Keir) 
to be Ensign of the Earl of Mar's own Company 
[in room of John Areskin appointed Ensign to Lord 
Mar's Company in Stirling Castle] - - Whitehall, 10 Sept., 1680. 

George Bruce aa (brother to the Laird of Clack- 
mannan) to be Ensign to his brother Capt. John 
Bruce - Whitehall, 

King 84 to be Lieut, to the Earl of Dalhousie's Com- 
pany Whitehall 14 Feb., 1681. 



(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VI.) 
The Commissions were dated, Whitehall, 7 April, 1681. 

[Kenneth] Mackenzie, 85 Wm. Sharp. 37 [Chris.] Mackdougal. 89 

of Suddie. 
Alex. Cairnes, 86 John Livingstoune, 88 [Andrew] Wood. 40 


Duncan Menzies 41 (Ensign to Major White) to be Aid 

Major of the Earl of Mar's Regt. Whitehall, 19 Oct., 1681. 

Wm. Fraser 42 (eldest son to the Master of Salton) to 
be Capt. of the Company lately commanded by Sir 
Patrick Ogilvy of Boyne (now one of the Senators 
of Our College of Justice). Whitehall, 29 Oct., 1681. 

John Bell 48 to be Lieut, to the Earl of Dalhousie's 

Company [in room of King] - Whitehall, 14 Dec., 1681. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 115 



(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII.) 
The Commissions were dated at Windsor Castle, 19 June, 1682. 


Wm. Garioch. 44 Wm. White. 46 Robert Nisbet. 46 


Lt. Col. Thomas Buchan 47 to be Lt. Col. of Lord Mar's 
Regt. (in place of the late deceased Earl of Dal- 
housie) and Capt. of a Company - Whitehall, 7 Dec., 1682. 

John Balfour 48 to be Major in place of Major White 

and Capt. of a Company - Whitehall, ,, 

Charles Fleming 49 to be Capt. of a Company lately 
commanded by Major White [appointed Lt. Gov. 
of Edinburgh Castle] Whitehall, 

Alex. Leith 60 to be Ensign to Lt. Colonel Thomas 

Buchan - Whitehall, 6 Feb., 1683. 

Henry Bruce 61 to be Ensign to his brother Capt. John 

Bruce Whitehall, 

Colin McKenzie 62 (uncle to the Earl of Seaforth) to be 

Capt. Lieut. - Whitehall, 30 March, 1683. 

Duncan Menzies 68 (Aid Major) to be Lieut, of Capt. 

Wm. Eraser's Company - Windsor Castle, 18 May, 1683. 

Walter Sharp 64 (son to Sharp of Houstoun) to 
be Ensign to Capt. Charles Fleming's Com- 
pany - Windsor Castle, ,, 

Alex. Straton 66 to be Ensign to Major Balfour's Com- 
pany - Whitehall, 27 Nov., 1683. 

Wm. Borthwick 66 to be Surgeon - - Whitehall, 31 Jan., 1684. 

Colin McKenzie 67 to be Captain in place of Capt. 

Charles Fleming deceased - Whitehall, 1 April, 1684. 

John Bell B8 to be Capt. Lieut, [in place of Colin 

McKenzie promoted] - Whitehall, ,, ,, 

John Bell 69 [Yr.] to be Ensign to the Earl of Mar's own 

Company - - Whitehall, 

James Stirling 60 to be Lieut, of Lt. Col. Thomas 

Buchan's Company - Whitehall, 

* The present Royal Scots Fusiliers served at Bothwell Bridge and were subsequently 
employed in the South West of Scotland. In April, 1681, two new Companies were added 
to the Earl of Mar's Regt. in place of the two Highland Companies which were disbanded. 
These new Companies had the unpleasant duty of " uplifting the cess and taxation " in the 
Highlands. Under date of 14 Nov. 1682, a Scottish chronicler writes : " Complaints being 
exhibited against Cameron of Locheill and some of his clan, for sorning, robbing, deforcing, 
and doing violence and affronts to a party of the King's forces, who came there to uplift 
the cess taxation. The Lords ordained them to be presently disarmed of their swords, 
pistols, and skien-durks and to be securely imprisoned " (Fountainhall's The Decisions of 
the Lords of Council, pp. 359-360). The same writer records on 30 Nov. 1682, that Cameron 
of Lochiel was fined 100 by the Privy Council as head of the clan " for the deforcement 
and violence offered by his men to the King's forces." Ibid. 

o 2 

116 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

1 See p. 32, note 7. 

2 Third Earl. Had a share of the " Forfeitures " after Bothwell Brig. Sheriff of the 
County of Edinburgh at the time of his death in 1682. 

* See biog. notice on p. 38, note 8. 

4 See do. on p. 96, note 5. 

s Of Fernie. Second son of the 3rd Lord Balf our of Burleigh. Had a share of the 
" Forfeitures " after Bothwell Brig. Major of Mar's Regt., 7 Dec. 1682. Lt. Col. of said 
Regt., 29 July, 1686. Accompanied his corps to England in Oct. 1688. Left the Army 
same year. He was attainted for his participation in the '15 and d. 1725. The estate of 
Fernie was restored to this officer's eldest son, Arthur, by George II. 

6 Had a share of the " Forfeitures " after Bothwell Bridge. Left the Regt. in Oct. 1679. 
Af tds. Sir James Murray, Knt. Appointed a Senator of the College of Justice, 1689. 

7 See biog. notice on p. 100, note 5. 

8 Of Glenae. Created a Bart, of Nova Scotia, 11 April, 1666. Son and heir of the Hon. 
Sir John Dalzell, who was 2nd son of the first Earl of Carnwath. Sir Robert Dalzell 
resigned his Company in favour of his eldest son, John Dalzell, 12 Dec. 1679. D. in Sept. 

8 Promoted Capt., 7 Dec. 1682. Sixth son of the 3rd Earl of Wigton. D. in March, 1684. 

10 Served previously as Ensign in Sir George Monro's Regt. Took part in the trial of 
James Mitchell, Covenanter, 1678. Left the Earl of Mar's Regt. in Feb. 1681. 

11 Captain of the Company which his father, Sir Robert Dalzell, Bt., vacated, 12 Dec. 1679. 
He was with Major White in the skirmish with a large party of Covenanters at Lesmahago, 
in March, 1679, and was desperately wounded in the groin by a thrust from a pitchfork and 
taken prisoner (The Lauderdale Papers, Vol. III., p. 163.) Left the Earl of Mar's Regt. in 
Aug. 1686. Succeeded his father as 2nd Bart, of Glenae in 1689. Father of Sir Robert 
Dalzell, who succeeded, in 1702, as 6th Earl of Carnwath. 

"Appointed Capt. in the Scots Foot Guards, 20 June, 1682. See biog. notice on p. 28, 
note 7. 

"Appointed Capt. of anew Company added to the Earl of Mar's Regt., 7 Apr. 1681. 
Killed in action in August, 1688, at the head of his Company, when assisting Macdonald of 
Keppoch to subdue Mackintosh and his clan in Lochaber (Memoirs of Lochiel, p. 230). 
Mackenzie of Suddie md. Isabella, dau. of John Paterson, Bishop of Ross, and sister of 
Archbishop Paterson, last Archbishop of Glasgow. 

14 Possibly the Wm. Trotter, who served as a Trooper in Lord Kincardine's Troop in 
1666-7. Promoted Capt., 2 Aug. 1686. Left the Regt. at the Revolution. 

15 Out of the Regt. 17 March. 1680. 

16 Of Comrie. Served at Lesmahago fight in March, 1679. Appointed Aide-Major of 
Mar's Regt., 19 Oct. 1681. Took the side of James VII. at the Revolution. Fought under 
Dundee at Killiecrankie. Believed to be the Major Menzies taken prisoner by the Royalists 
in the island of Cluny, Oct. 1690. 

17 Capt. of his late brother's Company, 31 May, 1680. Left the Regt. at the Revolution. 

18 The Burnets of Barns are said by Nisbet to have been descendants of Robert de 
Burnetville. Lieut., 15 Oct. 1679. Promoted Capt. after the Revolution. Served in 
Flanders. Out of the Regt. 10 Nov. 1692. 

19 The name of " Ensign John Innes " appears in the List of those to whom " Forfeitures " 
were granted in Dec. 1679. Out of the Regt. on the accession of James VII. Not 
identified with the " John Innys " appointed Major in the Princess Anne of Denmark's 
Regt. of Foot, 19 June, 1685. 

20 See his Comn. on p. 100 and note 18, p. 101. 

21 Believed to be identical with the "Major James Wood " appointed Qr-Mr. to Lord 
Mar's Regt., 7 Jan. 1686. Captain in Col. Hales's Regt. of Foot, 31 Dec. 1688 (English Army 
Lists, Vol. II., p. 251). Major of Lord Strathnaver's Scots Regt. in 1693. This Regt. was 
taken into Dutch pay after the Peace of Ryswick. Brig. Gen. 1704. Colonel of a Scots 
Regt. in Holland, 28 Sept. 1704. Col. of the present Royal Scots Fusiliers, 9 March, 1727. 
Major-General, 27 Oct. 1735. D. 18 May, 1738. This officer was knighted, but when, or by 
whom, is not apparent. In The Marlbnrough Despatches is a letter from the Duke of 
Marlborough, to Sir James Wood (dated 1st May, 1705) expostulating with him on his 
treatment of Lady Wood who was left with her children in a necessitous condition during 
her husband's absence. 

M Out of the Regt. on the accession of James VII. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 117 

23 Believed to be the father of Capt. Alexander Straiton of this Regt. who was killed at 
Blenheim, where he served as senior Capt. (See Blenheim Roll, p. 57). There being two 
officers named Alex. Straiton serving as Captains in the Scots Fusiliers it is difficult to 
distinguish between them. 

24 Promoted Major, 21 Aug. 1686. Lt.-Colonel before 1693. Served in Flanders. On 
1st Sept. 1693, his Company was given to Wm. Murray. 

26 See note 18. 

26 Comn. renewed by James VII. Untraced after 1687. 

27 See biog. notice on p. 116, note 11. 

28 Parentage unknown. In Notes and Queries for 1886, a correspondent writes : " I have 
a copy of the retour constituting Robert Dalzell, ensign to Captain Dalzell, tutor to Thomas 
and Janet Dalzeall, legitimate children of the deceased John Dalzeall of Straith and his 3rd 
wife Julia Fergusone. The inquest was made in Dec. 1681 within the town hall of the 
burgh of Canongate, Edinburgh " (6th series, Vol. XI., p. 187). Ensign Robert Dalzell 
left Mar's Regt. 15 Jan. 1687. It has not been definitely proved that this officer is 
identical with the Robert Dalzell named in Colonel John Gibson's letter to J. Ellis, Esq., 
dated Portsmouth, 29 Oct. 1701, asking that his (Gibson's) son-in-law, Capt. Robert Dalzell, 
who " carried arms in Holland several years before the Revolution and was made Ensign 
at the Revolution ; and was Captain in my late Regt. all the years that it stood " should be 
appointed Town Major of Portsmouth (Add MS. 28887, fo. 345). The aforesaid Capt. 
Robert Dalzell (who md. Anne Mary Gibson, dau. of Col. Sir John Gibson of Pentland, 
Lt. Gov. of Portsmouth) attained the rank of Lt.-General and Colonel of the 38th Foot. 
He saw considerable service in Spain and Flanders. In 1720 he was appointed Treasurer of 
the Sun Fire Office and Chairman of the Directors, 1750. D. in 1758 aged 96. Bd. in 
St. Martin's Church in the Fields, London. 

89 Out of the Regt. before 1685. Succeeded his brother Sir James Erskine (who was 
killed at Landen, 23 July, 1693) as 3rd. Bart, of Alva. D. in consequence of a fall from his 
horse in 1739. 

30 See p. 116, note 17. 

31 Left the Regt. 10 Sept. 1680. 

32 See p. 101, note 16. 

33 Out of the Regt. 6 Feb. 1683. 

34 Out of the Regt. 14 Dec. 1681. 

35 See p. 116, note 13. 

36 Comn. renewed by James VII., 30 March, 1685. Left the Regt. early in 1689. 

37 Probably related to Sir Wm. Sharp of Scotscraig. Capt. in same Regt. in 1692. 
Served at Steinkirk. In Cannon's Records of the 21s< Fusiliers it is stated that Capt. Sharp 
of this Regt. was killed at Steinkirk, but this was not the case, as Colin Mackenzie's Comn., 
dated 1 Aug. 1692, gives " Lieut, to Capt. Wm. Sharpe." Transferred to the Scots Guards, 
1 Sept. 1693. Comn. as Capt. and Lt. Col. renewed in 1702. D. on service in Spain in 
1710, and his company given to Visct. Falkland, 22 Aug. same year. 

38 Comn. renewed by James VII., in March, 1685. Out of the Regt. 29 March, 1687. 

39 Comn. renewed by James VII., in March, 1685. Left the Regt. 20 Apr. 1688. 

40 Succeeded as Ensign by Robert Wood, 7 Jan. 1686. 

41 See p. 116, note 16. 

" Left the Regt. soon after his father's death, which took place in 1682. Succeeded his 
grandfather as llth Lord Saltoun, in 1693. " He was a mighty promoter of the project of 
Darien and opposed the Union with all his interest. " (Douglas's Peerage.) D. 1716. 

" Capt.-Lieut., 1 Apr. 1684. Capt., 23 Apr. 1688. Accompanied the Regt. to England 
in Oct. 1688. Not in any subsequent List. 

44 Comn. renewed by James VII. Out of the Regt. before 1688. 

46 Killed at the battle of Steinkirk, in 1692, while serving as a Capt. in same Regt. 
Pension of 30 to his widow, Elizabeth White. See English Army Lists and Commission 
Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. III., p. 403. 

46 Eldest son and heir of Robert Nisbet of the family of Nisbet of Cartin. Md. Anna, 
elder dau. of John McKerrell, 4th Laird of Hillhouse. Marriage contract dated 1689 
(Landed Gentry, McKerrell pedigree). Promoted Capt. before 1 Jan. 1692, when his Com- 
pany was given to James Kygo. 

47 " Third son of James Buchan of Auchmacoy , Aberdeenshire. He had served in France 
in the Royal Scots Regt. (Commission as Captain, dated May 15th, 1671, preserved at 

118 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Auchmacoy). Lt.-Colonel of Col. Hugh Mackay's Regt. in the Dutch Scots Brigade prior 
to 1680 (Scots Brigade in Holland, Vol. I., p. 509 note 6). Succeeded the Earl of Mar 
as Colonel, 29 July, 1686. Brig.-Gen. of the Foot, 12 Nov. 1688. Adhered to James VII. 
at the Revolution and was deprived of his Comn. by the Prince of Orange. Followed King 
James to Ireland in 1689 ; and in March, 1690, was sent, with the rank of Major-General, to 
Scotland to supersede Major-General Cannon as Commander of the Jacobite forces in that 
Kingdom. Surprised at Cromdale, in Strathspey, on the night of 1 May, 1690, by the 
Royalist forces under Sir Thos. Livingstone, who inflicted great loss on the Jacobite troops. 
Failing to effect anything in Scotland, Buchan returned to France. D. 1720. 

48 See p. 116, note5. 

49 See p. 116, note 9. 

50 Lieut, to a new Company added to Buchan's (late Mar's) Regt., 23 Apr. 1688. Left 
the Regt. at the Revolution. 

51 Do. Henry Bruce was youngest son of Sir Henry Bruce of Clackmanan. Md. Jean, 
dau. of Alex. Bruce of Kinnaird, and d., aged 80, in 1741. Burke's Commoners, Vol. IV., p. 

52 Capt., 30 March, 1683. Resigned his Company in favour of his son Robert Mackenzie, 
7 Jan. 1688. Md. Miss Jean Laurie and had issue. Attainted by Act of Parliament, 
14 July, 1690. 

63 See p. 116, note 16. 

54 Lieut., 25 Sept. 1688. Capt., 1 Jan. 1692. Served at Steinkirk and Landen. Major in 
1704. Fought at Blenheim. Lt.-Col., 25 Aug. 1706. Left the Scots Fusiliers, 25 Sept. 
1708. D. in 1710. Believed to be the Col. Walter Sharp of Blance, who md. a dau. of Sir 
Thos. Dalyell. 

55 Lieut., 29 Nov. 1688. Capt-Lieut., 7 March, 1689. Capt., 1 Aug. 1692. Served at Stein- 
kirk. Wounded at Landen. Killed at Blenheim. Believed to be son of the Capt. Alex. 
Straiten of the same Regt. See p. 117, note 23. 

56 See p. 54, note 9. 

57 See note 52. 

58 See p. 117, note 43. 

59 Left the Regt. as a Lieut, at the Revolution. In a " List of the Rebels in France, 
1695," appears " Lieut. John Bell of O'Farrel's Regt." Acts of the Parlt. if Scotland, 
Vol. IX., Appx. 115a. 

60 See biog. notice on p. 101, note 16. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 119 





Major Edmund Maine. 1 [Ant. Heyford.] 4 


Major Theophilus Oglethorp. 2 [Hen. Griffith.] 6 

Henry Cornewall. 8 

* It has not been definitely ascertained whether the three troops named in the text were 
the only English auxiliaries which took part in the engagement at Bothwell Bridge. Under 
date of 9 June, 1679, Wodrow states that : " The Council write to Major Main who, with 
a troop of horse and five of dragoons, was at Alnwick, and ready to act against the rebels, 
desiring him to march to Kelso .... and from thence to go to Jedburgh, and thence to 
Selkirk, where he should meet with a party of his Majesty's forces with further orders." 
(Vol. III. (1829 edit.), p. 85). By HI. Warrants of 27 Dec. 1679, and 11 May, 1680, shares 
in the " Forfeitures " granted after Bothwell Bridge were bestowed on " Lt.-Colonel Mayne, 
Major Oglethorpe, and Capt. Cornwall." (Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. V.). The 
forfeited estates were those of " Gordon of Barleston," " Gordon of Craichlaw," and 
" Ferguson of Kaitlock." Before 1685 Oglethorp had purchased the shares of his two 
fellow officers. " These three Englishmen not having any of their effects in Scotland 
could not be reached by the laws of that Nation." Memoirs of John Ker of Kersland, p. 5. 

1 Served at the siege of Maestricht in 1673, with Sir Henry Jones's Regt. of Horse 
(English Army Lints and Commission Registers, 1661-1714, Introduction, XIV.). Major of 
the Duke of Monmouth's Regt. of Horse 10 Feb. 1678 (Ibid., p. 203). Lt.-Col. of Lord 
Gerard's Regt. of Horse in June, 1679 (Ibid., p. 256). Guidon and Major of the Duke of 
Albemarle's Troop of Life Guards, 1 Nov. 1680 (Ibid., p. 277). Served at Sedgemoor. Lt. 
and Lt.-Col. 3rd Troop of Life Guards, 23 Oct. 1685 (Ibid., Vol. II., p. 58). Brigadier 
over all the Horse 11 Nov. 1688 (Ibid., p. 200). Remained faithful to James VII. till the 
latter fled to France. Re-commissioned Lt. and Lt.-Col. of the 3rd Troop of Guards, 31 
Dec. 1688. Brigadier-General 1 May, 1689 (Ibid., Vol. III., p. 99). Appointed Governor 
of Berwick-on-Tweed with a salary of 1,000 per annum 25 May, 1702 (Ibid., Vol. V., p. 
155). Lt.-General 1 Jan. 1707 (Ibid., p. 159). He md. Mary Forster, dau. of Col. Thos. 
Forster of Alderstone. D. in Apr. 1711. Bd. at Bamburgh, Northumberland (Register). 
At the time of his death General Maine was M.P. for Morpeth. 

2 Second son of Button Oglethorpe of Bramham, Yorkshire. Born 1650. Entered the 
Army soon after the Restoration as a Gentleman Private in the Duke of York's Troop of 
Life Guards. Major of the King's Own Regt. of Dragoons 19 Feb. 1678. (English Army 
Lists, Vol. I., p. 204). Brigadier of the Duke of York's Troop of Guards, 12 July, 1678 
(Ibid., p. 240 ). Major of the new-raised Royal Dragoons-11 June, 1679 (Ibid., p. 255). 
Guidon and Major of the Duke of York's Troop of Life Guards, 31 Aug. 1679 (Ibid., p. 
263). Cornet and Major of do. 30 Apr. 1680 (Ibid., p. 273). Lt. and Lt.-Col. of do. 
1 Nov. 1680 (Ibid., p. 277). Commanded the advaiced guard of Monmouth's Army at 
Bothwell Brig (Memoir in Diet. Nat. Biog.). Led a charge of Life Guards at Sedgemoor. 
Brought the news of the victory to Court and was knighted by the King. Col. of Horse 
7 July, 1685. Col. of the Holland Regt. 23 Oct. 1685. Brig.-Gen. of Foot 11 Nov. 1688. 
Adhered to King James. One of the Jacobites against whom a Royal Proclamation was 

120 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

issued 12 May, 1692. Made his peace with William III., and was elected M.P. for Hasle- 
mere, Surrey, 1698. D. 10 April, 1702. Bd. in St. James's Church, Westminster. 

3 This officer had been appointed Capt. in the Holland Regt. of Foot in 1677. The 
probability is that he exchanged into a Dragoon regiment in 1679, but his Commission in 
such is not forthcoming. Granted a share in the " Forfeitures " after Bothwell Bridge by 
Royal Warrants dated 27 Dec. 1679 and 11 May, 1681. Forfeiture ratified by the Scots 
Parliament, 20 Aug. 1681 : " Considering and calling to mind and seriously perpending the 
good faithfull and acceptable services done to his Majestic as well in time of war as peace 
Be [by] his Highnes faithfull subjects Lieut.-Colonel Edmund Main, Major Theophilus 
Oglethorpe, and Captain Henry Cornewall, &c." (Thomson's Ads of the Parliament of 
Scotland, Vol. VIII., p. 323). Henry Cornewall was appointed 31 Aug. 1682, Capt.-Lieut. 
of the Earl of Oxford's Regt. of Horse ; Brevet-Capt. in do. 15 Nov. 1682. Capt. 24 Nov. 
1684. Colonel of a new-raised Regt. of Foot (9th Foot) 19 June, 1685. Superseded 
20 Nov. 1688. He was of Bredwardine Castle, Co. Hereford, and only son of Henry 
Cornewall of Moccas in same county. In his youth he had been Page of Honour to the 
Duke of York, and afterwards Master of the Horse to the Princess of Orange. M.P. for 
Weobly 1702-7. D. 22 Feb. 1717. Bd. in Westminster Abbey. 

4 This officer had been appointed 1st Lieut, of a Troop of Horse Grenadiers, attached to 
the Duke of Monmouth's Troop of Life Guards, 3 April, 1678. Lieut, to Lt.-Col. Edmund 
Maine, in Lord Gerard's Regt. of Horse in June, 1679. The probability is that he served as 
Lieut, to Lt.-Col. Maine at Bothwell Bridge, but there is no positive proof of this. Ant. 
Heyford was appointed Colonel of the 1st Royal Dragoons, 1 July, 1689. 

5 In 1678, Henry Griffith was Lieut, to Major Oglethorp and had the renowned 
Covenanter Wm. Veitch as a prisoner at Morpeth. He escorted Veitch to Edinburgh in Jan. 
1679, " having an order from the King to the Lords of the Treasury to pay Major Oglethorp, 
or his order, 200 sterling for taking him but he only got 111 English." (Memoirs of Wm. 
Veitch). Re-commissioned Lieut, to Major Oglethorpe 11 June, 1679. Attained the rank of 
Exempt and Captain in the 3rd Troop of Life Guards 20 Apr. 1689. Out of the Army in 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 121 



Captain Sir Thomas Armstrong, 1 Knt. 

James Vernon. 2 

1 Son and heir of Sir Thos. Armstrong, Knt., Quarter-Master-General in Ireland, and 
Capt. of a Troop of Horse, who d. in Nov. 1662. The second Sir T. Armstrong was born 
at Nimeguen and baptised at St. Stephen's Protestant Church in that town, 27 Dec. 1633 
(copy of baptismal register in the possession of Win. C. Heaton-Armstrong, Esq., M.P.). 
For his eminent services to Charles II. during the latter's exile in the Low Countries 
Thomas Armstrong, Jnr., was appointed Capt.-Lieut. of the Earl of Oxford's Regt. of 
Horse (the present Royal Horse Guards) at the raising of this corps in Feb. 1661. He was 
knighted soon after his father's death. Sir T. Armstrong served under Monmouth at the 
siege of Maestricht, in 1673, and acted as the latter's Master of the Horse in 1674 (Cat. 
S.P.D., 1 May, 1674). Armstrong accompanied the Duke to Scotland in 1679. Sir John 
Reresby records under date of 1 July (old style) : " Hearing that the Duke of Monmouth 
was to be at Doncaster, post out of Scotland, I went to meet him. . . . He came not in till 
midnight, when we expected him no more that night. I was got into the bed designed for 
his grace. Before I could put on my clothes the Duke came in with Sir Thomas Armstrong ; 
they were glad to find something ready to eat. Sir Thomas Armstrong told me that the 
King had heard some lies of the Duke and had sent for him out of Scotland in haste " 
(Reresby's Memoirs, Cartwright edit. p. 175). For his suspected complicity in the Rye 
House Plot Sir T. Armstrong, who was M.P. for Stafford, was arrested in Holland and 
taken prisoner to England. Executed at Tyburn, 20 June, 1684. Attainder reversed in 

a Son of Francis Vernon. Was secretary to the Duke of Monmouth from 1674 to 1679. 
The memoir of this gentleman in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. erroneously states that Vernon left 
Monmouth's service in 1678. The following extract from a letter written by Alex. John- 
stone to the Earl of Annandale, 9 Jan. 1693-4, proves conclusively that James Vernon 
accompanied Monmouth to Bothwell Bridge, in June, 1679, as his secretary : " Sir James 
Montgomery of Skelmorly was seized this morning by a warrant from Secretary Trenchard. 
The way of his taking is variously represented, but that which is most believed is that it 
was accedentall, for the messengers knew him not for severall houres, while in their custody, 
till Mr. Vernon the under secretary was sent for to see the person who imediatly knew him, 
Mr. Vernon having been Secretary to the Duke of Monmouth at Bothel bridge" (sic). (Hist. 
MSS. Comn., 15th Report, Appx. pt. IX., pp. 62-3). Vernon succeeded Sir Wm. Trumbull as 
Secretary of State, 5 Dec. 1697. He was father of Admiral Edward Vernon of Portobello 


THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



The Commissions were dated at Whitehall, 25 November, 1681. 
(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VI.) 

[For annotations see ante.] 


Lt. Gen. Dalyell, 


Lord Charles Murray, 1 
Sir James Turner, 


John Strachan. 
John Inglis. 
Francis Stewart. 


[Wm.] Cleland, 

[Thos.] Winram. 

[John] Lauder. 

[John] Livingstoune. 
Henry Dundasse. 
John Creichton. 


David Beatson. 8 

QR. MR. 
Andrew Rosse. 8 


James Irving. 


John Baillie of Poik- 

[Jas.] Innes 

James Dundasse. 

Henry Drummond. 
Lewis Lauder. 
[John] Whiteford. 2 


(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII.) 

James Murray 4 to be Lieut, to Sir James Turner - - 28 Dec., 1682. 

(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VIII.) 

[Wm.] Cleland 5 to be Capt. of the Company in His 
Majesty's Regt. of Dragoons in Scotland formerly 
commanded by Capt. Francis Stewart - Windsor Castle, 11 May, 1683. 

[Thos.] Winram 6 to be Capt.-Lieut. to General Dalyell's 

own Company in above Regiment - Windsor Castle, ,, ,, 

Capt. Alex. Bruce 7 to be Lieut, of Lord Charles Murray's 

Company - - Windsor Castle, ,, 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 123 

[George] Kinnaird 8 (lawful son to George, Lord Kinnaird 
of Inchtuire) to be Ensign to Major Sir Jamea 
Turner - Windsor Castle, 11 May, 1683. 

[Renewed Commission to] David Beatson to be Aid 

Major - Windsor Castle, ,, ,, 

[Renewed Commission to] Andrew Rosse 9 to be Quarter- 
Master - - Windsor Castle, ,, ,, 

Lewis Lauder 10 to be Lieut, to Capt. John Inglis's 

Company - Whitehall, 5 Dec., 1684. 

[Peter] Inglis 11 to be Ensign to Capt. John Inglis's 

Company - Whitehall, 

* " The King's Letter to his Royal Highness concerning His Majestie's Regiment of 
Dragoons in Scotland whereof Lieut.-General Dalyell is appointed Colonel." 

"... Six men out of every Company of Foot Guards and the Earl of Mar's Regiment ; 
and forty five dragoons out of every one of the three Companies of Dragoons, together with 
one corporal of Dragoons out of every one of the said three companies ; and that this 
retrenchment be made upon the last day of November instant ; and that these soldiers, 
foot and dragoons so disbanded receive pay till that day inclusive. Wee have likewise 
thought fit for Our Service that three Companies of Dragoons be presently leavied each 
Company consisting of fifty souldiers, Centinell Standers (besides the Officers' servants 
allowed by our Establishment). And Wee appoint each Company to have two Sergeants, 
two Corporals, and two Drummers, besides the Officers commissioned by Us. Wee have 
likewise resolved that the three Companies of Dragoons already Standing so reduced, and 
those three to be leavied shalbe Regimented ; and to that effect Wee have commissioned 
Our said Lieut. -Generall to be Colonel thereof, Lord Charles Murray to be Lieut. -Colonel 
and Sir James Turner to be Major, and that each of them have one Company in that 
Regiment. You are therefore to give order to Our Lieut. -Generall to cause these Com- 
panies to be leavied accordingly, and to bring them as soon as can be to a Muster ; at and 
after which Muster they are to enter into pay conf orme to Our Establishment. The doing 
of all which this shalbe your Warrant, &c. Whitehall, 25 Nov. 1681 (signed) 

" MORAY " 

" To James Duke of Albany and York Our High Commissioner in Scotland." 

( Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VI.) 

I Second son of John 1st Marquis of Atholl. Appointed Colonel of the Scots Dra- 
goons, 6 Nov. 1685. Master of the Horse to Queen Mary Beatrice. Created Earl of 
Dunmore 16 Aug. 1686. Adhered to James VII. ; and was removed from the Colonelcy by 
the Prince of Orange. Imprisoned in 1692 for complicity with the Jacobites. Queen 
Anne appointed him Master of the Horse and Govr. of Blackness Castle. D. 1710. 

II Comn. renewed by James VII. of Blairquhan, Co. Ayr. The Whitefoords are said to 
have intermarried with the Blairs of that Ilk (See Paterson's History of Ayrshire, Vol. II., 
p. 471.) Styled "Sir John Whytf oord " in the List of the Royal Scots Dragoons for 

3 By Royal Letter to the Privy Council, dated "Whitehall, 3 Feb., 1 68 J," orders were 
given " for reducing the Aid Major, the Marshall, and the Qr. Master of the Regt. of 
Dragoons." Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VIII. 

The pay of these three staff officers was to make up a Colonel's pay for Claverhouse 
(The Earl of Moray to Lord Queensberry, 30 Jan. 1682-3). The Aide-Major and Qr.- 
Mr. were replaced on the Establishment of the Scots Dragoons 11 May, 1683. David 
Beatson was promoted Cornet 23 Aug. 1688. 

4 Brother to Sir David Murray of Stanhope. " Queensberry's Cousin " (Report on the 
MSS. at Drumlanrig Castle, Vol. II., pp. 17, 19, 20). Promoted Capt. in same Regt. 
23 Aug. 1688. Is said to have shared in Lt. -Colonel Wm. Livingstone's conspiracy to take 
the Scots Dragoons over to Lord Dundee in the spring of 1689. Was imprisoned and 
deprived of his Commission (Creichton's Memoirs). Also referred to in General Mackay's 

6 See p. 20, note 3. 

6 See p. 107, note 9. 

7 Served previously in Holland as Captain in Col. Kirkpatrick's Regt. in the Scots 
Brigade. Capt. -Lieut, of the Scots Dragoons, 6 Nov. 1685. Of Broomhall. Son of Robert 

124 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Bruce a Lord of Session. Was knighted after the Revolution and appointed Muster-Master- 
General of the Forces in Scotland 22 Feb. 1690. Succeeded his kinsman Alexander, 
3rd Earl of Kincardine, as 4th earl in 1705. 

8 Youngest son of 1st Baron Kinnaird of Inchture. Left the Regt. on the accession of 
James VII. He was father of George Kinnaird who md. Helen, eldest dau. of Charles, 
2nd Earl of Aboyne, and had a son Charles who succeeded as 6th Baron Kinnaird. 

9 See note 3. 

10 See p. 67, note 5. The Privy Council ordered a reward of 20 sterling to Lieut. 
Lewis Lauder for apprehending Col. John Paton, " a notorious rebel these 18 years " 
(Acts of the Privy Council, April, 1684). Capt.-Lieut. Scots Dragoons, 1 Oct. 1694. Served 
with said Regt. in Flanders. Capt. in Lord Lindsay's Regt. of Scots Foot, 2 March, 1696. 

11 Son of Capt. John Inglis of same Regt. (See Hist, of Kilmarnock, by Archibald 
McKay, p. 60). According to Wodrow and other Covenanting writers, Cornet Peter Inglis 
was renowned for his barbarity. Out of the Regt. before the accession of James VII. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 125 

' > Drummers. 


23RD JUNIJ 1682." 

[From the original in H.M.'s General Register House, Edinburgh.} 

Earle of Marr, Collonell. 

Mr. Charles Fleeming, Captain Livtenant. 

James Stirling, Ensigne. 

Duncan Meinzies, Aid Major. 

James Wood, quarter-master. 

William Borthwick, chirurgion. 

John Young, martiall. 

John Downie, "| , 

James Bleckiter J 

Alexander Gordoun, ~| 

James Currie, f Corporalls. 

George Watsone, 

Thomas Cuningham, 

Hugh Drummond, 

Andrew Steuart, Andrew Wood, Andrew Auchterlonie (North : p : *), 
Alexander Craig, Alexander Mackintosh, Alexander Grahame, Alexander 
Chambers, Alexander Jerdane, Alexander Law, Alexander Reid, Angus 
McKechnie, Archbald Russall, Andrew Chesnut (North p : ), Duncan 
Fergusone, Duncan McCalume, David Leith, David Angus, David Maine 
(Stir : Cast :), Donald Rosse, Donald Frazer, George Hoome, George Suane, 
George Gordone, George Taite, George Donnaldson, George Caustone 
(North p :), George Watsone, Hugh McDonnald, Harie Mow, Hector 
McLaud, Herie Campbell, (Stir: Cast:), John McLaud, John McKinzie, 
John Barclay, John Gibb, John Ure, John Mathiesone, John Ewing, John 
Moncreif, John Kinnell, John Grahame, John Scott, John Hay, John 
Lauder, John McGreigor, John McLairin, John Baird, John Speed 
(North p :), John Galloway (Stir : Cast :), James Gilchreist, James 
Howstone, James Fergusone, James Robisone, elder, James Smart, James 
Robisone, younger, James Cuthbert, James Japhray, Lodovick Moorehead 
(Capt. Liv*. Ser :), Laurence Oliphant, Neill McArter, Robert Rankine, 
Robert McEwen, Robert Imrie, Robert Suord, Robert Christie, Robert 
McGibbon, Samuell Cockburn, Thomas Hall, Thomas Barrone, William 
Seatoune, William Bannerman, William Herreis, William McDowgall, 
William McDonnald, William Stephen, William Harvie, William Broune, 
William Rosse, William Russall, William Grant, William Buchan, Walter 
Durrie, William Dassone (Capt. Liv'. Ser :), Walter Robine, William 
Cushnie (North p :), William Gilchreist (North p :), William McNarter, 
William Andersone. 

(Written on parchment.) JAMES STIRLING. 


* Marks in margin against certain names are enclosed in brackets here. 

126 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Johne Dalyell, Captaine. 
William Trotter, Livetennant. 
Robert Dalyell, Ansigne. 
Williame Grahame, Sarjant. 
Archbald Johnstone, Sarjant. 
Robert Johnstone, Corporall. 
Robert Malitia, Corporall, 
Robert Dalyell, Corporall. 
James Smith, Drumer. 
John Robertsone, Drumer. 

Four columns, containing respectively 23, 23, 22, 22. 

Archbald Johnstone, Alexander Forbess, Alexander Hendersone, Alex- 
ander Craige, Alexander Home, Alexander Davidsone, Alexander Wrighte, 
Alexander Taylore, Alexander Monkreife, Andrew Lambe, Androw Hunter, 
Andrew Whyte, Androw Gifford, Androw McClay, Alexander Birney, 
Charles McKelwayn, David Mickison, David Denholme, Donnald Forbess, 
Donnald McClairen, Daniell Smith, David Watsone, George Patersone, 
George Crawford, George Harlaw, George Hendersone, George Rowan 
(north partie*), George Damster, (north partie), George Halfheid, Johne 
Newine (Capt. ser :), Johne McClawd, Johne Gray, Johne Carmichaell, 
Johne McNeill, Johne Campbell, Johne Bowes, Johne Martine, Johne 
Cuming, Johne Dune, Johne Lockerbie, Johne Miller, Johne Steinsone, 
Johne Egling, Johne Cowan (Stir: Cast.), Johne Stewart (Stir: Cast.), 
Johne Wilsone (Stir: Cast.), James Hendersone, James Geddie (north 
partie), James Duckett, James McMillen, James Lyone, James Fargisone, 
James Hunter, James Atchison, Lachlen McLachlen, Martine Morisone, 
Magnes Taite, (north partie), Neill McDonnald, Redmond Morison, 
Rowland Craford, Ralfe Kinrick, Robert Kar, Robert Simpsone, Robert 
Waker, Robert Browne, Robert Dicksone, Robert Ritchardson, Thomas 
Waker, Thomas Hay, Thomas Smith, Thomas Watsone, Thomas 
Donnaldsone, Thomas Foster, Thomas Buchannan, Thomas Breysone, 
William McKiney, William Ker, William Ewart, William Lindsey, 
William Jacksone, William Wallace, William Gordone, elder, William 
Gordone, yunger (Ens : ser :), William Lambe, William Shutelworth, 
William Hill, William Leslie, William Stafford, William Craige, William 
Taylore (Liv'. Ser:). 

(Signed) Jo. DALYELL. 


(Written on parchment.) 

* Marks against certain names are here enclosed in brackets. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 127 


17 JUNIJ 1682." 

Captaine : John Balfour. 
Livtenant : Alexander Stratone. 
Ensigne : James Arnott. 
Serjants : John Burgone. 

Thomas Rae. 

Corporalles : John Gibsone. 
John Badinoch. 
James McLeish. 
Drumes : Alexander Wardlaw. 

John Wardlaw. 

Alexander McFerling, Alexander Hodge, Alexander Simerveall, 
Andrew Forsyth, Alexander Wyllie, Alexander Robertsone, Andrew 
Parke, Alexander Milne, Alexander Stoup, Adam Livingstoun, Andrew 
Arroll, Collin Sutherland, David Logan, Dugall Carmichell, Daniell 
McLeren, Edward Galstoune, Georg Ogstoun, Gilbert Aire, Heugh Ross 
(north party*), Harie Brookes, John McFerling, John Saidler, John 
Cuining, John Miller, John Paterson (North), John Beggs (Stirling), John 
Lenox, John McWhirtar, John Innes, (Capt. Ser.), John Edie, John 
Simerveall (Forlof), John Bwy, John Beatone, elder, John Brown (sicke), 
John Baillie, John Arthur (Stirling), John Campbell, John Beatone, 
younger (north), John Murray, John Smart, John Cruckshanks, elder, 
John Cruickshanks, younger, John Husband. John McQuean, James 
Maxwell, James Mowe, James Mackie, James Masgrave, James Elder, 
James Angus, James Laurestoun, James Filming, James Cowan, John 
Buchannan, John Rae, Nicoll Dogleish, Peter Simsone, Peter Wilsone, 
Peter McFerling, Robert Sim, Robert Hastie, Robert Imrie, Robert 
Swintone, Robert Findley, Robert Aiken, Thomas Balfour, Thomas 
Riddell (north), Thomas Rodger, Thomas Ewin (Stirling), Thomas Ashe, 
Thomas Alexander, William Andersone, elder, William Arnott, William 
Craufoord, William Gardner, William Dobbie (north), William Leggat, 
William Davidsone, William Forbes, William Gordone, Walter Calwalls, 
William Strachan, William Andersone, younger, William Arthur (sicke), 
William Lyall, William Aitkin, William Thomsone, William Rodger, 
Walter Crookshanks, Walter Sympsone. 

(Signed) Jo. BALFOUR. 


( Written on parchment.) 

* Marks against certain names are here put in brackets. 

128 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Andrew Whyte, Major. 

John Dalzell, Lieutennant. 

Duncan Menezies, Ensigne and Aid-Major. 

Daniell Caddell, 1 o 

John Grahame, } Ser J eants - 

Robert Richardson, ~) 

David MacCulloch, >Corporalls. 

Thomas Whyte, ) 

William McCormak, j Drumerg 

John Falconer, / L 

Four columns, respectively containing 23, 22, 23, 22 names. 

Alexander Stevensone, Alexander Sutherland, elder, Alexander Suther- 
land, yonger, Alexander Mackie, Alexander Scott, Alexander Gray, 
Alexander Barclay, Alexander Craig (on partie), Alexander Griance, 
Alexander Walker, Andrew Mowat, Andrew MacCalla, Andrew Young, 
pyper, Adam Johnstone, Adam Fiddess (Major's Ser.), Alexander Morison, 
Alexander Howston, Charles Welsh, David Kyle, David Rattray, David 
Weems, (in Stirline Castle), Daniell Fraser, David Donaldsone, Duncan 
Mackay (on partie), Daniell Wilsone, Daniell Mackay, Daniell Caddell 
(on partie), Edmond Moncreif, George Marshall, George Gordoune, 
George Stratone, George Young, Gabriell Rutherfoord, George Anderson, 
Hugh Grant, Henry Garven, John Sanders, John Mackenzie, John Bishop, 
John Gray, John Fraser, John Dick, John Loggan, John Neill, John Brown, 
John Tulloch (Ens. Ser.) John Simpson (Ens. Ser.). John Macgrigor, John 
Hamiltone, James Weer, James Chalmers, James Murdoch, James Garven, 
James Ross, James Rae, James Mushet, James Stuart, James Aitken, 
James Gibb, James Fleuckard, James Lauchlane, James Carss, James 
Miller, James Reid, James Barr, James Whyte, Patrick Cassie, Patrick 
Mackaree (on partie), Robert Steven (on partie), Robert Hepburn, Robert 
Macgrigor, Robert Miller, Robert Goudie, Robert Cowan, Robert Arm- 
strong, Robert Duncan, Roger Stammers, Robert Roy, Samuell Herbison, 
Thomas Gumming, Thomas Kennedy, Thomas Gray, Thomas Fraser, 
William Daes (in Stirline Castle), William Smith (in Stirline Castle), 
William Ker (on pairtie,) William Miller, Walter Chapman, William Semple, 
William Goodfellow. 

(Signed) A. WHYTE. 


(Written on parchment.} 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 129 


William Fraser, Captain. 

John Innes, Lieutennant. 

John Straton, Ensigne. 

John Abercromby, ) Serieants 

John Gordoune, J " erjea 

James Runchiman, ~| 

James Ogilvie, >Corporalls. 

Walter Elphinstone, ) 

Patrick Rankin, 1 ^ 

James Hacket, | Drummers - 

Alexander Gilbert, Arthur Ogstoun, Alexander Innes, Andrew Wyllie, 
Andrew Morison, Alexander Richardson, Alexander Pattrie, Alexander 
Cook, Alexander Maclivingstone, Archbald Campbell, Alexander Strachan, 
Alexander Mather, Donald Mackenzie, David Batchelour, David Watson. 
Francis Gilbert, George Prat, George Crookshanks, George Catenach, 
George Knox, George Anderson, elder, George Anderson, younger, George 
Hay, George Ogilvie, George Lumsden, George Abernethie, Hugh Fraser, 
Hector Maclean, James Miln, James Braiko, James Hay, James Maclay, 
James Ogilvie, James Lightbodie, James Buchan, James Hunter, James 
Tod, James Cowt, James Auchinlect, James Mudie, James Moir, John 
Hunter, John Stothart, John Kilpatrick, John Adam, John Maclean, John 
Daniell, John Brisbane, (Liv*. Ser.) John Chalmers, John Mair, John Smith, 
elder, John Smith, younger, John Allerdyce, John Foyer, John Miller, 
John Wastoun, John Halyburton, (Capt. Ser :) John Frazer, Matthew 
Watson, Matthew Salmond, Patrick Leg, Robert Brock, Robert Monilaw, 
Robert Corsby, Symon Tennent, Thomas Monro, Thomas Smart, Thomas 
Clerk, Thomas Duncan, (Capt. Ser :) Thomas Hay, William Robertson, 
William Dukhoms, William Wood, William Traill, William Henderson, 
William Hill, William Wallace, William Gumming, William Gordone, 
William Leg, William Scott, William Younger, William Gillespie, William 
Mackindly, William Innes, William Mudie, Walter Rankin. 

John Moncreif, \ 

Donald Goggle, >-in Stirline Castle. 

Thomas Adam, J 

(Signed) JOHN INNES. 

( Written on parchment.) 

130 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Commissionat Officers. 
Thomas Dowglas, Captain. 
William Burnet, Leivtenent. 
Michaell Veitch, Ensigne. 

Thomas Ker. 
Robert Middlemes. 

Robert Sowtter. 
James Jinkisone. 
Alexander Innes. 

George Murray. 
Thomas Cranstoun. 

Alexander Burnet, Alexander Lies, Alexander Manson, Alexander 
Baillie, Alexander Cunynghame, Androw Dewar, David Bowman, 
Daniell Coalzier, Daniell Caddell, Donald M'ky, David Young, David Selkrig, 
Dowgald M'Androw, Edward Morisoun, George Morisone, George Ogilvy, 
George Bruce, George Young, George Govean, George Thomsone, Hew 
Tyler, Hendry Clark, James Donaldsone, James Barnes, James Murray, 
James Weenies, James Kirk, James Gun, James McFell, James Mitchell, 
James Mackoune, James Gillespy (Ensignes man), James Lundy, James 
Campbell, James Geddes, James Bell, John Stirling (Stirling Castle), John 
Guthrie, John Wallace, John Turnbull, John Bruce, John Pryce, John 
Flaikfeild, John Clark, elder, John Clark, younger, John Rouch [deleted], 
(run away 7 Junij), John Lithgow, John Ramsay, John Bryce, John Murray, 
John Francis, John Mackenzie, John Down, John Fleyming, John Cuming, 
John Auldcorne, John Harvie, John Craig, Leonard Spain (Stirling Castle), 
Michaell Low, Patrick McArdie, Patrick Burnet, elder, Patrick Burnet, 
younger, Patrick Ardauch, Robert Young, Robert Broun, elder, Robert 
Broun, younger, Robert Dowglas (forloff), Robert Scott, Robert Alexander, 
Robert Murray, Robert Buchannan, Richard Hensone, (Stirling Castle), 
Robert McKean, Thomas Butler, Thomas Lawsone, Thomas Blyth, Thomas 
Stockes, William Barklay, William Scott, William Lowrie, William Webster, 
William Kirk, William Fergusone, William Robertsone, William Alexander, 
William Muir, William Catchie, William Loran. 

(Signed) THO. DOUGLASS. 

(Written on parchment.) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 131 


Captain, Kenneth McKeinzie. 
Livtenant, William Scharp. 
Ensigne, Cristofar McDougall. 
John Bogie, ) Sfir -- nts 
William Frazer, | ber J ents - 
John Mclntosh, "i 
William McCloude, > Corporalls. 
Robert Ailliss ) 

William Gray, ) ,-. 

Androw Hamiltoun,j DrumereS - 

Allexander Ogilvie, Allexander Hetherweick, Allexander Baine, Allex- 
ander Duncan, Allexander Mansone, Allexander Fraiser, Allexander 
Sunderland, Allexander Polsone, Androw Monroe, Androw Thomsone, 
Andrew Lauchland, Androw McStiven, Archibald McCroe, Duncan Moore, 
David Allon, David Ross, David Donaldsone, David Tailzior, David 
Melvill, David Hendersone, Duncan Craige, Duncan Forbis, Donald Monroe, 
Donald Gunn, Duncan Tailzior, Donald McKeinzie, Donald Clark, 
Duncan Taise, Dugall Campbell, Dougall Livingstoune, Edward Douglass, 
Georg Allon, Georg Cuningham, Georg Henderson, Georg Steill, Gaven 
Douglas, Gilbert Dundass, Hew Sunderland, John Grant, elder, John 
Grant, younger, John McClean, elder, John McClean, younger, John 
Cambell, John McGreiger, John Greicie, John Garland, John McKeaddie, 
John Mclntosh, John Gordon, John Camron, John Cristie, John Castella, 
John Chapman, John Bruice, John Robertson, John Clark, John Robertsone, 
younger, John McCaie, James Ross, James Peitrikin, James Frazer, elder, 
James Frazer, younger, James Dickson, 'James Merchall, James Hodge, 
Kenneth McKeinzie, elder, Kenneth McKeinzie, younger, Lauchland 
Mclntosh, Neill McMillon, Patrick Lawsone, Patrick Cokburne, Robert 
Chisholm, Robert Adamsone, Robert Davidsone, Robert Hendrie, Robert 
Graye, Rorie Chisholm, Thomas Dicksone, Thomas Duncan, Thomas 
Leadcoat, Thomas Wilsone, William Slouan, William Forbis, William 
Mclntosh, William Foullar, William Paull, William Robertson, William 
McDonald, William McViccar, William Wheallie. 


(Written on parchment.} 

p 2 

132 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Captain, Alexander Cairnes. 
Lieutenant, John Leivingston. 
Ensign, Andrew Woode. 
John McDougald, ) 
William Grahm, j Sear S ents - 
William Innes, "i 

Alexander McDonald, > Corporals. 
James Carlyle, J 

John Michell, ) ^ 
Georg Willson,} Drumes - 

Abraham Cairnes, Alexander Glenny, Alexander Rosse, Alexander 
Drone, Alexander Paterson, Alexander Ranckine, Alexander Clarcke, 
Adam W id row, Androw Kelly, Alexander McFadion, Alexander Monteth, 
Alexander Argoe, Cothbert Allen, Charles Gairdner, Cornilius Clarck, 
Dougald McFarland, Donckan Riddoch, Donald McFarland, Donckan 
Campbell, David Lamb, Ephraim Wilckeson, Georg Ranckine, Gilbert 
Gordone, Georg Crafoord, Georg Ashbie, Hendrie Filming, Hendrie 
Pergillis, John Gibb, James Findly, James Findlyson, younger, James 
Wallass, James Baird, John Euelly, John Ranckin, John Martine, James 
Walker, James Filming, John Shannon, John Forbis, John Frazer, James 
Williamson, John Mingies, John Marchell, John Campbell, James Findlyson, 
elder, John Grahme, John Pulline, John Crafoord, John Leng, John Yuill, 
James Campbell, John Watsone, John Connor, Mongow Ritcheson, Nath- 
aniel Gordone, Patrick Forrester, Patrick Skinner, Patrick Cummine, Robert 
Anderson, younger, Robert Henderson, Robert Burr, Robert Jolly, elder 
(sic), Robert Anderson, elder, Robert Ramadge, Robert McGregor, Robert 
Forrester, Robert Meldrum, Robert Simpson, Robert Broune, Robert Jolly, 
elder (sic), Samuell Dassone, Thomas McGaune, Thomas Euing, Thomas 
Anderson, Thomas Glene, William Joussie, William McKinzie, William 
McKlelland, William Scote, William Hunter, William Morgen, William 
Davidson, William Malcum, William Weir, William Campbell, William 
McDougald, William Niesbit, William Buchannen, William Litlejohn, 
William Torpie. 

(Signed) ALEX : CAIRNES. 

(Written on parchment.) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 133 

UPON THE 17 OF JUNE, 1682." 

Earle of Dalhousie, Captaine. 
Mr. John Bell, Livtenent. 
Donald McKenzie, Ensigne. 
John Torrence, Serjent. 
William Bruce, Serjent. 
Thomas Wilsone, Corporal. 
Alexander Crichtone, Corporal. 
William Hall, Corporal. 
William Harte, ) nplimer . 
Alexander Hall, } L 

Four columns, the sum of names in each being respectively 

23, 23, 22, 22. 

Alexander Reed, Alexander Quyntane, Alexander Finlay, Alexander 
Forsyth, Andrew Watsone, Andrew Tamsone, Alexander Lesly, Alexander 
Moore, Alexander Fraser, Auchtrie McDougall, Adame Nile, Andrew 
Wishert, Archbald Reed, Androw Parke, Arthure Hamiltowne, Alexander 
Sutherland, Charles Cochraine, Daniel Tamsone, Daniel Campbell, Dawid 
Hutchisone, Dawid Hall, Duncane Tamson (Stirling Castle), Edward 
Grifine, Francis Johnes, George Chambers, Gilbert Atkine, George Caddell, 
George Chapman, George Reed (Stirling Castle), Hugh Gibsone, Hugh 
Nile, Hendrie Dewer, John Tamsone, John Hendrie [deleted] (run away 
5 Junij), John Walls, John Simpsone, James Dausone, James Milter, John 
Barclay, John Ballantyne, John Rooks, James Andersone, John Yowng, John 
McPhersone, John Balloch, James Herriot, John Sinclare, John Lemon, 
John Kershae, James Waker, James Ensly, John Chisome, James Mc- 
Conachie, John Strauchen, James McDonald [deleted] (run away 14 Junij), 
John Glendinen, John Glass, John Finlay, John Caruthers, Isaac Jackson, 
James Fordyce, John McCallome, John Mitchell (Stirling Castle), Patrick 
Cox, Robert Steenson, Robert Lyndsay, Robert Bryson, Robert Wallace ; 
Robert Robine, Robert Rosse, Robert Yowng, Thomas Morrisone, Thomas 
Chisome, Thomas Nicollsone, Thomas Walls, Thomas Given, Thomas 
Hustone, Thomas Hog, William Mill, William Drummond, William Rioch, 
William Scadoway, William Andersone, William Alasone, William 
Maklome [deleted] (died 11 Junij), William Finlay, elder, William Finlay, 
younger, William Caldwalls, William Simpsone, William Williamsone. 

(Signed) JOHN BELL. 


(Written on parchment.} 

134 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


John Bruce, Captain. 
John Scot, Lieutennant. 
George Bruce, Ensigne. 
Alexander Mackenzie. ) 
James Bruce, '{Serjeants. 

Andrew Leslie, ") 

John Johnston, >Corporalls. 

John Douglas, J 

William Liddell, 

Collin Mitchell, 

, ' >Drumers. 

Four columns containing respectively 22, 23, 22, 23 names. 

Alexander Gordoune, Alexander Maxwell, Alexander Weer, Alexander 
Paterson, Alexander Crookshanks, Alexander Richie, Andrew Notman, 
Anthony Miller, Alexander Anderson, Daniell Maclintoch, David Browne, 
Daniell Mackrank, David Sharp, Duncan Cameron, David Stuart, Edmond 
Maclauchlane, George Craighead, George Leslie, George Mackarter, 
George Johnstone, Hugh Livingstone, Hugh Gray, pyper, James 
Keilloch, James Bruce, James Craig, James Crookshanks, James 
Wilsone, James Massey, James Drummond, James Robison, elder, 
James Robison, younger, James Robison, shoomaker, James Morison, 
James Anderson, James Paterson, John Tintoch, John Balleny, John 
Hodge, John Haisty, John Reid, elder, John Mackenzie, John Macbane, 
John Bruce, John Clepone, John Anderson, John Pattone, John Mackcarter, 
John Hackney, John Arbuckle, John MacCallum, John Allan, John Glass, 
John Hunter, John Speir, John Mackilvane, John Reid, yonger, John 
Norie, John Rippeth in Stirline Castle, John Purdie, Michaell Rae, 
Mungo Ervin, Neill Mackay, Nicolas Thackum in Stirline Castle, Patrick 
Wilson, Patrick Broun, Patrick Toshack, Robert Paterson, Robert Riddell, 
Robert Stuart, Robert Maclauchlane, Robert Maine, Samuell Cutcliff in 
Stirline Castle, Thomas Findlason, Thomas Anderson, elder, Thomas 
Anderson, younger, Thomas Johnston, Thomas Peirie, William Mac- 
glashien, William Morison, William Thomson, Walter Neton, Walter 
Bruce, William Stevenson, William Orum, William Hunter, William 
Summers, William Manson, William Stirline, William Doby, William 

(Signed) JOHN BRUCE. 

(Written on parchment.) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 




(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII.) 
For annotations see ante. 


John Graham, of 

25 Dec., 1682. 
Wm. Lord Rosse, 

26 Dec., 1682. 
Adam Urquhart 

of Meldrum, 

27 Dec., 1682. 
Earlof Balcarres 1 

28 Dec., 1682. 


[Andrew] Bruce 
of Earlshall, 

25 Dec., 1682. 
[Sir] Mark Carse, 

26 Dec., 1682. 
Sir Francis Ruth- 


27 Dec., 1682. 
[David] Bruce 2 

of Clackman- 

28 Dec., 1682. 


Win. Graham, 
25 Dec., 1682. 

Sir Adam Blair, 

26 Dec., 1682. 
[Sir Wm. Keith] 

27 Dec., 1682. 

Sir James Doug- 
las, 3 of Kel- 

28 Dec., 1682. 


David Graham, 
25 Dec., 1682. 

David Home, 
26 Dec., 1682. 

27 Dec., 1682. 

John Lindsay, 4 

28 Dec., 1682. 

(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vols. VII. & VIII.) 

James Fletcher 6 of Cranston to be Cornet to the Earl of 

Balcarres's Troop - - - Whitehall, 13 Jan., 1683. 

John Cleland 6 to be Quarter-Master to Lord Rosse's 

Troop Whitehall, 

Robert Graham ' of Morphie to be Aid Major, Windsor Castle, 12 May, 1683. 
Wm. Graham 8 to be Lieut, to Meldrum's Troop. Whitehall, 21 Feb., 1684. 
David Graham 9 to be Cornet to Col. Graham's own 

Troop Whitehall, 

James Kinnaird 10 to be Quarter-Master to the Colonel's 

own Troop - Whitehall, 23 Feb., 1684. 

16 JUNE, 1684. 

James, Lord Drumlangrig u to be Lieut. -Colonel of his 
Majesty's Regt. of Horse in Scotland and Captain of 
the new Troop added thereto - - Windsor Castle, 16 June, 1684. 

Lord Wm. Douglas ia to be Lieut, to Lord Drumlangrig's 

new Troop - Windsor Castle, ,, 

136 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Capt. Francis Creichton 13 to be Cornet to Lord Drum- 

langrig's new Troop- - Windsor Castle, 16 June, 1684. 


Wm. Lord Rosse 14 to be Major of his Majesty's Regt. of 
Horse in Scotland "and also do appoint you to con- 
tinue Captain of the Troop commanded by you in 
Our said Regiment." - - Windsor Castle, 4 Aug., 1684. 

James, Earl of Airlie 16 to be Captain of the deceased 

Adam Urquhart of Meldrum's Troop - Whitehall, 21 Nov., 1684. 


4 DEC., 1684. 
(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX.) 

Lord Wm. Douglas 16 to be Capt. of the new Troop added 

to Our Regt. of Horse in Scotland - Whitehall, 4 Dec., 1684. 

James Stewart 17 to be Lieut, to Lord Wm. Douglas's new 

Troop Whitehall, 

William Douglas 18 to be Cornet to above Troop 

Archibald Douglas 19 to be Quarter-Master to do ,, 

Capt. Francis Creichton 20 to be Lieut, to Lord Drumlan- 

grig's Troop - Whitehall, 4 Dec., 1684. 

James Nasmith 21 of Posso to be Cornet to above 

Troop Whitehall, 

John Cockburn 22 to be Quarter-Master to do.- 

* " CHARLES R." to the Privy Council : " Whereas Wee have thought fit to reduce 
100 soldiers out of Our Regt. of Guard and also 100 men out of the Earl of Mar's Regt. of 
Foot, as also nine horsemen out of Our Three (late Independent) Troops of Horse in order 
to the raising of a new Troop to be added to the other three ; and all the four to be 
formed into a Regt. of Horse whereof Wee have appointed Our Trusty and Welbeloved 
John Graham of Claverhouse to be Colonel, said Troop to consist of fifty horsemen 
besides officers. Whitehall, 25 Dec. 1682 " ( Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. VII.). 

The Royal Regt. of Horse accompanied the Scots Army to England in Oct. 1688. 
After the flight of James VII. this corps was ordered to quarter at Abiiigdon, Berks. 
(London Gazette, 17 Dec. to 20 Dec., and ditto 24 Dec. to 27 Dec. 1688). Early in 
1689, the Regt. was struck off the establishment of the Army. 

1 Third Earl. This talented but unfortunate nobleman is said to have begun his 
military career at the age of sixteen when Charles II. gave him, soon after the Restoration, 
a Troop of Horse composed of 100 loyal gentlemen who had been reduced to poverty 
during the troubles in Scotland (Lives of the Lindsays, Vol. II., p. 1). Of this Volunteer 
Troop there is no record among the State Papers. If it ever existed it was only on paper 
as these " reduced gentlemen " were to be paid " half a crown a day each." Lord Bal- 
carres was in the naval action of Solebay, 28 May, 1672. He adhered to James VII. at the 
Revolution, and was imprisoned for four months in Edinburgh Castle, 1689. His historical 
memoirs entitled An Account of the Affairs of Scotland, relating to the Revolution in 1688, 
which were sent to King James when in France, are too-well known to descant upon. Lord 
Balcarres was ten years an exile in France. He joined the standard of the Chevalier in 
1715 and only escaped the attainder of other Jacobite noblemen through the strenuous 
efforts of his friends the Dukes of Argyll and Marlborough. D. 1722. 

2 See p. 96, note 5. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 137 

3 James, Duke of York, in a letter to the Marquis of Queensberry, dated 27 Dec. 1682, 
says : " Orders shall be given for the Commission for Sir James Douglas." This baronet 
declined the cornetcy which was bestowed on James Fletcher. 

4 Believed to have been in the Regt. when it was reduced. 

5 The Duke of York in a letter to Lord Queensberry, dated 11 Jan. 1683, writes : 
" As for the cornetts place, since Sir James Douglas will not have it, it is disposed of to 
Fletcher, who had a promise of such an employment, and is a very honest fellow." In the 
Regt. when it was reduced. 

Of Faskine. Brother to Capt. Wm. Cleland. Appointed Cornet to Sir Wm. 
Wallace's Troop in above Regt., 1 Dec. 1688. Fought at Killiecrankie under Dundee. 
Attainted by the Scottish Parliament. 

7 Son of Sir Robert Graham of Morphie by Magdalene, dau. of Wm. Graham of Claver- 
house. In the Regt. when it was reduced. 

8 See p. 112, note 12. 
See p. 112, note 13. 

10 Comn. renewed by James VII. Believed to have accompanied the Regt. to England 
in 1688. 

u Eldest son of Wm. Douglas, 1st Duke of Queensberry. He was one of the noble 
guests who supped with James VII. at Andover on 24 Nov. 1688, and who, as soon as the 
King had gone to bed, rode off to the Prince of Orange's camp (Lord Clarendon'i Diary, 
Vol. II., p. 93). Appointed Colonel and Capt. of the Scots Troop of Life Guards, 31 Dec. 
1688. In 1690 he commanded a separate body of troops against the Highlanders, who had 
taken arms in favour of the late King (Cannon's Records of the Life Guards). Succeeded 
as 2nd Duke of Queensberry in 1695. Was subsequently Lord High Commissioner for 
Scotland. Created Duke of Dover in 1711, and d. the same year. 

" Second son of the 1st Duke of Queensberry. Created Earl of March, 20 April, 1695, 
by William III. D. 1705. 

" Lieut. 4 Dec. 1684. Possibly the 4th son of James Crichton of Fendraught " who 
entered the College of Douai, 31 Aug. 1677, but left it and became a soldier" (Scottish 
Peerage, last edition). In the Regt. when it was reduced. 

14 See biog. notice on p. Ill, note 6. 

w See do. on p. 64, note 1. 

16 See note 12. 

17 Stuart. The Earl of Moray, in a letter to the Marquis of Queensberry, dated 
St. James's, 18 Nov. 1684, writes : " Your sonn's commission for a new troupe shall be 
sent downe to you. For the lieutenant, it is fitt he should have seen some service, so that 
either one Crigton (sic), who you mentioned formerly to me, or one Lieutenant Sturat 
(sic), who is now in Dumbarton's Regt., would be the fittest" (Hist. MSS. Commission, 
15th Report, Appx. Part VIII., p. 211). Went over to William of Orange at the Revo- 
lution. In a List of the Scots Troop of Life Guards for 1694, given in Chamberlayne's 
Anglice Notitia, James Stuart appears as Lt. and Lt.-Colonel. Said Troop was then under 
command of the Earl of Drumlanrig. Col. Stuart retired from the Life Guards 
29 Jan. 1703, and was appointed Deputy Governor of Edinburgh Castle. Removed in 
Sept. 1715, and Brigadier George Preston appointed in his place ( Townshend Papers, pubd. 
by the Hist. MSS. Comn., llth Report, Appx. Pt. IV., p. 174. See also account of the plot to 
surprise Edinburgh Castle early in Sept. 1715, and mention of the Deputy Governor's 
removal from his post). Col. Stuart was placed on half pay. 

18 Possibly son of Sir James Douglas of Kelhead who succeeded as 2nd Bart, in 1708. 

19 Serving as Qr. Mr. and Capt. in the Scots Troop of Life Guards in 1694. 

20 See note 13. 

M Sir John Lauder in his Historical Observes (p. 133), refers to James Nasmith's Commis- 
sion and adds that this officer was appointed at same time " Falconer to the King for which he 
has a pension of 200 sterling a year." He was eldest son of Sir Michael Naesmyth of Posso, 
Knt., and d. unm. 24 March, 1706. 

n Untraced 



THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 141 


Commissions renewed at Whitehall, 30th March, 1685. 
(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX.) 


George, Lord Livingstoune. 


George Murray. 

David Hay. 

George Home. 


[John] Dalmahoy. 

Dr. Mat Brisbane. 


James Wauchope * to be Capt. and Qr. Mr. of Our Life 

Guard in Scotland - Whitehall, 1 Aug., 1685. 

Wm., Earl of Buchan 2 to be Major and Guidon of above 

Troop Whitehall, 6 Nov., 1685. 

Alex Douglas 8 to be Lieut, and Brigadier of do. Whitehall, 7 Nov., 1685. 
James Scott 4 to be Lieut, and Brigadier of do. 

James Ker 6 to be Lieut, and Brigadier of do. ,, 

George Bucham 6 to be Lieut, and Brigadier of do. 

Thomas Graham 7 to be Lieut, and Brigadier of do. Whitehall, 5 Nov., 1688. 
Blank Commission 8 for Chirurgeon to above Troop of Life 

Guard - - - Dated as above. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. X. Second son of Andrew Wauchope of Niddrie. 
Left the troop at the Revolution. 

* Ibid. Wm. Erskine, 8th Earl. Adhered to James VII. and followed him to Ireland in 
1689. On his return to Scotland he was committed prisoner to Stirling Castle. D. 1695. 

* Ibid. Capt. and Qr. Mr. of this Troop, 18 Dec. 1689. Guidon and Major before 1694. 
Untraced after last-named year. 

4 Ibid. Referred to in a letter from Duke Hamilton to the Marquis of Queensberry 
(1 May, 1683) as follows : " I find the gentry and leaders of the Militia grumbles much to 
be at the charge of bying new armes, since ther former armes was taken from them by 
order, and the clerke of the Militia has the officers receit of all the armes, who was Captain 
Scot, one of the brigadiers of the troop of Guards." Untraced after 1688. 

6 Ibid. Possibly son of the Capt. James Kerr who was Clerk to the King's Troop prior 
to 1672. Further services untraced. 

* Ibid. Buckholme. See p. 75, note 5. 

7 Warrant Boole for Scotland, Vol. XIII. Untraced. ? of Balgowan, Perthshire. 

8 Ibid. 


THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Commissions renewed at Whitehall, 30th March, 1685. 
(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX.) 


John Graham, 



Andrew Bruce of 
Earl's Hall. 

Capt. Lt. 

Francis Crich- 

David Graham. 

James Kinnaird. 

James, Earl of 

Lt. Col. 
Wm. Lord Rosse, [Sir] Mark Carse. Sir Adam Blair. 


Earl of Balcarres David Bruce. James Fletcher. 

Earl of Airly. Wm. Graham. Sir Wm. Keith. 

Lord Wm. Doug- James Stuart. Wm. Douglas, 


Robert Graham of Morphie. 

James Nasmith. John Cockburn. 

John Cleland. 

John Lindsay. 
James Urquhart. 
Archd. Douglas. 

- Windsor, 29 July, 1686. 
Aug., 1686. 


Charles Ross 1 to be Cornet of Major Wm. Lord Rosse's 
Troop in his Majesty's Regt. of Horse in Scotland 

Whitehall, 6 Nov., 1685. 

Sir Wm. Wallace 2 of Craigie to be Capt. of a Troop in 
above Regt - 

Sir Charles Murray, 3 Knt. and Bart, (sic) to be Major in 

do. [in place of Wm. Lord Rosse] - - Windsor, 7 

Roderick Mackenzie 4 to be Chirurgeon to above Regt. 

Whitehall, 26 Nov., 1686. 

Henry Graham B to be Qr. Mr. of Major General John 
Graham's Troop in Our Royal Regt. of Horse in 
Scotland Whitehall, 23 June, 1688. 

Wm., Earl of Annandale 6 to be Capt. of a Troop in Our 
Royal Regt. of Horse in Scotland in place of the 
Earl of Airlie Whitehall, 18 Oct., 1688. 

John Mountgomery, 7 lawful son to the Earl of Eglinton, 
to be Lieut, of the Earl of Balcarres's Troop in above 
Regt. in place of Bruce of Clackmannan. Whitehall, 12 Nov., 1688. 

Sir Charles Murray, 8 Knt. and Bart, (sic) to be Lt. 
Colonel of above Regt. in place of James, Earl of 
Drumlanrig, and also Capt. of a Troop in do. Whitehall, 29 Nov., 1688. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 143 

John Cleland 9 to be Cornet to Sir Wm. Wallace's Troop 

in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 1 Dec., 1688. 

George Holmes 10 to be Qr. Mr. to Sir Wm. Wallace's 

Troop - - Whitehall, 

Wm. Graham n to be Major of above Regt. - Whitehall, 7 Dec., 1688. 

Sir Wm. Keith 12 to be Lieut, of the Earl of Airlie's 

Troop in do. - - Whitehall, 

Robert Young 13 to be Cornet to the Earl of Airlie's 

Troop - Whitehall, 

I Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. X. Of Balnagowan. Son of llth Baron Ross by his 
2nd marriage. Capt. in Col. James Wynne's Regt. of Irish Dragoons before July, 1689. 
Lt. Col. of said Regt. before 1694. Bt. Col., 16 Feb. 1694. Col., 16 July, 1695. Brigdr. 
Gen., 9 Mar. 1702. Maj. Gen., 1 Jan. 1704. Served at Blenheim and in Marlborough's sub- 
sequent victories. Lt. Gen., 1 Jan. 17U7. Colonel-General of all the Dragoon Forces, 
1 May, 1711. Gen., 1 Jan. 1712. On 8 Oct. 1715, Gen. Ross was removed from the com- 
mand of his Regt. by George I, but was reappointed 1 Feb. 1729. D. at Bath 5 Aug. 1732. 
Bd at Fearn in Ross-shire. 

a Ibid. Bart, of Nova Scotia. Served under the Earl of Dumbarton, in 1685, during the 
Earl of Argyll's insurrection and was wounded. In the spring of 1689 he served with the 
Jacobite Army in Ireland, and returned to Scotland in May, same year. Commanded a 
Troop at Killiecrankie. His estate in Ayrshire was confiscated. Followed James VII. to 
France. D. before 1700 and was succeeded by his brother Thomas. 

3 Ibid., Vol. XI., see p. 103, note 7. 

4 Ibid. In the Regt. when it was reduced. 

5 Ibid., Vol. XIII. Returned to Scotland with Visct. Dundee in Dec. 1688. Believed to 
have been present at Killiecrankie. 

6 Ibid. The following notice of this nobleman is given in the Life of Lt. General Hugh 
Mackay : " Third Earl of Annandale and Hartf ell. He was one of the first to join the 
Revolution and raised a troop of horse for its service. In 1689, he was seduced by his 
brother-in-law, Sir James Montgomery, to engage in the plot for restoring King James, but 
soon repenting made confession of his fault to King William and was restored to favour. 
In 1701 he was raised to the dignity of Marquis of Annandale and died 1721, after having 
filled some of the highest offices in the State." P. 16, note. 

7 Ibid. See his Will in the Appendix. Styled " Major " in said document. 

8 Ibid. See p. 103, note 7. 

9 Ibid. See p. 137, note 6. 

10 Ibid. Not in any subsequent List. 

II Ibid. See p. 112, note 12. 
la Ibid. See p. 112, note 19. 

13 Ibid. Presumably son of Robert Young of Auldbar, who had md. Claverhouse's 
younger sister Anne Graham. 


THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Commissions renewed 30th March, 1685. 
Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX. 


Lt. General Dalyell, 


Lord Charles Murray, 
Lt. Col. 
John Wedderburne, 1 

of Gosford, Major. 
John Strachan. 
Wm. Cleland. 
Major George Winra- 


Thomas Winraham, 

Capt. Lt. 
Alex. Bruce. 

James Murray. 

John Livingstoune. 
John Crichtoun. 
Lewis Lauder. 

John Baily. 

James Innes. 
James Dundas. 

Henry Drummond. 
John Whitefoord. 
David Garioch. 


David Baitson (sic). 

OR. MR. 
Andrew Rosse. 


James Irving. 


Lord Charles Murray 2 to be Colonel of his Majesty's 

Regt. of Dragoons in Scotland and Capt. of a Troop. 

Whitehall, 6 Nov., 1685. 
Alex. Bruce 8 to be Capt.-Lieut. of Colonel's Troop in 

above Regt. - Whitehall, 

John Wedderburn * of Gosford to be Lt. Col. of above 

Regt. and Capt. of a Troop. - Whitehall, 

Wm. Douglas B to be Major of above Regt. [without a 

Troop.] - Whitehall, 

Sir Adam Blair, 6 Yr. of Carberry, to be Capt. of a Troop 

in above Regt. in room of Capt. Wm. Cleland, 

deed. - - Whitehall, 

Wm. Livingston 7 of Kilsyth to be Capt. of that Troop 

lately commanded by Lord Charles Murray as Lt. 

Colonel in his Majesty's Regt. of Dragoons. Whitehall, 7 Nov., 1685. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 145 

James Dundas 8 to be Lieut, to Capt. Livingston of 

Kilsyth in above Regt. - Whitehall, 7 Nov., 1685. 

James Murray 9 to be Cornet to Lt. Col. Wedderburn's 

Troop in above Regt. Whitehall, 

George Winraham 10 to be Lt. Colonel of his Majesty's 
Regt. of Dragoons in Scotland and Capt. of a 
Troop Windsor, 30 July, 1686. 

Patrick Blair n to be Capt. of the Troop lately com- 
manded by Lt.-Col. John Wedderburne - Windsor, 

Sir Charles Cairney 12 to be Lt. Col. of his Majesty's 
Regt. of Dragoons in Scotland and Capt. of a 
Troop - - Whitehall, 31 Dec., 1686. 

Edward Anger 13 to be Chirurgeon to above Regt. Whitehall, ,, 

George Rattray u to be Lt. Colonel of his Majesty's 
Regt. of Dragoons in Scotland and Capt of a 
Troop - Whitehall, 22 March, 1687. 

Lewis Hay 15 to be Cornet of the Earl of Dunmore's 

Troop in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 19 June, 1688. 

James Murray 16 to be Capt. of that Troop in Our Regt. 
of Dragoons whereof [John] Strachan was 
Capt. - Windsor, 23 Aug., 1688. 

James Murray 17 to be Lieut, to Lt. Col. George Rattray's 

Troop in above Regt. - - Windsor, 

Henry Drummond 18 to be Lieut, to Capt. Patrick Blair's 

Troop in above Regt. - - Windsor, 

George Rattray 19 to be Cornet to above Troop in do Windsor, ,, 

David Beatson 20 to be Cornet to Capt. James Murray's 

Troop in do - Windsor, 

[John] Livingstoune 21 to be Aid Major to above Regt. of 

Dragoons - - Windsor, ,, 

Lewis Lauder 2 * to be Lieut, to Capt. Patrick Blair's Troop 

in Our Regt. of Dragoons in Scotland - - Whitehall, 7 Dec., 1688. 

I Succeeded Major Sir James Turner who resigned his Commission on Gosf ord promising 
him 100 yearly (MSS. at Drumlanrig Castle, Vol. II. passim). Promoted Lt. Col. of above 
Begt. 6 Nov. 1685. Son of Sir Peter Wedderburn of Gosf ord. Out of the Regt. 30 July, 
168G. Predeceased his father in 1688. 

~* Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. X. Annotated previously. 

9 Ibid . Promoted Lieut. 23 Aug. 1688. Left the Begt. same year. Outlawed for high 
treason, 2 July, 1695. 

10 Ibid., Vol. XI. See biog. notice on p. 77, note 2. 

II Possibly the Lt.-Colonel Blair who served with the Jacobite Army in Ireland, early 
in 1689, and landed in Scotland some weeks before the battle of Killiecrankie. He com- 
manded at Duart Castle in Mull for a short time, and held that stronghold against the 
British ships of war. Thomson's Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, Vol. IX., Appx., p. 56. 

"Ibid. Served previous to 1678 in Lord George Douglas's Begt. of Scots Foot in 
France. Believed to be identical with the " Captain Kernie " whose name appears in the 
list of casualties in aforesaid Begt. given on p. 103, note 9. Appointed Capt. of an 
additional Company in the Scots Foot Guards, 12 June, 1685. Major of the Earl of Bath's 
Begt. of Foot, 20 June, 1685. Inspector of the King's Forces in Scotland, 31 Dec. 1686. 
" Our Boyal Begt. of Horse Guards and Royal Begt. of Horse alone excepted,"CTTf. Bk. Scot.) 
Lt. Col. of the Earl of Bath's Begt., 1 Aug. 1687. Knighted about 1686. Colonel of 
Lord Bath's Begt., 8 Dec. 1688. Removed by the Prince of Orange. Joined King James 
in Ireland. Commanded the Reserve at the battle of the Boyne and had the rank of 
Major-General (Clarke's Memoirs of James II., Vol. II., p. 397.) Outlawed for high treason, 
2 July, 1695. 


146 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

13 Warrant Boole for Scotland, Vol. XI. Untraced. Called " Ainger" in another List. 

"Ibid., Vol. XII. " Son to Sir John Rattray, Lt. Col. to the Scots Regt. in France, and 
grandson to Eattray of Craighall, heir male of Rattray of that Ilk " (Nisbet's Heraldic 
Plates, p. 111.) Lt. Col. George Rattray followed James VII. to France and was made a 
Gentleman of the Bedchamber. He md. Anne Elizabeth Maxwell dau. of Maxwell of 

15 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XIII. Involved in Kilsyth's plot in 1689. A news- 
letter of 19 April, 1690, records that " Lewis Hay and one Telf ord with two other prisoners 
made their escape from the Cannongate." Cal. S.P.D., 1690. 

"Ibid. See p. 123, note 4. 

17 Ibid. See note 9. 

ls lbid. Probably the "Hary Drumond son to Hary Drumond of Pittcairns in 
Perthshyre " who was a gentleman Private in the King's Troop of Life Guards in 1678. 
See The Military Hist, of Perthshire, 1660-1902, p. 16. 

19 Ibid. Probably Col. George Rattray's son. Not in any subsequent List. On 29 Nov. 
1689, a pass was granted " for Mr. George Rattray and his wife to go from London to Dover 
and there to embark for Flanders." Cal. S.P.D. 

*>Ibid. See p. 123, note 3. 

21 Ibid. See p. 106, note 4. 

2a Ibid. This was one of the last Commissions signed by James VII. See notice of 
this officer on p. 124, note 10. The following curious certificate is still preserved in the 
family of Campbell of Auchmannoch : " God save the King. I Lewis Lauder Governor of 
Sorn Castle dow heirby certifie and declare viz. Kirkwood, servitor to Arthur Campbell 
of Auchmannoch, in the parish of Some, did compeir before me, on solemn oath before 
Almightie God, did abjure and renounce the late traitourous apologeticall declaration in so 
far as it declares war against his Majestie, and asserts that it is lawful to kill all such as 
serve his Majestie in church, state, annie, or countrie, conform to his Majestie's late 
proclamation of the 30th day of December last given at Some the aught day of February, 
1688 yeirs. LEWIS LAUDER." Paterson's Ayrshire, Vol. II., 421. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Commissions renewed at Whitehall, 30th March, 1685. 
(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX.) 


James Douglas, 

John Winraham, 

James Murray, 


James Maitland. 
William Innes. 
Alex. Livingstoun. 
George Macgill. 
Patrick Lyon. 
John Hay. 
Charles Straton. 
Thomas Hamilton, 

Grendr. Cy. 


Robert Murray, 

Wm. Crichtoun. 

Patrick Ogilvie. 

Robert Keith. 
Sir David Moncreif. 2 
Robert Dobie. 
Henry Straton. 
William Hay. 
James Maitland. 
James Dalmahoy. 
Robert Somervell,^ 
1st Lieut. I 
Wm. Davidson, f 
2nd Lieut. J 

Robert Keith. 

QR. MR. 
James Maitland. 

John Baily. 

John Lothian. 

George Winraham. 
Patrick Auchmoutie. 

Wm. Mayne. 
Samuel Winraham. 
Archibald Douglas. 
Alex. Hamilton. 
Alex. Livingstoun. 
Archibald Stuart. 
James Crichtoun. 


Commissions dated at Whitehall, 12th June, 1685. 


Charles Carny 8 (sic}. 


Robert Colinson. 4 


David Sutherland. 5 



Wm. Charters 6 (sic) to be Capt. of a Cy. of Foot in Our 
Regt. of Guard which Wee did lately order to be 
raised under the command of Capt. Charles Carney 
and added to said Regt. - Whitehall, 1st Aug., 1685. 

Q 2 

148 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Commissions dated at Whitehall, 7th Nov., 1685. 


Wm. Oliphant. 7 George Douglas. James Dalyell. 



Commissions dated at Whitehall, 20th Nov., 1685. 


Major Robert Middleton. 8 Patrick Ronald. 9 Henry Maxwell. 10 



John, Earl of Carnwath n to be Capt. of a Cy. in Our 

Regt. of Guard lately commanded by Capt. Alex. 

Livingston (now Earl of Callender) - Windsor Castle, 22 June, 1686. 
John Straton 12 to be Ensign to Capt. John Hay in above 

Regt. - Windsor Castle, 30 July, 1686. 

Thomas Hamilton 13 to be Ensign to Capt. Charles 

Straton's Cy. in above Regt. - - Windsor Castle, 4 Sept., 1686. 
James Murray u to be Lieut. -Colonel of his Majesty's 

Regt. of Guards in Scotland and Capt. of a Cy. in 

said Regt. - - Bath, 13 Sept., 1687. 

James Maitland 1B to be Major of above Regt. and Capt. 

of a Cy. in do. - - Bath, ,, ,, 

Robert Murray 16 to be Capt. of the Cy. in above Regt. 

which was commanded by Lt.-Col. John Winra- 

ham - - Bath, ,, 

James Maitland 17 to be Capt.-Lieut. of above Regt. Bath, ,, 

Patrick Auchmouty 18 to be Lieut, to Capt. John Hay 

in above Regt. - - Bath, ,, 

Lord Edward Morray 19 (sic) to be Ensign to Lt. -Colonel 

James Murray in above Regt. - - Bath, ,, ,, 

Capt.-Lieut. James Maitland 20 to be Capt. of that Cy. in 

Our Regt. of Guard whereof Capt. John Hay, 

deceased, was Capt. - - Whitehall, 18 June, 1688. 

George Douglas 21 to be Capt.-Lieut. of Lieut.-General 

James Douglas's Cy. in Our Regt. of Guard. Whitehall, ,, 

James Douglas 22 to be Ensign to above Cy. in do 

Regt. - Whitehall, 

Lieut. Henry Straton 23 to be Qr.-Mr. of the Regt. of 

Guards - - Whitehall, 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 149 

James Dalyell 2 * to be Lieut, of Capt. Wm. Oliphant's 

Cy. in above Regt. Whitehall, 18 June, 1688. 

Viscount of Fendraught 25 to be Lt. -Colonel of Our Regt. 

of Guard, in room of late Lt.-Col. James Murray 

and Capt. of a Cy. in do. - Whitehall, 19 June, 1688. 

Robert Keith 26 to be Captain of the Grenadier Cy. in 

above Regt. - - Whitehall, ,, ,, 

Lieut. Wm. Hay 27 (of Capt. Patrick Lyon's Cy.) to be 

Aid Major of above Regt. - Whitehall, 

John Lothian 28 to be Lieut, of that Cy. whereof James 

Maitland, Major of above Regt., is Captain - Whitehall, ,, ,, 

Archibald Douglas 29 to be Lieut, to Capt. Wm. Innes in 

above Regt. - - Whitehall, ,, ,, 

Laurence Oliphant 30 to be Lieut, to Capt. Charles 

Straton's Cy. in above Regt. - - Whitehall, ,, 

Alex. Hamilton 81 to be Lieut, to Capt. Robert Murray's 

Cy. in above Regt. - - Whitehall, ,, 

James Mountgomery 82 to be Ens. to the Earl of Carn- 

wath's Cy. in above Regt. - Whitehall, ,, 

John Murray 83 to be Ens. to Capt. George Mackgill's 

Cy. in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 

James Henderson 8 * to be Ens. to Capt. Wm. Oliphant's 

Cy. in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 

' J On 10 Aug. 1688, the King wrote to the Scottish Privy Council ordering a daily 
allowance, amounting to two-thirds of their daily pay, out of the Invalid money, to be 
given to Sir David Moncreefe, Bart., late Lieut, to Capt. Wm. Innes in the Regt. of 
Guards, and Wm. Crichton, late Lieut, to Capt. Robert Murray in said Regt. being by their 
great age disabled from service. Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XIII. 

3 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. X., see p. 145, note 12. 

4 Hid. Left the Regt. in Dec. 1688. 

5 Ibid. Lieut. 1 March, 1689. Addl. rank of Captain, 1 Oct. 1691. Served at the 
siege of Namur as 1st Lieut, of Grenadiers in above Regt. Comn. renewed in 1702. Not 
in any subsequent List. 

8 Ibid. Of Hempsfield ? Joined the Jacobite Army in Scotland, in the spring of 1689, 
and fought at Killiecrankie. Attainted of high treason in July, 1695. Thomson's Acts of 
the Parliament of Scotland, Vol. IX., Appx., p. 115. 

7 Ibid. From the evidence of Lieut. James Colt who served on the Royalist side at 
Killiecrankie, it appears that Wm. Oliphant was Lt.-Col. to Viscount Fendraught at 
Killiecrankie, and had previously served with the Jacobite Army in Ireland. Attainted by 
the Scots Parlt. in 1695. 

8 Ibid. Appointed Major of Sir Edward Hales's Regt. of Foot, 23 June, 1685. Among 
the Duke of Hamilton's MSS., in a packet of intercepted Jacobite Letters, is one signed 
" George Middleton," written from Kilkenny, to his father "Major Robert Middleton" at 
Leith. This letter is dated 25 March, 1689. A newsletter of 27 May, 1690, records the 
capture, in Scotland, of " Major Middleton a ringleader of the Highlanders." Cal. 
S.P. Dom. 

' Ibid. Adjt. to the 1st Batt. of the same Regt., 1 March, 1689. Capt. with additional 
rank of Lt.-Colonel, 1 Sept. 1691. Served at Landen in 1693, and at the siege of Namur. 
Left the Regt. in July, 1699. 

10 Ibid. Commission renewed 1 March, 1689. Additional rank of Captain, 1 Oct. 1691. 
Out of the Regt. 22 May, 1694. 

11 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XI. John Dalzell, 5th Earl. Lt.-Col. by Brevet, 
1 Sept. 1691. Left the Army same year. D. 1703. 

la Ibid. Commission renewed 1 March, 1689. Additional rank of Capt., 1 Oct. 1691. 
Left the Regt. soon afterwards. 

150 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

18 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XI. Appointed Capt.-Lieut. 1 March, 1689. Capt., 
30 Sept. 1690. Bank of Lieut.-Col., 1 Sept. 1691. Serving in Flanders as Capt. of the 
Grenadier Company in 1694. Promoted 2nd Major, 29 Jan. 1703. Out of the Regt. 7 Oct. 1710. 

" Ibid. See p. 23, note 5. 

15 Ibid. See p. 25, note 1. 

16 Ibid. See p. 27, note 3. 

17 Ibid. See p. 20, note 2. 

18 Ibid. See p. 24, note 3. 

19 Ibid. Fifth son of the 1st Marquis of Atholl. Born 28 Feb. 1669. Capt. in Col. 
George McGill's Regt. of Foot in 1696. Capt. in the Royal Scots, 17 Oct. 1701. Served 
several campaigns under Marlborough. Comn. as Capt. in the Royal Scots renewed by 
George I. Out of said Regt. before 1728. D. 11 Nov. 1737. Bd. in the Abbey Church, 
Holyrood. By the widow of Major Andrew White (see p. 38, note 8) Lord Edward 
Murray left a son John who d. 1748. Peerage. 

20 Ibid., Vol. XIII. See p. 20, note 2. 

21 Ibid. Out of the Regt. before 1 March, 1689. Probably the George Douglis 
appointed Capt. in Col. Richard Cunningham's Regt. of Dragoons, 8 Sept. 1692. Comn. 
renewed in 1702. Brevet Lt.-Colonel in Scotland, 29 March, 1703. Bt. Colonel of Dra- 
goons, 10 Oct. 1709. Out of the Regt. the following year. 

M Ibid. Son of Lt.-General the Hon. James Douglas. Left the Regt. as Lieut, in 
Oct. 1691. See Part I., Chapter XII., p. 87. 

23 Ibid. See p. 28, note 1. 

M Ibid. Younger brother to Sir John Dalzdl of Glenae. Served previously as Lieut, 
in Buchan's Regt. Left the Guards same year. Was out in the " fifteen " and taken 
prisoner at Preston. 

25 Ibid. "Lewis Crichton 4th Visct. Fendraught matriculated at King's College, 
Aberdeen, in 1668, and was served heir to his nephew the 3rd Viscount, 9 Dec. 1686. . . . 
Privy Councillor, 10 Aug. 1688. Served under Lord Dundee at Killiecrankie. In Sept. 
1690, he was one of the Commanders of a Jacobite force, which made a raid from Aber- 
deenshire to within a few miles of Stirling, and thereafter made good its retreat to 
Aberdeenshire again. On 28 Sept. 1690, he, with a small garrison, seized the castle of 
Federate in Buchan which they held till forced to capitulate late in the following month. 
On 25 Feb. he petitioned to be liberated but the Privy Council refused. Released by 
Warrant of the Privy Council, 21 June, 1694. Retired to France and died at St. Germains, 
26 Feb. 1698. He married Marjory Seaton, daughter of Thomas Seaton, Cornet of Horse." 
The New Scottish Peerage. 

" Ibid. See p. 27, note 5. 

27 Ibid. See p. 26, note 3. 

28 Ibid. See p. 29, note 2. 

29 Ibid. See p. 25, note 2. 

30 Ibid. Had a grant of Arms from the Lyon Office. Described therein as "Laurence 
Oliphant of Condie descended of the Lord Oliphant." Left the Regt. same year. 

31 Ibid. Had the additional rank of Capt.. 1 Oct. 1091. Out of the Regt. 1 April, 

3S Ibid. Left the Regt. soon after the Revolution and joined the Jacobite party in 
France. Serving in a Scots Company of Foot in France, 1693. Dundee's Officers in France. 

38 Ibid. Had the additional rank of Capt., 1 Oct. 1691. Capt. and Lt.-Col., 12 June, 
1692. Served at Steinkirk. Comn. renewed in 1702. Out of the Regt. in 1709. 

84 Ibid. Lieut. 1 March, 1689. His name appears in " The List of Rebels in France, 
2 July, 1695." Acts of the Parlt. of Scotland, Vol. IX., Appx., p. 115. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



From, the Muster taken at Leith, 15 May, 1686. See Old Scottish Regi- 
mental Colours, by Andrew Ross, p. 71. 


Lt-Col. Archibald 
Douglas, 1 

Charles Barclay, 2 


James Law, 11 
Patrick Hay, 

j George Stewart, 
{ Andrew Barclay, 

Alexander Cuninsrham, 8 < -, ' 

( James JVlaxwell, 

James McRaken 18 (sic) 
James Moulray, 
John Leids, 14 

[John] Defour, 4 
Sir James Moray, 6 

John Straughan, 

Lord George Hamil- | Andrew Scott, 
ton, 6 

Andrew Monro, 7 
George Murray, 8 
Lord James Murray, 9 
John Ruthven, 10 

James Grant, 
| Andrew Rutherford, 15 
( John Bannerman, 
( Adam Cunynghame, 16 
( Thomas Davidsone 

William Barclay, 

David McAdam 
f Robert Livingstone, 
1 George Hamilton, 


Isaac Thralkeld. 17 
William Melville. 
\vm. Cuninghame. 
Wm. Robertsone. 
Charles Moray. 
John Alexander. 
Alexander Monro. 
Arthur Carstairs. 
Robert Bruce. 
Sir Wm. Mowat. 18 



Alex. Leith 19 to be 2nd Lieut, to Capt. George Moray 

[Windsor Castle], 1 Sept., 1686. 
George Graeme 20 to be Capt. in place of Sir James 

Moray Whitehall, 1 Nov., 1686. 

Charles Moray 21 to be 2nd Lieut, to Capt. George 

Graeme - Whitehall, ,, 

George Gordon 2a to be Ensign to Capt. George Grseme 

Thomas Scott 2S to be Capt. in the place of John 

Dufour - [Whitehall], 8 April, 1687. 

John Gordon a4 to be 2nd Lieut, to Lord George Hamilton 

[Windsor Castle], 1 July, 1687. 
Andrew Rutherford 26 to be 2nd Adjt. to the Royal Regt. 

of Foot - - - Whitehall, 1 March, 1688. 

152 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

George Douglas 26 to be 1st Lieut, to Capt. John 

Ruthven - - Whitehall, 1 March, 1688. 

Robert Leviston OT (sic) to be Capt. in room of [George] 

Graham - - Whitehall, 2 March, 1688. 

* This Battalion, consisting of ten Companies, was sent to Scotland by sea in March, 
1686 (King's Letter to the Scots Privy Council, 20 March, 1686). In the spring of 1688 
these ten Companies returned overland to Gravesend, via York and Hertford, where they 
arrived in the following September (Cannon's Records \st Foot). Early in 1689, both 
Battalions of this Regt. mutinied and attempted to march back to Scotland. They were 
overtaken in Lincolnshire by a strong body of troops, chiefly Dutch, sent in pursuit by 
William III. " About twenty officers and 500 men . . . laid down their arms and submitted 
to the King's clemency " (Records, p. 78). About a dozen of the Scots officers were 
imprisoned in Newgate on a charge of high treason for levying war against the King (Royal 
Warrant, dated 27 March, 1689, Cal. S.P. Dom.). When released the ringleaders were 
dismissed the service. The 1st Batt. was sent to Flanders, and the 2nd Batt., having 
transferred its serviceable men to the 1st, proceeded to Scotland to recruit. 

I Fourth son of the Hon. Sir Wm. Douglas, Bt. of Kelhead. Served with same Regt. 
in France and at Tangier. Was wounded when serving against the Moors, and received 
100 bounty money (Guy's Secret Service Schedule). Promoted Lt.-Colonel, 1 Nov. 1684. 
Commanded the five Companies of his Regt. which served at Sedgemoor. Appointed 
Colonel of a new-raised Regt. (16th Foot) 9 Oct. 1688. Removed from his command 
31 Dec. 1688, by the Prince of Orange. 

* Commission renewed 31 Dec. 1688. His name is given as " Charles Berkeley " in 
List of the Regt. under aforesaid date. Imprisoned in Newgate by Royal Warrant dated 
27 March, 1689. Subsequently removed from the Regt. 

" Serving as a 2nd Lieut, in above Regt. atKinsale in 1679. First Lieut, before 1684. 
Capt., 20 May, 1684. Comn. renewed 31 Dec. 1688. Believed to be identical with the 
Alex. Cuningham appointed Capt. in the Scots Foot Guards early in 1689. Additional 
rank of Lt.-Colonel, 1 Sept. 1691. 

4 Appointed Capt. in the Regt. 26 March, 1686. D. in March or April, 1687. 

* Serving in Ireland with same Regt. as a Lieut, in April, 1679. Took part in the 
campaign against the Moors. Returned to England, from Tangier, in Feb. 1684, on board 
H.M.S. Oxford (Dartmouth Papers). Left the Regt. 10 Nov. 1686. 

6 Afterwards the Earl of Orkney, K.T., Premier Field-Marshal of England. See 
memoir of this nobleman by Charles Dalton in the Journal of the HI. United Service Institu- 
tion for March, 1901. 

7 Promoted Lt.-Colonel of above Regt. 9 March, 1689. Md. the Hon. Margaret Fraser, 
dau. of Hugh, 8th Lord Lovat. Succeeded the Earl of Angus as Col. of the Cameronians, 
1 Aug. 1692. D. from fever, after the battle of Landen, 25 Aug. 1693. 

8 Serving as 2nd Lieut, in same Regt. at Kinsale in April 1679. Accompanied his 
corps to Tangier. Capt. before 1684. Out of the Regt. before 31 Dec. 1688. 

9 Of Dowally. Third son of the 1st Marquis of Atholl. Capt. in above Regt. 1684. 
Joined General Cannon after Killiecrankie. Accepted indemnity. Appointed Capt. in 
Lord Murray's Regt. of Foot, 4 May, 1696. M.P. Perthshire 1708-9, 1710, 1710-13, 1713-15. 
D. at Perth, 29 Dec. 1719. 

10 Serving with above Regt. in Ireland, 1679, as 1st Lieut, to Lt.-Col. Alex. Monro's 
Cy. Removed from the Regt. in March, 1689. Joined the Jacobite Army in Scotland. 
Attainted by Act of Parliament. 

II Received 15 bounty for wounds in action at Sedgemoor (Cannon's Records \st 
Foot, p. 72). Removed from the Regt. in 1689. 

la Second son of the Laird of Kippenross, who was Dean of Dumblane, by Jean Drum- 
mond, dau. of David Drummond of Innermay. Lieut. Alex. Pearson served at Tangier in 
1680. Promoted Capt. 23 Sept. 1688. Out of the Regt. before 1694. 

13 AfcCrakine. Promoted Capt. 22 Sept. 1688. Killed at the battle of Steinkirk. 
His widow received a pension of 30 per annum. This lady's petition to the Lords of the 
English Treasury, dated 16 July, 1703, states that her husband signalized himself by the 
management of the cannon at Steinkirk which did great execution against the enemy 
(Treasury Papers, Vol. LXXXVI., No. 121). Queen Anne refused to renew petitioner's 
pension, but ordered " bounty some other way." Ibid. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 153 

14 Appointed Capt. of an Independent Company, 1 Oct. 1688. Capt. in Col. Hodges'a 
new-raised Eegt. of Foot, 31 Dec. 1688. Not in any subsequent List. 

15 Adjt. to the 2nd Batt. of above Regt., 1 March, 1688. Capt 31 Dec. same year. 
Said to be son of Major Adam Rutherford of the Border family of this name (Cock- 
burn-Hood's Rutherford Book). Imprisoned in Newgate, March, 1689, as a ringleader of 
the mutiny in his Regt. Attainted by Act of Parliament, July, 1695, as "a Rebel in 

16 Promoted Capt., 21 Sept. 1688. Imprisoned in Newgate as a ringleader of the 
mutiny in his Regt. March, 1689. Served subsequently in Col. Richard Cunningham's 
Regt. of Scots Foot, and was appointed Major of same corps before 1694, when he wag 
serving in Flanders. Out of the Regt. before 1697. 

17 Threlkeld. Imprisoned in Newgate, March, 1689, " for levying war against the King." 
Styled " Lieut Isaac Thralkall " in Warrant of 27 March. Attainted by Act of Parliament 
in 1695, as "a Rebel in France." 

18 Son of Sir Alex. Mouat, Bt. Appointed Cornet in the Earl of Arran's Regt. of 
Horse, 1 Apr. 1687. Left the Army in 1688. 

19 English Army Lists and Comn. Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. II. Left the Regt. in 

20 Ibid. Left the Regt. 2 March, 1688. 
a Ibid. Left the Regt. in 1688. 

22 Ibid. Promoted Lieut. 21 May, 1689. Served in Flanders. His name appears in 
the Army List for 1702. 

23 Ibid. Left the Regt. in 1688. 

94 Ibid. Recommissioned 31 Dec. 1688. Untraced after that date. 
36 Ibid. See note 15. 

28 Ibid. Left the Regt. at the Revolution. 

27 Ibid. Killed at Steinkirk where he served as a Capt. in above Regiment. Royal 
Bounty of 30 to his widow. Warrants for Pay and Contingencies at the P.R.O. 


THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


Commissions renewed at Whitehall, 30th March, 1085. 
(Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX.) 


Charles, Earl of Mar, 

Thomas Buchan, 

John Balfour, 


Thomas Douglas, 
John Dalyell, 
John Bruce, 
Alex. Cairnes, 
Kenneth McKenzie, 
Colin McKenzie, 
Hugh Mountgoinery, 
Wm. Garioch, 

Gr. Cy. 


John Bell, 

James Stirling, 

Alex. Straton, 

Wm. Burnett, 
Wm. Trotter, 
John Scott, 
John Livingstoun, 
Wm. Sharp, 
John Dalyell, 
Duncan Menzies, 
Wm. White, 

1st Lt. 
Robert Nisbet, 

2nd Lt.J 

John Bell [Yr.]. 

Alex. Leith. 

Alex. Straton [Yr.]. 

Michael Veitch. 
Robert Dalyell. 
Henry Bruce. 
Andrew Wood. 
Chris. McDougall. 
Walter Sharp. 
John Straton. 


Duncan Menzies. 

QR. MR. 

[Major] James Wood. 


Wm. Borthwick. 



Commissions dated at Whitehall, 20th May, 1685. 


Walter Maxwell, 1 


Robert Charters, 2 


John Elliott. 8 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 155 



[James] Buchan 4 to be Ensign toCapt. Kenneth McKenzie 

in above Regt. - Whitehall, 7 Nov., 1685. 

Robert Wood 5 to be Ensign to Capt. Alex. Cairnes in 

above Regt. Whitehall, 7 Jan., 1686. 

Major James Wood 6 to be Qr. Mr. of above Regt., Whitehall, 
Thomas Buchan ' to be Colonel of Our Regt. of Foot 

lately commanded by Charles, Earl of Mar, and to 

be Capt. of a Cy. in do. Windsor Castle, 29 July, 1686. 

John Balfour 8 to be Lt.-Colonel of above Regt. in place 

of Thomas Buchan, and Capt. of a Cy. in do. 

Windsor Castle, 

John Wallace 9 to be Capt. of that Cy. in Col. Buehan's 

Regt. whereof the Earl of Mar was Capt. 

Windsor Castle, 30 July, 1686. 
Major [James ?] Middleton 10 to be Capt. of the Cy. lately 

commanded by Capt. Walter Maxwell in above 

Regt. Windsor Castle, 31 July, 1686. 

Lieut. Wm. Trotter u of Sir John Dalyell's Cy. to be 

Capt. of latter's Cy. in above Regt - Whitehall, 2 Aug., 1686. 

Sir James Thomson 12 to be Lieut, to Capt. Wm. Trotter 

[in above Regt.] Windsor Castle, 21 Aug., 1686. 

Thomas Douglas 18 to be Major of above Regt. and Capt. 

of a Cy. in do. - - Windsor Castle, 

Robert Charters " (sic} to be Capt. of the Grendr. Cy. in 

Col. Buehan's Regt - Windsor Castle, 4 Sept., 1686. 

John Crichton 15 to be Lieut, to Major Middleton's Cy. 

in above Regt. - Windsor Castle, 

Scott 16 of Ardross to be Lieut, to Capt. John Bruce 

in above Regt. - - Windsor Castle, 16 Sept., 1686. 

[James] Seaton 17 (sic) (lawful son to Lord Viscount 

Kingstoun) to be Ens. to Capt. Hugh Montgomery 

in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 13 Jan., 1687. 

John Straton 18 to be Lieut, to Capt. Wm. Trotter's Cy. 

in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 15 Jan., 1687. 

John Scott 19 to be Ensign to Capt. Wm. Trotter's Cy. 

in above Regt. - Whitehall, 

Robert McKenzie 20 to be Capt. of the Cy. in Col. Buehan's 

Regt. of Foot lately commanded by his father, Colin 

McKenzie Whitehall, 7 Jan., 1688. 

Wm. Sharp 21 to be Lieut, to Capt. John (sic) McKenzie 

in above Regt. - Whitehall, 

James Dalyell 22 to be Lieut, to Capt. Kenneth McKenzie 

in above Regt. - Whitehall, 

James Buchan 23 to be Capt.-Lieut. of Col. Tlos. Buehan's 

Cy. in latter's Regt. - Whitehall, 20 Apr., 1688. 

Francis Scott 24 to be Ensign of Col. Buehan's own Cy. 

in latter's Regt - Whitehall, 

156 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Alex. Mountgomery 25 to be Ensign to Capt. Kenneth 

McKenzie's Cy. in above Regt. Whitehall, 20 Apr. 1C88. 

Patrick Graham 26 to be Ensign to Capt. John Bruce's Cy. 

in above Regt. - - Whitehall, ,, 



Commissions dated at Whitehall, 23rd April, 1688. 


John Bell, 27 Henry Bruce, 28 Wm. Ogilvie. 29 

John Ramsay, 80 Alex. Leith, 81 Charles Farquharson. 82 



Duncan Menzies 8S to be Capt. of that Cy. whereof [Ken- 
neth] Mackenzie deceased was late Capt.- Whitehall, 25 Sept., 1688. 

Lieut. Alex. Straton 84 to be Aid Major of above Regt. 


Walter Sharp 35 to be Lieut, of Capt. Hugh Mountgomery's 

Cy. in above Regt. - - Whitehall, ,, ,, 

George Buchan M to be Ensign to Capt. Robt. Mackenzie 

in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 16 Nov., 1688. 

Alex. Straton 87 to be Lieut, of Major Thomas Douglas's 

Cy. in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 29 Nov., 1688. 

John Colt 88 to be Ensign to Capt. Hugh Montgomery's 

Cy. in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 

Henry Crauford 89 to be Ensign to Lt.-Col. John Bal- 

four's Cy. in above Regt. - - Whitehall, 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX. Out of the Begt. 31 July, 1686. 

2 Ibid. Ensign in Sir Wm. Lockhart's Regt. of Foot in 1672. Second Lieut, in Dum- 
barton's Regt., 1679. Capt. of Grenadiers in Col. Buohan's Regt., 4 Sept. 168(5. Fought 
under Dundee at Killiecrankie. Evidence of Lieut. John Nisbet of Lord Kenmure's Regt. 
quoted in Acts of the Parlt. of Scotland, Vol. IX., Appx., p. 56. 

3 Ibid. Promoted Capt. in same Regt., 1 Aug. 1692 vice Capt. Wm. White, killed at 

4 Ibid., Vol. X. Capt.-Lieut. 20 April, 1688. Adhered to James VII., and is said, in 
the pedigree of the family, to have been a Major in the service of King James. Succeeded 
to Auchmacoy on the death of his father, who was elder brother to Col. Thomas Buchan. 

Ibid. Possibly the Robert Wood appointed Lieut, and Deputy Governor of the Bass, 
10 July, 1689. 

6 Ibid. See p. 116, note 21. 

' Ibid., Vol. XI. See p. 117, note 47. 

3 Ibid. See p. 116, note 5. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 157 

convicted of 
them and therein 

9 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XI. This officer happened to be in Edinburgh in 
Dec. 1688, when the rabble made an attack on Holyrood House, which he defended with 
six-score men, who had been raised by the Council shortly before the riot broke out, till 
overpowering numbers compelled him to retire. The Affairs of Scotland, by the Earl of 
Bal carres. 

10 Ibid. Served previously in Wauchope's Regt. in Holland. Fought under Dundee at 
Killiecrankie. Evidence by Lieut. John Nisbet quoted in Acts of the Parlt. of Scotland, 
Vol. IX., Appx., p. 57. 

11 Ibid. See p. 116, note 14. 

12 Ibid. Out of the Regt. 15 Jan. 1687. 

13 Ibid. See p. 117, note 24. 

14 Ibid. See note 2. 

15 Ibid. Left the Eegt. at the Revolution. 

16 Ibid. In 1672 a member of the Ardross family had the following grant passed in 
his favour : " Warrant for a grant under the Privy Seal of Scotland to William Scott of 
Ardross and Colonel Wm. Borthwick, their heirs and assigns, of the fines of the maltmakers 
and brewers, and their escheats that may fall into his Majesty's hands, through their being 

" contravening any of the Acts of Parliament and Secret Council made against 
rein mentioned." Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. I., p. 383. 

17 Ibid. Left the Regt. at the Revolution. This young officer took part on 16 Aug. 
1690, in an escapade narrated by Dr. Chambers in his Domestic Annals of Scotland : "Adam 
Cockburn the post-boy, who carried the packet or letter bag on that part of the great line 
of communication which lies between Cockburnspath and Haddington, had reached a point 
in his journey between the Almshouse and Hedderwick Muir, when he was assailed by two 
gentlemen in masks ; one of them mounted on a blue-gray horse, wearing a stone-gray coat 
with brown silk buttons ; the other riding on a white horse, having a white English gray 
cloak coat with wrought silver thread buttons. Holding pistols to his breast, they 
threatened to kill him if he did not instantly deliver up the packet, black box, and big 
bag, which he carried, and he had no choice but to yield. They then bound him, and 
leaving him tied by the foot to his horse, rode off with the spoil to Garleton House near 
Haddington. . . . Suspicion fell on James Seton, youngest son of Lord Kingston, and 
John Seton, brother of Sir George Seton of Garleton. . . . They were taken into custody 
next day by Sir Robert Sinclair the sheriff. It was Sunday, and Baillie Lauder, to whose house 
they came with their escort, was about to go to church. He left them in charge of two of 
the town officers in his house, and had their horses secured in the stable. Unluckily, how- 
ever, he required the two town officers as usual to walk before him and his brother 
magistrates to church. Messrs. Seton made their escape. As soon as the baillie heard of 
it he left church and took horse after them, with some neighbours, but he did not succeed 
in overtaking them. The Baillie was imprisoned by the Privy Council in the Tolbooth of 
Edinburgh with two town officers. . . . John Seton was arrested in 1691 and tried, but 
managed to escape condemnation and punishment." 

James Seton succeeded his brother Archibald, in 1714, as 3rd Viscount. Took part in 
the " Fifteen," and was attainted by Act of Parliament. His estates and honours were 
forfeited to the Crown. He died about 1726. 

18 Ibid. Appointed Lieut, in the Scots Foot Guards, 1 March, 1689. Out of said 
Regt. before Oct. 1691. 

19 Ibid. Not in any subsequent List of this Regt. 

- n Ibid., Vol. XII. Brother to George Mackenzie, M.D., author of The Lives and 
Characters of the Most Eminent Writers of the Scottish Nation. Capt. Robert Mackenzie left 
the Regt. at the Revolution. 

21 Ibid. See p. 117, note 37. 

" Ibid. Younger bro. to Capt. John Dalzell of same Regt. Out in the '15 and taken 
prisoner at Preston. 

2 " Ibid. See p. 156, note 4. 

24 Ibid. Brother to the Earl of Tarras. Capt. in same Regt. before 1691, in which 
year he was recruiting in Scotland (Ross's Old ScotlisJ; Colours, p. 19, note 2). Out of 
the Regt. before 1 Jan. 1692. 

25 Ibid. Left the Regt. at the Revolution. 

26 Ibid. Do. 

158 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

27 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XII. See p. 117, note 43. 

28 Ibid. See p. 118, note 51. 

Ibid. Capt.-Lieut., 4 Oct. 1693. Capt., 1 June, 1694. Served in Flanders, 1689-95. 
Out of the Regt. before 1702. 

80 Ibid. The Hon. John Ramsay, 2nd son of George 2nd Earl of Dalhousie. On 
the death of his elder brother, Wm., 3rd Earl of Dalhousie, became tutor-at-law to the 
deceased Earl's children, 17 April, 1683, but being absent in Holland (where he held a 
Comn. as Capt. in Col. Wauchope's Scots Regt.) did not enter upon this guardianship 
until 1688. Douglas's Peerage of Scotland. 

81 Ibid. Left the Regt. at the Revolution. 
M Ibid. Not in any subsequent List. 

88 Ibid., Vol. XIII. See p. 116, note 16. 
M Ibid. See p. 118, note 55. 

85 Ibid. See p. 117, note 23. 

86 Ibid. A certain George Buchan, nephew to Col. Thomas Buchan of the same Regt., 
served with the Highland Army in 1690. See Hist. MSS. Commission, Report XV., Appx., 
Pt. IX., p. 95. 

3? Ibid. See p. 118, note 54. 

88 Ibid. Not in any subsequent List. 

39 Ibid. Do. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 






(In the pay of the King of France.) 


John Wachop 1 (sic) 

11 March. 

Henry Graham 2 

11 March. 
John Gordon 3 

11 March. 
Gavin Hamilton 4 
11 March. 
^Eneas Mackay 6 

13 March. 
Henry Belford 6 (sic) 

14 March. 
George Hamilton 7 

15 March. 
John Daliel 8 (sic) 

16 March. 

Sir John Johnston, 9 Bt. 

17 March. 
Tho. Brown 10 

18 March. 
Fras. Wachop " 

(Grenadier Cy.) 
Henry Hatcher 12 

20 March, 
[succeeded by] 

Henry Cuningham 18 

21 March. 

30 March <j 


Chas. Areskin 14 (sic) 
Col. Capt.-Lt. 

20 March. 
John Grant 

23 March. 
James Graham 

22 March. 

John Gordon 

25 March. 
Allan Robertson 

24 March. 
George Strachan 

30 March. 
Chas. Holborn 16 

26 March. 
John Ramsey 

28 March. 
John Gordon 

1 April. 
Maxwell of Karrs 

31 March. 
Chas. Carr 16 

27 March, 
And. Riddill (sic) 

29 March 
John Sinclair 17 

30 March. 

John Murray 

21 March. 


John Ramsey. 


John Allen. 


Augustin Joseph Brullehau. 


Archd. Carr 

24 March. 

Jas. Campbell 

1 April. 
Robt. Maxwell 
26 March. 

Alex. Sandilands 
28 March. 


23 March. 

Archd. Murray 

28 March. 
Edward Wachop 

27 March. 
John Brown 

29 March. 
David Forester 

22 March. 
Peter Murray 

30 March. 
John Maxwell 

31 March. 

Arthur Innes 18 
25 March. 

160 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


N.B. The Commissions given below are extracted from English Army 

Lists, Vol. II. 

David Bien (sic) to be Qr.-Mr. and Marshal in room of 

John Allen 1 June, 1688. 

Henry Graham to be Lt. -Colonel of above Regt. and 

Capt. of a Cy. - Windsor, 20 Aug., 1688. 

John Gordon to be Major of do. and Capt. of a Cy. 

Jas. Cambell (sic) to be Ensign to Col. Wauchope 

Archd. Carr to be Capt. -Lieut. ,, 

David Innes to be Ensign to Lt.-Col. Graham - ,,2 Sept., 1688. 

Arthur Innes to be Lieut, to Capt. Henry Hatcher, [?] ,, 17 Sept., 1688. 
Murray to be Ensign to do. - 

* This List is given in English Army Lists, and Commission Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. 
II., p. 153. Wauchope's Regt. was chiefly officered by Roman Catholics who had left the 
British Regie, in the service of the States of Holland to serve their lawful Sovereign at 
home. This Scots Corps, which was in the pay of the King of France until Nov. 1688, 
came to England in Oct. 1688, and was quartered at Clerkenwell. After the flight of 
James VII. this Regt. was sent to Woodstock and the Colonelcy was bestowed by the Prince 
of Orange on Sir David Colyear by Commission dated 31 Dec. 1688. Served at the siege of 
Cork in Dec. 1690, and in the Expedition to Brest, 1694. At the Peace of Ryswick it was 

1 On 20 April, 1688, the King wrote to the Scots Privy Council and sent " Warrant for 
a remission of slaughter to Colonel John Wauchope . . . committed when he was Capt. in 
the deceased Colonel Collier's Regt. of Foot in Dendermonde." (Warrant Book for Scotland, 
Vol. XII). Son of Wauchope of Niddrie. Had been Colonel of a Regt. in the Scots 
Brigade from 1685. Adhered to James VII. Distinguished himself in the Irish Campaign, 
1689-1691. Served as a Brigadier at the siege of Derry and commanded at Cavan in 1690. 
As Major-General he was Governor of the Castle when Athlone was besieged and taken. 
Taken prisoner, but soon exchanged. Served at the defence of Limerick during the second 
siege. It is recorded that when the capitulation of the city was found to be necessary, 
" Wauchope and Sarsfield came into the English camp to settle the heads of the proposed 
articles of surrender, and to arrange the exchange of hostages " (King James's Irish Army List, 
Vol. II., p. 794). Wauchope served with the Irish Troops in Catalonia under the Marshal 
Duke De Noailles, aud distinguished himself at the taking of Rosas (Ibid., p. 795). In 
October, 1693, Wauchope " fell gloriously fighting under the Marshal Catinat, at the great 
overthrow of the Allies in the battle of Marsaglia." Ibid. 

* Probably son of a former Colonel of same name in the Scots Brigade in Holland. 
Served previously as Capt. in Hugh Mackay's Regt. Promoted Lt.-Colonel 20 Aug. 1688. 
Killed at Walcourt village in Flanders, in an engagement with the Luxemburgers, 25 Aug. 
1689. Cannon's Records of the 16th Foot. 

' Served previously as Capt. in Mackay's Regt. Promoted Major, 20 Aug. 1688. In 
the "List of Rebels in France, 1695." See Thomson's Acts of the Parlt. of Scotland, Vol. 
IX., Aj>] ix.. p. 115. 

4 From Capt. in Col. Barthold Balfour's Regt. in Holland. Adhered to James VII. at 
and after the Revolution. 

5 The Hon. .lEneas Mackay, 2nd son of John, 2nd Baron Reay. It is evident that this 
officer purposely resigned his Comn. as Capt. in Hugh Mackay's Regt. in Holland and 
accepted a Company in Wauchope's new-raised Scots Regt. in order to be better able to 
carry out some political mission with which he had been entrusted by William of Orange. 
Soon after arriving in Scotland ./Eneas Mackay was arrested by the King's orders : 
"JAMES R. 1st May, 1688, Warrant to the Lieut.-Governor of Edinburgh Castle for 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 161 

apprehending Captain Mackay lately arrived from the United Provinces, and to keep him a 
close prisoner "( Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XII.). On the accession of the Prince 
of Orange, Mackay was released and appointed Major of the Scots Dragoons. He was instru- 
mental in detecting Lt.-Colonel Livingston's plot to carry the Scots Dragoons over to the 
enemy. Distinguished himself in the night attack on the Highland Army at Cromdale, in 
1690. Appointed Lt.-Colonel of his uncle's (Gen. Hugh Mackay's) Scots Regt. in 1691. 
Fought at Aughrim. Commanded his uncle's corps at Steinkirk, where he was wounded. 
Succeeded as Colonel of this Regt., 1 Aug. 1692. Brig. -Gen. in 1695. His constitution 
had been enfeebled by wounds he had received in action, and he d. at Bath in 1697, leaving 
issue by his wife, who survived until 1761. 

' Half our. 3rd son of John, 3rd Lord Balf our of Burleigh. Served previously as Capt. 
in Col. Balfour's Regt. in Holland. Appointed Capt. in the Scots Dragoons, 1 March, 1689. 
Major, 1 April, 1692. Out of the Regt. 7 Sept. same year. Father of Henry Balfour of 

7 Of Red House, East Lothian (Ferguson's Scots Brigade, Vol. II., p. 29). Served 
previously as Capt. in Col. Wauchope's Regt. of Foot in Holland. Appointed Colonel 
of a Regt. of Foot (late Moncrieff's) in Scotland, 29 Aug. 1693. Proceeded to Flanders 
with his Regt. in 1694. Brig.-Gen. in the Dutch Service, 16 Apr. 1704. Major-Gen, in the 
English Army, 1 Jan. 1707. Lieut.-General in the English Army, 1 Jan. 1709. Severely 
wounded at Malplaquet where he commanded four Battalions of Infantry as a Dutch Major- 
General. Attained the rank of Lieut.-General in the Dutch service before 1714 when his 
Regt. was reduced. On the breaking out of the Rebellion in Scotland in 1715, Hamilton 
joined the Earl of Mar (see Burton's Scotland) and acted as chief military adviser to that 
commander. Taken prisoner, tried, and executed, and his property confiscated to the 
Crown. Anderson's Memoirs of the House of Hamilton. 

8 Third son of General Thomas Dalyell of Binns. Served previously as Capt. in Col. 
Wauchope's Regt. in the Scots Brigade. Major of Sir David Colyear's Regt., 1 Sept. 1689. 
Lt.-Colonel of Col. Robert Mackay's Regt (the present Scots Fusiliers), 29 May, 1695. 
Killed at Blenheim where he commanded the Regt. as Bt.-Colonel. 102 bounty money to 
his widow and 2 children. See Dalton's Blenheim Roll. 

9 Son of Sir George Johnston, Bt. by a dau. of Sir Wm. Leslie, Bt. Is said to have 
served in Flanders and to have fought at the Boyne. For his share in helping his friend 
Capt. the Hon. James Campbell (brother to the tenth Earl of Argyll) to carry off the great 
heiress, Miss Mary Wharton (kinswoman to the Marquis of Wharton), with whom Campbell 
went through a form of marriage, Johnston was tried at the Old Bailey, condemned and 
executed at Tyburn, 20 Dec. 1690. See The Patrician, edited by Sir Bernard Burke, Vol. I., 
p. 275 et seq. 

10 Doubtless the Thomas Browne whowasAdjt. to Col. Alex. Colyear's Regt. in the Scots 
Brigade, 1677. 

11 " Second brother to Niddrie." Adhered to James VII. He was appointed Lt.- 
Colonel of Lord Iveagh's Regt. of Foot in King James's Irish Army by Lord Tyrconnell. 
Served all through the Irish Campaign, and afterwards fought with the Irish Brigade in the 
service of France. D'Alton's Irish Army List, Vol. II., p. 733. 

1J Does not appear in any subsequent List. One of this name was 2nd son of John 
Hatcher of Careby, Co. Lincoln. Capt. Hatcher's Comn. was evidently cancelled and Henry 
Cuningham appointed in his place. 

18 Recommissioned 31 Dec. 1688. Untraced after that date. Serving with same Regt. 
in June, 1690. 

14 Erskine. D. or left the Regt. in Aug. 1688. 

16 Promoted Capt., 21 March, 1689. Left the Regt. 19 Oct. 1693. 

16 Promoted Capt., 1 June, 1690. Out of the Regt. 1 Aug. 1693. 

17 Serving as Capt. in above Regt. in Flanders, 1695. 

18 Capt., 1 June, 1690. Serving as Capt. of the Grenadier Cy. in Flanders, 1695. 

162 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



James, Earl of Perth, J Lord High Chancellor of Scotland, 

to be Capt. and Governor of the Isle of the Bass, 

Whitehall, 26 Feb., 1685. 
Charles Maitland 2 to be Lieut, and Dep. Governor of the 

Isle of the Bass Whitehall, 

Warrant for William, Duke of Queensberry 8 to be 

Constable and Governor of Edinburgh Castle 

Commission to William, Duke of Queensberry 4 to be Capt. 

of the Company of Foot in Edinburgh Castle 

Warrant for Commission to Major Andrew White 6 to be 

Lieut.-Governor of Edinburgh Castle Whitehall, 

Commission to Major Andrew White 6 to be Lieut, of the 

Independent Cy. of Foot in Edinburgh Castle Whitehall, ,, 
John Auchmoutie 7 to be Ensign of above Company 

in do. - Whitehall, ,, 

Charles, Earl of Mar 8 to be Capt. of the Company in 

garrison in Stirling Castle - Whitehall, 30 March, 1685. 

Warrant for Commission to Capt. Archibald Stuart 9 to 

be his Majesty's Lieut.-Governor of Stirling Castle 

Commission to Capt. Archibald Stuart 10 to be Lieut, of 

the Indep. Cy. in Stirling Castle - - Whitehall, ,, 

John Erskine n to be Ensign to above Cy. in Stirling 

Castle - - Whitehall, 

Charles, Duke of Lenox and Richmond 12 to be Governor 

of Dumbarton Castle and Capt. of the Cy. of Foot 

in garrison there - Whitehall, ,, 

Warrant for a commission to Major George Arnot ls to 

be Lieut.-Governor of Dumbarton Castle - Whitehall, ,, ,, 

Commission to Major George Arnot u to be Lieut, of 

the Independent Cy. in above garrison - Whitehall, ,, ,, 

James Ramsay 16 to be Ensign to above Company 

Commission to Alexander Livingstoun 16 of Bedlorvy (sic) 

to be Deputy Governor of Blackness Castle 

Warrant for a Commission to Capt. George Barclay 17 to 

be Governor of James's Fort appointed to be built 

near Stirling Bridge- Whitehall, 2 May, 1685. 

Commission to Capt. George Barclay 17 to be Capt. of the 

Independent Cy. of Foot to be raised for garrisoning 

James's Fort appointed to be built near Stirling 

Bridge - Whitehall, 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 163 

Patrick Ronald 18 to be Lieut, to above new-raised Cy. of 

Foot for garrisoning James's Fort - Whitehall, 2 May, 1685. 

Warrant for a Commission to George, Duke of Gordon 19 
to be Constable and Governor of Edinburgh 
Castle - - Whitehall, 24 Feb., 1686. 

Commission to George, Duke of Gordon 19 to be Capt. of 

the Cy. in garrison at Edinburgh Castle - Whitehall, 

Archibald Stuart 20 (brother german to the Earl of Moray) 
to be Capt. of the Cy. in garrison at Stirling Castle 
in room of the Earl of Mar - Whitehall, 29 July, 1686. 

Sir James Hamilton 21 of Manor Elieston to be Lieut, to 
Capt. Archibald Stuart's Cy. in above garrison 

Windsor Castle, 21 Aug., 1686. 

Warrant for a Commission to Lt. -Colonel George Winra- 
ham 22 to be His Majesty's Lieut.-Governor of Edin- 
burgh Castle - - Whitehall, 31 Dec., 1686. 

John Auchmoutie 23 to be Lieut, of the Company of Foot 

in garrison in Edinburgh Castle - Whitehall, 

James Winchester 24 to be Ensign to above Company 


Commission to William, Lord Viscount Strathallan, 25 to 
be Capt. of the Cy. of Foot which is to be raised 
and put into the Castle of Inverary of which he is 
Governor - - Whitehall, 16 May, 1687. 

Sir [John] Drummond 26 of Machanie to be 1st Lieut, of 

above Company - Whitehall, ,, 

Campbell 27 of Duntroon to be 2nd Lieut, of above 

Company - - Whitehall, 

Warrant for a Commission to Lt.-Colonel Wm. Middle- 
ton K to be Lieut.-Governor of Stirling Castle during 
his Majesty's pleasure - Whitehall, 28 March, 1688. 

Commission to Lt.-Col. Wm. Middleton 28 to be Capt. of 
the Cy. of Foot in garrison at Stirling Castle 


Warrant for a Commission to Sir John Drummond 29 of 
Machanie to be Governor and Constable of Inverary 
Castle Whitehall, 7 May, 1688. 

Commission to Sir John Drummond 29 of Machanie to be 
Capt. of that Cy. of Foot lately put in garrison in 
Our Castle of Inverary - - Whitehall, 19 June, 1688. 

James Wincester 80 (sic) to be Major of the Castle of 

Edinburgh - Whitehall, 29 Nov., 1688. 

1-16 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX. All these officers had their Commissions 
renewed by James VII. on above dates. They have already been annotated. 

17 Ibid. Appointed Major of Sir Edward Hales's Regt. of Foot, 28 Nov. 1685. Lt.- 
Colonel of said corps, 3 Oct. 1686. Joint commander of Sir Donald Macdonald of Sleat's 
Regt. at Killiecrankie with that baronet's son (Diet, of Nat. Biog.). His name is given as 
Berkeley in some Lists. His parentage has never, apparently, been ascertained. He was 
knighted by James VII., and became notorious afterwards as the instigator of a deep laid 
plot to assassinate William III. Boyer, the historian of William's reign, thus refers to 
their conspiracy : " Sir George Barclay, an officer in King James's Guards, came over to 
England [in Dec. 1695], and brought with him a commission from the late King, to attack 
and seize the Prince of Orange (sic) in his winter quarters. Before him, with him, 
or after him two and twenty more of King James's officers, who had instructions to obey 


164 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Sir George Barclay, came also to England " (Hist, of William III., pp. 149-153). Two of 
the conspirators disclosed the plot, and 1,000 reward was offered for Sir George Barclay 
and other officers engaged in the design. Barclay escaped to France and was living there 
in 1698. 

18 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX. See p. 149, note 9. 

18 Ibid. Vol. X. George Gordon, 9th Earl and 4th Marquis of Huntley, created Duke 
of Gordon, 1 Nov. 1684. " In 1668, he went to France to be educated and travelled on the 
continent returning to Scotland in 1G72. In 1673 he was back in France and served with 
the French Army for two years. In 1675 he served the Prince of Orange in Flanders. 
Returned to Scotland same year. On the accession of James VII. he was appointed a Lord 
of the Treasury, a Privy Councillor, and Governor of Edinburgh Castle. K.T. 29 May, 
1687. Defended Edinburgh Castle from the middle of 1688 till 13 June, 1689. Visited 
the exiled Court at St. Germains, but was not well received. Travelled in Switzerland and 
Holland, and returned to Scotland, leading, it is said, ' a very uneasy life, being of tener a 
prisoner than at liberty.' Died at the citadel of Leith, where he resided, 7 Dec. 1716. 
Macky says : ' brave in his person, loves his country and his bottle.' " New Scottish Peerage. 

30 Ibid., Vol. XI. See p. 20, note 1. 

21 Ibid. Son of Sir Wm. Hamilton, Knt. of Manor Elieston, Co. Tyrone. A certain 
Sir James Hamilton was granted a pension by James VII. 31 Dec. 1685. See List of Pen- 
sions granted by James VII., under aforesaid date, in Cal. S.P. Dom., 1689. 

M Ibid. See p. 77, note 2. 

23 Ibid. See p. 36, note 3. 

M Ibid. Winchester. Served under the Duke of Gordon during the defence of Edin- 
burgh Castle. Appointed " Major" of said castle, 29 Nov. 1688. Under date of 19 March, 
1689, occurs this Parliamentary order : " Ordered that upon the Duke of Gordon's desire 
a safeguard be given to James Winchester, Ensign of the Castle Company, for speaking with 
Sir James Grant and Mr. Thomas Gordon in the Session House this day in presence of one 
of the members of the meeting. But to be safely sent back once this night and ane 
warrand given to the Earl of Leven and Capt. Lauder for that effect." 

" Ibid., Vol. XII. See Memoir in Part I., pp. 70-77. 

M Ibid. Only son of Sir James Drummond of Machany. Succeeded Lord Strathallan 
as Govr. of Inverary Castle, 7 May, 1688. " A decreet of forfeiture was passed against him 
in 1690 by the Scottish Parliament for his attachment to the abdicated family ; but he 
returned, and died at Edinburgh in 1707. He was father of Wm. 4th Viscount Strathallan." 

v Ibid. Untraced. 

28 Ibid. Served previously as Lt.-Colonel of Col. John Wauchope's Regt. in the Scots 
Brigade in Holland. Probably brother to Major James Middleton of Buchan's Regt. who 
had also served in Wauchope's Regt. Untraced after Dec. 1688. 

" Ibid., Vol. XIII. See note 26. 

80 Ibid. See note 24. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 165 


General Thomas Dalzell l to be Lieut.-General of all 

his Majesty's Forces in Scotland Whitehall, 30 May, 1685. 

George, Earl of Dumbarton, 2 to be Lieut.-General and 
Commander-in-Chief of all Our Forces in Scotland 

Whitehall, 2 May, 1685. 

Colonel James Douglas 8 to be Brigadier of the Horse 

and Foot in Scotland - Whitehall, 16 May, 1685. 

Colonel John Graham 4 of Claverhouse to be Brigadier 

of the Horse and Foot in Scotland - - Whitehall, 18 May, 1685. 

Colonel Hugh Mackay 5 to be Major-General of his 

Majesty's Forces in Scotland - Whitehall, 4 June, 1685. 

Wm. Drummond 6 of Cromlix to be Lieut.-General of all his 
Majesty's Forces in Scotland [in place of Lieut.- 
General Thomas Dalyell of Binns, deceased] Whitehall, 7 Oct., 1685. 

Royal Warrant to Col. James Douglas 7 to be Master- 
General of the Ordnance in Scotland ..." especially 
with the command of all his Majesty's Forces lea vied 
or to be leavied in his said Kingdome as youngest 
Lieut.-General with all the Honours, Powers, Privi- 
ledges, and other whatsoever thereunto pertaining." 

Whitehall, 26 Oct., 1685. 

Colonel John Graham 8 of Claverhouse to be Major- 
General of all his Majesty's [Horse] Forces in 
Scotland - Windsor Castle, 20 Sept., 1686. 

Commission to Sir George Monro 9 of Culcairne to be 
Major-General of all his Majesty's [Militia] Forces in 
Scotland - Whitehall, 24 Oct., 1688. 

Col. Tho. Buchan 10 to be Brigadier over all the Foot 

Windsor, 12 Nov., 1688. 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. IX. 

', 3 , , Ibid. 

5 Ibid., Vol. X. Third son of Col. Hugh Mackay of Scourie. Began his career in the 
French service as an officer in Lord George Douglas's Scots Regt. Out of this Regt. before 
July, 1666. Served at the siege of Candia in 1669, as a reduced French officer, and sub- 
sequently was reappointed Captain in Lord George Douglas's Scots Regt. In 1671, Mackay 
was sent to Scotland with fifteen other officers of his corps to recruit (Privy Council 
Register, 8 June, 1671). Fought at Seneffe 1st Aug. 1674. Succeeded Sir Wm. Bannatyne 
(p. 79) as Lt. Colonel of Alexander Colyear's Regt., 1675. Colonel of said Regt. in 1677. 
Came to England with the three Scots Regts. on the outbreak of Monmouth's Rebellion. 
Returned with the Scots Brigade to Holland. Appointed Commandant of the six British 
Regts. in the service of Holland in 1688, and accompanied these Troops to England in 
Nov. same year. He was sent to Scotland as Commander-in-Chief early in 1689. Sent 
to Ireland in 1691 and did splendid service at the siege and capture of Athlone, at the 
battle of Aughrim (where the slaughter was horrible) and at the capture of Limerick. 
Mackay was promoted Lieut. General and fell at Steinkirk, one of the most bloody battles 
on record. 

6 , 7 , Ibid. 

8 Ibid., Vol. XI. The original Commission is among the Duntrune MSS. 

Ibid., Vol. XIII. 

10 English Army Lists and Comn. Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. II., p. 200 

166 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Commission to Capt. James Campbell * of Fordie to be 
Commissary of Our Train of Artillery in Scot- 
land - Whitehall, 22 Oct., 1686. 

Royal Warrant for a gift of the Office of Master-General 
of his Majesty's Ordnance in Scotland to Colonel 
James Douglas 2 with a yearly pension of 150 
Sterling - Whitehall, 26 Oct., 1686. 

Sergeant John Stitt 8 to be Commissary of above Train 

Whitehall, 12 Nov., 1688. 
Theodore Durie, 4 a Frenchman, to be Second Engineer - - 1688]. 

r Wm. Drummond, 5 Clerk to the Artillery 1688]. 

John Slezer, 6 Captain of the Artillery Train - 1688]. 

Book for Scotland, Vol. XI. This officer might be the James Campbell who, in 
1684, was serving as 1st Lieut, to Capt. Archd. Hollo in Lord Dumbarton's Regt. and who 
had left said Eegt. before Feb. 1685. 

2 Ibid. See Memoir in Part I., pp. 78-87. 

8 Ibid., Vol. XIII. Probably the John Still, or Stitt, appointed Adjt. to the 2nd Batt. of 
the Scots Foot Guards, in July, 1689. 

4 See p. 45, note 6. 

5 Mentioned by the Earl of Balcarres, in his Account of the Affairs of Scotland, as "one of 
the discontented gentlemen " who took part in the attack on Holyrood House, Dec. 1688, 
when it was defended by Captain John Wallace. 

6 Commission, or Warrant, not forthcoming. Slezer commanded, as Captain, the Artillery 
Train which marched into England with the Scots Forces, in Oct. 1688, and his letter to 
Lt. General Douglas from " Edinburgh, 20 Nov. 1688," detailing his return march to that 
city, from Carlisle, is among the MSS. of the Duke of Leeds. On 11 Jan. 1689-90, John 
Slezer was reinstated as " Captain of the Artillery Company in Scotland and Surveyor of 
the Magazines." 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 167 



Andrew Middleton 1 of Pitgarvie to be Muster-Master- 
General of all Our Forces in Scotland - Whitehall, 30 March, 1685. 

Mathew Hamilton 2 to be Adjutant-General of all Our 

Forces in Scotland - - Whitehall, 

Warrant to Capt. George Barclay 8 to be employed in Our 
Service for the inspecting, reviewing, and exercising 
Our Forces throughout Scotland Whitehall, 2 May, 1685. 

Wm. Borthwick* to be Surgeon-Major of his Majesty's 

Forces in Scotland - - Whitehall, 24 March, 1686. 

Warrant to Sir Charles Carney B for inspecting and 
exercising his Majesty's Forces in Scotland "except- 
ing Our Royal Regt. of Horse Guards and Our Royal 
Regt. of Horse." - Whitehall, 31 Dec., 1686. 

Warrant to John Douglas 6 of Stonehouse for being his 
Majesty's Secretary at War to all his Forces in 
Scotland during his Majesty's pleasure only Whitehall, 4 May, 1688. 

James Cathcart 7 of Carbiestoun to be first and chief 

Commissary of the Musters Whitehall, 1 Oct., 1688. 

23 MAY, 1685. 

Captain Thomas Maxwell. 8 

1 Warrant Boole for Scotland, Vol. IX. See p. 54, note 10. 
Ibid. See p. 54, note 8. 
8 Ibid. See p. 163, note 17. 

4 Ibid., Vol. X. See p. 54, note 9. 

5 Ibid., Vol. XI. See p. 145, note 11. 

' Ibid., Vol. XIII. Probably Colonel John Douglas of Stonehouse, or Stenhouse, who 
md. Janet Maxwell, heiress of Carnsallock, which lady md. 2ndly William Maxwell of 
Kirkconnell, Co. Kirkcudbright. Burke's Landed Gentry. 

7 Ibid. Son of Francis of Carbiston and the lineal descendant of David Cathcart of 
Duchray, 3rd son of John, Lord Cathcart. He md. Magdalen, eldest dau. of Sir James 
Koehead, Bart, of Inverleith, by whom he had a son James, who inherited Carbiston. This 
last-named James Cathcart was appointed Capt. and Lt.-Colonel in the 1st Foot Guards, 
24 Apr. 1710. English Army Lists and Comn. Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. VI., p. 50. 

8 This distinguished soldier was sent to Scotland by James VII. in May, 1685, " to attend 
the Duke of Gordon and to be asistinge to him in the management of the Commisione of 
Liuetennosy (sic) the Kinge now sends him." (Letter from Alex. Earl of Moray to the 
Duke of Queensberry, 22 May, 1685, quoted in Hist. MSC-. Comn., Report XV., Vol. II., p. 100). 
Served previously as Capt. in Wauchope's Regt. in the Scots Brigade. Appointed Lt.-Col. 
of Col. Berkeley's new-raised Regt. of Dragoons, 17 July, 1685. Returned to London 
early in aforesaid month. Appointed Quarter-Master-General in England, 1 Jan. 1686. 
Soon after this date he entered his pedigree and obtained a Grant of Arms from the Lyon 

168 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

Office. The entry describes him as "lawful son to James Maxwell of Littlebart, which 
James was a second son of Maxwell of Kirkonell and which Kirkonell is lawfully 
descended of a second son of Lord Maxwell whose successors are now Earls of Nithsdale 
and chief of that name, bears Arg. a saltire sa. within a bordure embattled, gu. Crest, a 
stag lodged under a bush of hollin proper. Motto, Non Dormio non Dormio." (Add. MS. 
20701, Brit. Mus.). Appointed Colonel of a Regt. of Dragoons, 24 Nov. 1688. At the 
Revolution Col. Thomas Maxwell adhered to James VII. and attained the rank of Major- 
General of Dragoons in James's Army in Ireland where he served with distinction. After 
the capitulation of Limerick, he passed over to France with two Regts. of Irish Dragoons. 
He md. Jane, Duchess of Norfolk, widow of the 6th Duke, a lady of great beauty and 
accomplishments. According to an Irish historian (D' Alton) General Maxwell was killed 
at the battle of Marsaglia, in Piedmont, 1693. 



Captain Patrick Graham l to have the rank and precedency 
of a Lt.-Colonel, he being Capt. of the Company of 
Foot entertained by the Town of Edinburgh in Our 
Service - - Whitehall, 17 July, 1688. 

James, Earl of Drumlanrig, 2 to have the rank, precedency, 

and command of a Colonel of Horse - Whitehall, 19 Sept., 1688. 

Sir Charles Murray 8 to have the rank and precedency of 

a Colonel of Horse - - Whitehall, 27 Sept., 1688. 

Alex. Bruce 4 to have the rank and precedency of a 

Captain of Dragoons - Whitehall, 18 Oct., 168a 

1 Warrant Book for Scotland, Vol. XIII. See biog. notice on p. 104, note 2. 
1 Ibid. See biog. notice on p. 77, note 1. 

3 Ibid. See biog. notice on p. 103, note 7. 

4 Ibid. See biog. notice on p. 123, note?. On 5 Nov. 1688, James VII. wrote to the 
Scottish Privy Council ordering that Capt. Alex. Bruce (Capt. Lieut, of the Earl of 
Dunmore's Troop in latter's Regt. of Dragoons) be given the full pay of a Capt. of Dra- 
goons. Ibid. 






That y e petrj : (after y* dissaster at Dunbar) represented to yo r Ma ty 
& y e Comittee of Estates y e necessity of provideing a Traine of Artillery 
w ch itt was to be feared would require more time then necessity would 
pmitt, w th out w ch y e Army then leavying would proue very defectiue, 
rencountring yo r Enemy soe well prouided of one as he was, but after 
many moneths sollicitacon found nothing but obstruccons for want of 
mony to provide one at home, itt being almost an impossibility to haue one 
brought from abroad, the seas being then very full of enemies, W oh y 
petrj considering, & laying to heart what was at stake, resolued to pro- 
vide one & prjsent to yo r Ma ty att his owne charges of 20 peeces of Ordi- 
nance the least carrying a 3" shott, w ch he acquainted yo r Ma ty w' h privatly, 
entreating itt might remaine a secret vntill the day of Rendevouz at w ch 
time he promised they should be ready, Yo r Ma ties gracious answer was 
(amongst other things) y' ye only doubted of his ability in point of ffortune. 
He therevnto in all humility said y* (God willing) he would pforme his 
promise whatever should after befall him & his, w cb promise y e were 
pleased severall times in private to put him in mind of, w ch soe annimated 
him y* he extended his all & what he could vppon his creditt procure, 
& brought into y e feild about y e day aforesd 29 peeces mounted y" least 
carrying a 3 U shott, & 42 small ones carrying halfe a pound bullett y' 
men mannaged as Musketts. 

Now may itt please yo r Ma ty to know y' his ffee by Pattent is only 
500 Markes Scotch p annu", besides w ch there is noe pquiset whatsoever 
y' doth belong to him as there doth to them that comand yo r Artillery 
in cheife in England & Ireland, In consideracon thereof his prfdecesso* 
Alexander Hamilton had a pencon of 800 U sterling p annu granted him 
from yo r Ma tie9 Royall ffather of ever blessed memory. 

172 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

His humble suite therefore is y* yo r Ma ty wilbe graciously pleased 
to take y* pte of the pfj misses into consideracbn y* relates to his pfjdecesso" 
pencon & allow y e petr] what yo r Ma ty in yo' great wisdome shall Judge he 
doth deserue to y e end he may goe & put things in order there. 

And as in duty bound he shall daily pray, &c. 

Memorandum y* yo r Ma ty (at last when the Traine was neere ready) 
did w th dificulty procure an act of Parliam* for 2,000" sterling to be paid 
to y e petrj towards the furnishing of a Traine of 20 peeces of Ordinance, 
but he hath hardly receiued soe much thereof as did mount the aforesaid 
Traine w th all things necessary therevnto. . 

(Add. MS. 23114, f. 134.) 


Whitehall, 6 Dec., 1664. 

His Majestic is gratiously pleased to declare that when he divides the 
fines he will give to the petitioner two thousand pound sterlin out of the 
same, and will otherwise reward the petitioner for the remainder of his 
just pretensions. 


* The Wemyss Family Book, edited by Sir W. Eraser, Vol. II., p. 246. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 173 

ARTILLERY, 29 Nov., 1666.* 

First and chiefly that his debility of body by age, accompanied with 
frouns of fortune, hath rendred him altogether unable to performe what 
that office doeth and may require. That he hath served your Majestie 
therein in the worst of tymes faithfulie upon his oun charges . . . And 
lastlie that he hath nothing from your Majestie in this his old age to 
maintain him with, which forceth him, with your leave and favour, to 
retire to a private life (how mean soever) where he shall daily pray for 
your Majestie's long and prosperous raigne, and remaine your Majestie's 
most humble but ruined servant, 

* The Wemyss Family Book, Vol. II., p. 247. 


WEMYSS, 1685.* 

After the death of Lord Burntisland the Countess of Wemyss was 
called upon to deliver up all the guns, great or small, in the castle of 
Burntisland, to be preserved on her behalf in Edinburgh Castle. They 
were to be re-delivered to her on demand, and if any of them were made 
use of for his Majesty's service, the value of them was to be paid to the 
Countess (Warrant to Ensign John Achmoutie, dated 7 June, 1685, and 
subscribed by Queensberry, &c.). 

* Wemyss Charter Chest. 

174 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



" I Jhon Earle of Middleton doe by these freelie and heartilie 
resigne upgive and over-give in and to y r Majesties hands the offices of 
Captain generall of y r Maj. Kingdome of Scotland, and of captain and 
keeper of y r Majesties Castle of Edinbrogh granted to me by two severall 
guifts and letters patents under y r Majesties great seale of the said 
kingdome to be disposed upon at y r Majesties pleasour in all tyme 
commyng. In wittnes wherof the presents are written and signed by 

" May it please y r Majestie 
y r Majesties most fathfull 

most humble and most obedient 
subject and servant, 

" London, Jan. 5th, 1664." 
" For the Kings most sacred Majestie." 

* Lauderdale Papers, Vol. I., p. 191. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 175 



Yesternight I received yours of the 7 th of January and in it one 
from his Majesty, in which he is graciously pleased to take notice of some 
weak endeavours of mine to serve him, which as I do impute to his great 
goodness and clemency, so I cannot but be very sensible of your lordship's 
favourable representation of my poor services to his Majesty for which I 
shall ever owe to your lordship my most humble thanks. 

His Majesty commanded me, as your lordship knows, to send to your 
lordship a copy of my Commission, though I can send several, yet can I 
not send that his Majesty mentions, which is the E. of Middleton's, for 
my being Major and Captain in the kings lifeguards of foot. I gave to 
Mr. Meteken (?) your lordship's secretary, a full account of that 
business, which no doubt he will show your lordship, before this 
one come to your hands. I wrote also something of it to your 
lordship before. However I shall beseech your lordship to show His 
Majesty, that I never had any commission for that charge, nor any other 
officer of the foot as far as I know, none of the three companies here ever 
had, unless Colonel Urrey has got one since his going to London. The 
Earl of Marr never had any and I believe my Lord Duke got none. The 
liveries (?) our company uses by virtue of a " banke " beaten and pro- 
claimed with (?) drums through Edinburgh in name of the Earl of 
Middleton then High Commissioner and General, and it was in the time 
of the second session of Parliament. After that the said Earl formally 
placed the E. of Linlithgow 1. colonel & me sergeant major at Glasgow. 
Neither can I give your lordship either a more true or a larger information 
of that matter, except that Earl Middleton told me we were to have our 
Commissions from the king and that he would bring them to us at his 
next return from Court. 

So soon as I have done writing I shall bring the officers that are here 
together, and declare to them that they are not now to obey the E. of 
Middleton's orders, his Commission being recalled by his Majesty whose 
further Royal pleasure will be shortly signified to us all. I shall also this 
day intimate the same to the Castles of Dumbarton, and Stirling, and to 
the garrisons at " Kidcubright " and the Chappell. 

Yo r . lordships faithfullest servant 



15 Jan. 1664. 

* Add. MS. 23121, f. 17. (Modern Spelling). 

176 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


The Establishment of his Majesty's Forces, Officers and Souldiers, 
Horse and Foote intertained in his Kingdome of Scotland as they are to 
be payed. 

(endorsed) 8 Oct. 1667.* 



Per Diem. s. d. 

Capt. 10s. and 2 horses each 2s. - 14 

Lieut. 6s. - 10 

Under Lieut. 6s. 10 

Cornet 5s. 090 

Qr. Mr. 4s. and 1 horse 2s. - 060 

4 Corporalls each 3s - 12 

Chirurgion and mate - 050 

Clerk 4s. - 040 

4 Trumpeters each 2. 8d. 10 8 

1 Kettle Drum 3s. 030 
120 souldiers each 2s. Qd. - - - - 15 


Per Diem. s. d. 

Capt. 10s. and 2 horses each 2s. - 14 

Lieut. 6a. - 10 

Cornet 5s. - 090 

Qr. Mr. 4s. and 1 horse 2s. - 060 

4 Corporalls each 3s. - 12 

Chirurgion and mate - 050 

Clerk - 040 

4 Trumpeters each 2s. 8d. - 10 8 

1 Kettle Drum 3s. 030 

80 souldiers each 2. 6d. - 10 

* Treasury Records, Vol. I. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 177 



Per Diem. s. d. 

Colonel as Colonel - 12 

Lt. Col. as such - .-70 

Major as do. - - 5 

Qr. Mr. and Marshall in one - - 4 

Chirurgion and mate - - 5 



Per Diem. a. d. 

Capt. - 080 

Lieut. - 040 

Ensign 030 

2 Serjts. - 030 

3 Corporalls [at Is.] [3 0] 
2 Drums - - 3 
Clerk - 020 
100 souldiers each 6d. - 2 10 

The Garrisons of Edinburgh, Stirling, Dumbarton, to be as formerly, 

By his Majesty's Command. 


THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

of Nobility 
giuen to S r 
Jo : Vrrys 


Quandoquidem Nobilis et Nobis apprime dilectus 
Joannes Vrraeus Natione Scotus, Eques Auratus, Tribunus 
Militum et Prsefectus Vigiliarum in Exercitibus Serenissimi 
Regis Domini et Patris nostri pise et Augustse memorise, et 
Nostris, contra Rebelles in Regnis nostris Anglise et Scotise, 
propter strenuam Nobis naratam operam, ab ijsdem inhu- 
maniter trucidatus, quinque liberos extorres patrio solo, et 
in Germania peregrinantes reliquit : Ne dictis nobilissimi 
viri liberis fraudi sit defectus literarum de nativa Patris 
nobilitate Testimonium perhibentium quales in Cancellariatu 
Regni nostri Scotise expediri solebant, antequam nefandis 
Perduellium machinationibus et scelere Leges oppressse 
siluerunt : Nos ab ijs requisiti, post debitam inquisitionem et 
ex certa Hra" scientia, Vniversis et singulis, ad quorum arnicas 
manus has Literse pervenient, Testamur prsedictum Joannem 
Vrrseum Equitem Auratum &c. filium fuisse legitime natum 
Joannis Vrrsei antiquissimse et nobilissimse Vrrasorum familise 
de Pettsichie Principis in Provincia Abredonensi in Scotia" et 
Mariorse Camerarise ex Nobilissima et antiquissima Camerari- 
orum de Coultes familia in e^dem Provincia ortse : Ejusque 
liberos ut Nobiles omnibus ad quos se contulerint commenda- 
mus, Rogantes, ut ijsliberam Privilegiorum cum alijsNobilibus 
communium fruitionem permittere, et sestimationem suis 
Majorumque meritis conformem tribuere dignentur. Datum 
Bruxelles 31 die Octobris Anno Regni Sri decimo 1658. 

(British Museum, Add. MS. 15856, f. 89b.). 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


of Nobility 
given to Sir 
John Urry's 



Inasmuch as it is known to us that the highly es- 
teemed John Urry ; a Scotsman by birth, a noble knight, 
Captain of soldiers and Commander of the Watch in the 
armies of our most serene King, Lord and Father of pious 
and august memory, and made known to us on account of 
his strenuous exertions on our behalf against the rebels in our 
kingdoms of England and Scotland, by whom he was sav- 
agely killed; has left five children driven from their paternal 
soil and exiles in Germany : Lest to the injury of the said 
children of the noble man there may be a failing of the letters 
affirming the evidence with regard to the native nobility of 
the father, such as were wont to be set forth, in the Chan- 
cellery of our kingdom of Scotland before the laws were 
silent having been suppressed by the execrable machinations 
and the crime of rebels : We, having been requested by them, 
after having held an inquiry and out of our certain knowledge, 
To all and singular to whose friendly hands these letters may 
come, declare the aforesaid John Urry, noble knight etc. to 
have been the son, lawfully born, of John Urry of the most 
ancient and noble family of the Urrys of Pitsligo, chief in 
the county of Aberdeen in Scotland and of the Chamberlaincy 
of Mar, having originated from the most noble and ancient 
of the Chamberlaincies with the Coultes family in the same 
county : and We commend his children as noble, to all to 
whom they may have joined themselves, requesting that 
they may deem it worthy to allow to them the free enjoy- 
ment of the privileges usual with other nobles, and to con- 
cede to them the esteem conformable with their own merits 
and with those of their ancestors. Given at Brussels the 
31st day of October in the tenth year of our reign, A.D. 1658. 

s 2 

180 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 



Edinburgh, 2nd September 1668. 

The orders direct to William Cockburn under leiutennant, is as 
followes : The Lords of his Majesties Privy Councill doe hereby give 
order and command to you upon sight hereof to draw out threthie sex 
of that party of the Earle of Newburghes troupnow quartered atDumfreice, 
and with them to march into the stewartrie of Kirkudburgh towards the 
Glenkennes and uther suspect places of the said stewartry and shyre of 
Galloway, and there to make search and tryall from place to place for any 
of the rebells or excepted persons, and to perseu them wherever they can 
be found, and in case they flic to any uther place or shyre, that you follow 
and perseu them, as also to seize any person against whom you can have 
sufficient prooff to have resett or harboured them, and not given tymous 
notice therof, and that you keep correspondence with the uther parties 
commanded furth from Glasgow towards the heids of Kyle and nixt adja- 
cent places of Galloway and the heids of Clidsdale and Nithisdale ; you 
are to be carfull and vigilant in performing this order, and sie that the 
quarters quher ye come be punctually payed, certifieing you if any just 
complaints be made, the officers shall be lyable for satisfaction ; upon this 
search you are to continow till the sevent day of October nixt, against 
which day you are to give ane accompt of your diligence to the Councill. 

Acts of the Privy Council, 1667-1073, p., 124. 



(See note 6 on p. 16, Pt. II.) 

" Glasgo, July 4th at twelve o'clock at night, 1670 

" I ame glad in hearing from Capten Dundas that yowr Lordship is in 
good health, and is veri mutch satisfied, that Collinel Hwrri is coming to 
command in this place if yowr Lordship remembers my former letteres it 
was allwaayes my disyr that ther showld be mor officeres hier, wee have 
several allarmes, bot how probabil they ar is most wncertan. as for the 
bodi that is hier both of hors and foot is so ordered that I hope they shal not 
meet with ani rub, ther is on thing mor I must acqwant yowr Lordship 
with, which is ane great fair now holding in this town, therfor I have 
disyred the commanderes of the hors to tari stil with ws til it be over, it 
may be thowght that man [i] persones may com in hier promiscowsly 
pretending marckit, albeit wpon other designes, and if yowr Lordship think 
titing that they stay hier for this week I shall expect yowr answer as soon 
as possibill cane, wntill which tyme and ever I ame, My Lord, 

" Yowr Lordshipes humbil servant 


[Addressed] " For the Right Honnerabbill the Earl off Linlithgo, 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 





Colonel as Colonel of Foot - 

Lt.-Colonel as such 

Major as Major 

Qr. Mr. 

Chirurgeon and Mate - 

Marshal - 

Per Diem. 

s. d. 








3 15 


Captain, 10s. and 2 horses, each 2s. 
Lieutenant, 6s., and 2 horses, each 2s. - 
Cornet, 5s., and 2 horses, each 2s. 
Qr. Mr. 4s., and one horse at 2s. - 
3 Corporals, each 3s. 
2 Trumpeters, each 2s. 4>d. - 
Fourscore soldiers, each 2s. - 

Per Diem. 
s. d. 

10 12 8 


Lieutenant - 

2 Sergeants, each Is. 6d. 

3 Corporals, each Is. 

2 Drummers, each Is. - 

Clerk - 

100 Soldiers, each 6d. - 

Per Diem. 
a. d. 

2 10 

3 15 

20 Foot to be added to the garrison of Edinburgh 

Castle, each 6d. - - - - - 10 

* Cat. S.P. Dom., 1073-75. 

182 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


1676, February 29th. Order by William Sharpe to James Moncreif to 
pay to Captain Andrew Paterson of Dinmure, quartermaster to his Majesty's 
Troop of Guards commanded by my Lord Chancellor of Scotland, 
1,168 18s. 6d. Scots as the balance due by certain shires and in part pay- 
ment of the said troop for June and July 1669 ; with receipt for the money 

1676, March 12th. Certificate signed by Robert Mackie at Edinburgh 
Castle of the receipt out of the magazine there of seventy two carbine 
belts belonging to the Lord Chancellor's troop. 

1675-76. Entries in the Treasury Sederunt Book to Captain Paterson for 
the pay of the Lord Chancellor's troop. 18,390 8s. Scots. 


(From the original at the Register House, Edinburgh.} 

Edinburgh, the 15 Agust, 1678. 

My Lord, I thoght it may deutie to aquant your Lordship that 
I have receved ane order from My Lord Marquis of Atholl for the filling up 
of thir seven vacansies was in the troupe which by his Lordship order I 
sent ane acownt of to him, which vacansies your Lordship was pleasdtofill 
up befor you went from this, as also ane order for the thrie that was not 
receved at Linlithgow. The doubel of both I hawe sent to your Lordship 
desyring by this bearer whome I have sent expres to have your Lordships 
order anent it. My Lord in his letter heath desyred that give anie of those 
that he heath namd doe not apeer well mounted that in that case your 
Lordship or anie of your oficers present may put good men in ther pleac, 
so that if your Lordship pleas to nominat anie you pleas for to be in anie 
of ther pleac that doth not apeer of those whom my Lord heath ordered for 
befor I receve your Lordship commands I shall not desyr them to apeer 
befor the muster master, so that your Lordship would be pleasd to orderd 
what day thy may wett upon ye mustermaster to vew ther horse and 

The Lords of the Thresrie in ther precepts for the pay of the troup for 
the last thrie months heath alowd no pay for anie of the oficers servants nor 
for non of those was excepted aganst at the muster at Linlithgow, since 
that muster ; for that blank that is in the list my Lord heath sent doune, is 
for on whoe is ane relatione of Lachops and was recomended to his Lord- 
ship when hee was in the West as a good man and well principeld, but my 
Lord heath forgot his nam and orderd me to inquyr at Gavin Murhead 
whoe will tell, whom I have not seen. My Lord lykways wrets that he 
will indevor to satisfie that dept owen to the Earel of Middleton at Merte- 
mis. What order your Lordship shall pleas to command me shall be obyd so 
fare as is in the poureof, my Lord, your Lordship mosthumbel and obliged 


THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 183 


These are to certify that in the time I had command of his Majesty's 
Forces in Scotland, against the rebells that were then in armes, I did direct 
and authorize the Lord Melvill to send propositions to the rebells, and 
receive some from them, in order to laying downe their armes and sub- 
mitting to the King's mercy. In witness whereof I have set my hand and 
scale att London this 10th day of June 1680. 

* Melville Papers, edited by Sir Win. Eraser, Vol. II., p. 27. 


(Miscellany of the Maitland Club. Vol. III., p. 73 and p. 79.) 


Per Diem. 

s. d. 

Capt. 16s. and 2 horses each 2s. - 1 

Lieut. 8s. do. - 12 

The other Lieut, as much 12 

Cornet 7s. and 2 horses each 2s. - 11 

Quarter Master 6s. and 1 horse at 2s. 080 

4 Corporalls each 4s. - 16 

Chyrurgeon and Mate - 050 

4 Trumpetts each 2s. 8d. - - 10 8 

1 Kettle Drummer - - 3 

Clerk 040 
Ninety nine souldiers (the pay of one of the 
former 100 being allowed in part for 
making up a Fond for the Artillery) each 

at 2s. 6d. - 12 7 6 

17 9 2 


Per Diem. 

s. d. 

Captain - - - 8 

Lieut. - - - - 4 

Ensign - - 3 

3 Serjts. each Is. Gd. 4 

3 Gunners each Is. 6d. 
3 Corporalls each Is. 
2 Drummers each Is. 
Scrivener - 
Chaplain - 

One hundred and eight centinells each at Gd. - 2 14 
To the Gunsmith 10 St. quarterly - - 2 4 

14 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


1674, October 21st. Testament dative of Sir William Ballantyne, 
who died in .... 167 . . given up by Martha Ballantyne, spouse to James 
Somerville, younger of Drum, only Executrix dative qua creditrix for a 
sum of 21 sterling borrowed by him from her, and the interest due there- 
upon since 30th March 1669, and for the expenses of confirmation. 

His Estate is valued to 300, and consists of his library in Scotland 
worth 120 Scots, his plenishing and furnishing in Holland and body 
clothes etc. worth 180 Scots. Debts due 321 Scots, and so the debts 
exceed the goods. 

Confirmed as above Mr. Robert Pitcairne writer in Edinburgh, 
cautioner. (Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 75.) 


1705, March 22nd. Testament Testamentar of Dame Janet Balvaird, 
widow of Sir Alexander Thomsone, knight, who died in ... 1705, given 
up by herself on 28th December 1703, and by Sir John Hay of Alderstoun, 
as her only Executor. 

The Estate is valued to 655 14s. Qd., and consists of the plenishing 
and body clothes, with a pair of gold bracelets, four rings and silver plate. 

There was due to her 513 6s. 8d. by the said Sir John Hay. 

She was due 155 6s. 8d. being rent of her dwelling house, and fees to 

Her Testament is dated at the Canongate, 23rd December 1703, and 
in it she appoints the said Sir John Hay her sole Executor, whom she 
directs to decently inter her in her husbands tomb in Glasgow. And she 
appoints her Executor to pay certain legacies which are contained in a 
Bond granted by him and Sir George Suttie of Balgoun, of this date. 

Confirmed as above, Thomas Hay, one of the under clerks of 
Session, cautioner. (Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 82.) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 185 


1674, December 18th. Testament dative of Colonel William Urrie, in 
the city and parish of Glasgow, who died in .... 167 . . given up by John 
Murray of Touchadam, as Executor dative qua creditor, for a debt of 
6,000 merks and another 1,000 merks of penalty due by the defunct to him. 

The Estate is valued to 666, being his plenishing and habiliments. 

There was due to him 3,333 6s. 8d. by the magistrates and town 
council of Glasgow. 

Confirmed as above, Archibald Lament of that Ilk, cautioner. 
(Glasgow Testaments, Vol. 37.) 


1699, January llth. Testament dative of Lieutenant Colonel George 
Winraham, who died in March 1698, given up by George Winraham of 
Eyemouth as having right by Assignation from the defuncts nearest of 

His Estate is valued to 542, and consisted of ready money, his 
furniture, and his armour, swords, pistols and horse graith and furniture, 
which last were valued at 60 Scots. There was due to him 6,008 6s. 8d. 
made up of Bonds and interest thereupon due by Cornelius Turnbull, 
merchant, and Henry Wylie, merchant, Mr. John Murray, elder, advocate, 
and Dr. Rule, younger, William Hapburn of Beinstoun and Robert Hep- 
burn of Whytburgh, Lord Boyne, William Nisbet of Dirleton, James 
Winraham and Archibald Cockburu, the Laird of Mortonhall, and Thomas, 
Henry, John and William Robertson. 

He was due 8,860, including 1,200 to the representatives of Sir 
Magnus Prince, 1,200 to Mr. William Wishart, minister at Leith, 200 to 
Lilias Hamilton, widow of Captain Johnston, 6,000 to Patrick Johnston, 
merchant, and 60 to Charles McCarnoke his servant. 

Confirmed as above, George Hume of Whitefield, cautioner. 

There is an Eik to the above Testament on 13th July 1699, of 
896 13s. 4d with certain interest as the half of a larger sum due by the 
deceased Alexander Nisbet of Craigentinny and William Nisbet of Dirle- 
ton, his son, to the defunct and Anna Winraham, Lady Wodmylne, his 
sister. (Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 80.) 

186 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


1687, November 28th. Testament Testamentar of John Windram, 
Lieutenant Colonel to his Majesty's regiment of foot guards, who died in 
. . . 1687, given up by himself on 8th August 1687 and by George Windram, 
his eldest lawful son. 

His Estate is valued to 400, being a horse and his furniture, and 
the plenishing of his house. 

There was due to him 3,454, including 370 8s. Qd. by the repre- 
sentatives of the deceased Walter Scott of Langhop, 270 13s. 4>d. out of 
the estate of Nicolson, 247 by major Robert Keith, 1,000 merks and 60 
by Lieutenant William Hay, 1,447 by Captain Charles Straittoun, 200 
merks by Lady Woodmylne, 140 by the deceased Joseph Johnston of 
Hilton, and 120 by David Oswall of East Barnes. 

He was due 9,333 6s. 8d. including 9,000 merks due to Mr. William 
Lauder, in terms of his Contract of Marriage with Rachel Windram, the 
defunct's daughter, and 5,000 merks due to George Monteith, merchant, in 
terms of his Contract of Marriage with Katharine Windram, also daughter 
to the defunct. 

His Testament is dated at Edinburgh 8th August 1687, and in it he 
appoints George Windram, his eldest son, his sole Executor, and directs him 
to pay the sums contained in the Bond of Provision made to his brothers 
and sisters. Witnesses, Mr. George Arnott, writer in Edinburgh, and 
George Urquhart, servitor to James Windram, W. S. 

Confirmed as above, Mr. Thomas Aickman, W. S., cautioner. 

There is an Eik to the above Testament on 3rd November 1691 of 
16,080 due by the representatives of the deceased Alexander Inglis of 
Ingliston. (Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 78.) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 187 


1697, November 19th. Testament Dative of Captain Robert Straton, 
brother german to Alexander Straton of that Ilk, who died in 
November, 1674, given up by Charles Straton, son lawful to the defunct, 
and only Executor dative qua creditor to him in respect of a debt of 
1,000 merks, due by the defunct in a Bond dated 24th June 1654, in which 
his said brother and John Gardyne of Satone were cautioners to Mr. 
David Carnegie, minister at .... and which debt the said Executor 
acquired by Assignation extending now to 1,046 13s. 4d. 

His estate is valued to 1,485, being a debt due to him by the deceased 
Sir Hary Nisbet of Craigentinnie. 

Confirmed as above, Alexander JafFray, servitor to Mr. Thomas Gordon, 
writer in Edinburgh. (Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 75.) 


1710, March 14th. Testament Dative of Lieutenant David Straiton, in 
the regiment of Foot lately commanded by the deceased Colonel Archibald 
Row, who died abroad in ... 17 ... given up by Captain Alexander and 
Captain Henry Straiton, brothers german to the defunct, and only Execu- 
tors to him as nearest of kin. 

His Estate consists of arrears of pay due to him by her Majesty's 
Government, being 88 14s. sterling. 

Confirmed as above, Captain Charles Dumbreck* of the City guard of 
Edinburgh, cautioner. (Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 84.) 

* Appointed Cornet in Lord Cardross's Dragoons in 1689. Capt.-Lieut. to Colonel 
Eobert Mackay's Eegt. 3 Sept. 1695. Adjt. to the Scots Fusiliers 28 April, 1697. Served 
at Blenheim and received 12 Bounty. D. 31 Oct. 1717 as Capt. of the City Guard of 
Edinburgh. There are some laudatory verses to his memory in Scolish Elegiac Verses 
(1842), pp. 216-217. 


1710, June 15th, Testament Dative of Dame Christian Hamilton, 
widow of Sir Mungo Murray of Blebo, who died in Edinburgh in February, 
1710, given up by Margaret Hamilton, Lady Bangour, elder and Edmond 
Reid, musician in Edinburgh, for himself and his wife Mary McMoran, only 
Executors dative qua creditors to the defunct in respect of a decreet 
obtained by the said Lady Bangour against Sir John Murray, eldest lawful 
son of the deceased Sir Mungo Murray of Blebo, and Mrs. Henreta Murray 
his sister, and Francis Cockburne, servitor to the Earl of Orkney, her 
husband, for 61 12s. Scots due by the defunct to her, and for other debts 
which have been acquired by the said Mary McMoran. 

Her estate is valued to 276, including 20 sterling due by the 
Commissioners of the Equivalent. 

Confirmed as above, William Burton, wright in Edinburgh, cautioner. 
(Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 84.) 

188 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 


1694, March 12th. Testament Dative of Major John Montgomery, 
second lawful son of Alexander, Earl of Eglington, who died in ... 168 . . 
given up by Dame Jean Gibsone, his lady as only Executrix under reserva- 
tion of her rights by her Contract of Marriage and his Disposition of all 
his goods to her. 

His estate is valued to 453 6s. 8d. consisting of a horse, and his 
furniture, and plenishing and furniture of the house. 

There was due to him 1,032 including sums by Colonel Buchan, and 
others liable for the arrears of his pay. 

He was due 10,000 to his widow in terms of their Contract of Marriage, 
So the debts exceed the goods. 

Confirmed as above, William Mitchell, tailor in the Canongate, cautioner. 
(Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 80.) 


Testament dative of Captain Thomas Winraham, lawful son of the 
deceased Sir George Winraham of Liberton, one of the Senators of the 
College of Justice, who died in November 1689, given up by Mr. George 
Arnot, writer in Edinburgh, in name of Lieutenant-Colonel George Winra- 
ham, and Anna Winraham, Lady Woodmylne, brother and sister german to 
the defunct and only executors dative to him by Decreet of the Commissaries 
of Edinburgh under protestation by Lilias Hamilton, widow of the defunct, 
for security of her whole provisions contained in her Contract of marriage, 
and assignation made by him since then. 

His inventory extends to 12,486 6s. 8d. and consists of debts due to 
him, &c., among the debtors being James Arnot of Woodmylne, George 
Winraham of Eyemouth, Lady Woodmylne and Lieut.-Colonel George 

Confirmed 8th February 1690 ; cautioners, George Winraham of Hay- 
mouth, and Patrick Johnstoun, merchant in Edinburgh. 

(Register of Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 79.) 

Testament dative ad non executa of Captain Thomas Winraham, who 
died in ... 1689, not executed in his principal confirmed Testament by 
the deceased Colonel George Winraham, his brother german, one of the 
two executors confirmed to him on 8th February, 1690, and now given up 
by George Winraham of Eymouth who is only executor dative as having 
right by assignation from the nearest of kin of the said defunct. 

The estate given up amounts to the sum of 3,099 3s. 4d., consisting of 
debts owing to the defunct, being part of those contained in the former 
Testament, not yet recovered, and adding Mr. James Winraham of 
Murray es. 

Confirmed 1st December, 1699 ; David Burnet, merchant burgess of 
Edinburgh, cautioner. (Ibid., Vol. 81.) 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 189 


1700, September 2nd. Testament Dative of J ames Douglas, eldest lawful 
son of the deceased Lieutenant James Douglas of Skirleing, who died in ... 
given up by Colonel George Hamiltoun, tutor to William and Mrs Margaret 
Douglas brother and sister german to the defunct and only Executors 
dative decerned to him. His Estate consists of a debt due to him by the 
deceased Robert Colvill writer in Edinburgh, of 4,000 merks, being the 
rents of the lands and barony of Skirling uplifted by the said Robert 
Colvill as his factor, and 520 due by Laurence Ord and William Oliphant 
merchants, with interest to the said deceased Lieutenant-General Douglas 
designed in the Bond Colonel James Douglas, dated 14th August 1685, and 
registered in the Books of Council and Session 1st October 1685, amount- 
ing in all to 3,186 13s. 4<d. No division. 

Confirmed as above, Colonel George McGill, cautioner. (Register of 
Edinburgh Testaments, Vol. 81.) 

190 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

(Add. MS. 15856, fol. 696.) 

Carolus &c Serenissimis &c Salutem. Cum fidelis atque nobis apprime 
dilectus Subditus noster Nobilis ac, Strenuus Vir D. Gulielmus Drumond 
Excubiaruru in Exercitibus nostris pedestribus Prsefectus Gratis, contra 
conjuratas perduellium nostrorum copias fortiter militants (sic) quam 
plurima animi intrepidi et intemeratse tidei, singularis prudentise et peritiae 
bellicse nobis edidirit (sic) specimina, ac de nobis optimtf meritus sit ; Et 
ad virtutem exercendam, aliorum Principum militise nomen addicturus 
sit. Eundem omnibus et singulis ad quorum Ditiones Jurisdictionesve 
pervenerit etiam atque etiam commendamus et rogamus ut ipsi omnibus 
humanitatis benevolentise et patrocinii officiis adesse velint, eidemque 
sestimationem meritis suis conformem tribuentes, ipsius studia promovere 
dignentur ; Ac insuper ipsi, cum famulis equis armis coelerisque rebus suis 
terrS marive, ultro citroque commeandi eundi transeundi redeundi et 
commorandi tutum et liberam faciant potestatem ; Quo sicuti rem nobis 
gratissimam fecerint, ita nos data occasione parem gratiam rependemus. 
Datum Colonise Agrippinse 17 August!, 1655. 

* See footnote on p. 191. 


Charles &c. To the most Serene &c. Salutation. Since our faithful 
and especially esteemed the undermentioned renowned and capable man 
Lord William Drummond, honorary commander of the Guard of Infantry 
in our Army, bravely serving against the combined forces of our enemy, 
has shown us very many examples of fearless faithfulness, of undaunted 
courage, of exceptional prudence, & of military skill, & from us has merited 
most highly ; And since for the exercising of his valour he is about to be 
enrolled in the military services of other Princes, the same we perpetually 
commend to all and singular to whose kingdoms or jurisdictions he may 
come & we ask that they may be willing to assist him with all favours of 
humane kindness & protection, showing to the same a like esteem of his 
merits, & that they may deem his endeavours worthy to be encouraged. 
And moreover that they may give him together with his servants, his 
horses, his arms, & his body-guard & his goods, hither & thither, in going 
or coming, by land or by sea, free and secure facilities of crossing over or 
returning, and of sojourning. Wherefore, inasmuch as they do us this 
great favour, so we, when the opportunity shall occur will repay an equal 
favour Dated at Cologne, 17 August, 1655. 

THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 191 


Carolus &c Ser 18 &c Cum fidelis atque apprim6 nobis dilectus subditus 
noster Nobilis ac Strenuus Vir D. Thomas Dalyell Peditum Locumtenens 
Generalis in Exercitibus nostris contra conjuratos &c ut supra. 

* Passport to assist the bearer and his retinue, when travelling from Cologne to the 
Kingdom of Poland to join the Army of Prince Radzivill, to whom he had a special letter 
of recommendation from Charles II. Drummond's original " Passe " is lost ; the MS. at 
the Brit. Museum being only a copy. Dalyell's " Passe " is among the family papers at 
Binns, and has been printed with a translation by the Hist. MSS. Commission, Report IX 
Pt. II., p. 235. 


Charles &c . . . Dalyell, holding the position of General of Infantry 
in our army against the combined &c. As above. 


Through the tender mercy of our God ; whereby the dayspring from on 
high hath visited us, to guide our feet into the way of peace ; by the grace 
of our God glorious in Trinity, We the Great Lord Tsar and Grand Duke 
Alexis Michailovich of all the Great, Little and White Russia Autocrat, of 
Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, 
Tsar of Siberia, Lord of Pleskov, and Grand Duke of Lithuania, of 
Smolensk, Tver, Volhynia, Podolia, Ugorsk, Perm, Vyatka, Volgarien and 
others, Lord and Grand Duke of Novgorod in the low country, of 
Tchernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozersk, Oudorsk, 
Obdorsk, Kondinsk, Vitebsk, Mstislavl, and Commander of all the northern 
counties, and Lord of the country of Iversk, of the Tsars of Kartalinsk 
and Georgia, and of the country of Kabada, and of the Dukes 

192 THE SCOTS ARMY, 1661-1688 

of the mountain tribes and Circassia, and of many other Dominions 
and Countries in the East, West and North from Father and Grandfather 
Heir and Lord and Possessor to Our Beloved Brother, the Great Lord 
Charles the Second, by the grace of God King of England, Scotland, 
France and Ireland and others, loving greetings. In the last 7182 year, on 
the 23rd of July You Our Beloved Brother the Great Lord, Your Royal 
Majesty wrote to Us Great Lord to Our Imperial Majesty in Your letter that 
two subjects of Your Royal Majesty the lieutenant general Thomas Daliel 
and the major general William Drummond were desirous to come back to 
Your Own Kingdom together with the goods they have got at wars by their 
sword under Our Imperial Majesty's colours. And let it be done by Us, 
the Great Lord, Our Imperial Majesty, to the pleasure of Our Beloved 
Brother, the Great Lord, Your Royal Majesty. Therefore, We, the Great 
Lord Our Imperial Majesty declare by Our Imperial Majesty's letter to 
You, Our Beloved Brother, the Great Lord, Your Royal Majesty that there 
came to Us, the Great Lord, Our Imperial Majesty in order to be in Our 
service those two above mentioned subjects of Your Royal Majesty, the 
lieutenant general Thomas Daliel and the major general William Drum- 
mond. And being with Us, Our Imperial Majesty, in Our country, they 
did serve Us, Our Imperial Majesty, and stood against our enemies, and 
fought bravely, and led in battles the soldiers who were under them in 
their regiment, drilled them, and managed and performed everything 
rightly as it becomes noble commanders, gentlemen by birth. And We, the 
Great Lord, Our Imperial Majesty, rewarded them for their true service, 
and promoted the lieutenant general Thomas Daliel to general, and the 
major general William Drummond to lieutenant general, because they 
deserved the honours for their service. And also for the same service 
they were granted the salary from Our Imperial Majesty, the allowances 
and the pecuniary recompense according to their merits. And conformably 
to the letter of Our Beloved Brother, the Great Lord, Your Royal Majesty, 
We, the Great Lord, Our Imperial Majesty gave order to let those above 
mentioned generals go from the Russian Kingdom of Our Imperial Majesty 
to You, Our Brother., the Great Lord, and Your Royal Majesty. In testi- 
mony of their true service they were given the letters of Our Imperial 
Majesty with Our great broad seal. Written in Our Imperial Palace, in the 
Imperial Capital Moscow, on the 3rd of February in the year 7183 from 
the creation of the world. 




Memorandum. Names given in italics refer to Officers on the English, Establishment 
who were sent to Scotland on Special Service. 

Airlie, James Ogilvy, 2nd Earl of, 12, 48, 63, 
64, 110, 136, 142. 

Alexander, Charles, 18. 

, Lt.-Col. James, 15. 

, John, 151. 

Allen, John, 159. 

Anger, Edward, 145. 

Angier, Paul, 95. 

Annandale, James Johnstone, 2nd Earl of, 
48, 68. 

, William Johnstone, 3rd Earl of, 142. 

Areskin. See Erskine. 

Armstrong, Sir Thomas, 121. 

Arnold, William, 96. 

Arnot, George, 10, 37, 39 bis, 162 bis. 

, James, of Fernie, 113, 127. 

Mungo, 95. 

Major William, 53, 55, 95. 

Ashmole, Charles, 102. 

, John, 102. 

Atholl, John Murray, 2nd Earl and 1st Mar- 
quis of, 6, 48, 61, 62, 182. 

Auchmoutie, Charles, 26. 

, John, 36, 162, 163 ; Warrant to, 173. 

, Patrick, 24, 147, 148. 


Baillie, ( ), 82. 

, Alexander, 83. 

, John, of Poikmal (sic), 122, 144. 

Baily, Cornet John. See Baillie. 

, Surgeon John, 30, 147. 

Baitson. See Beatson. 

Balcarres, Colin Lindsay, 3rd Earl of, 135. 

Balfour, David, 95. 

, Henry, 159. 

, John, 113, 115, 127, 154, 155. 

Ballantyne, Sir William. See Bannatyne. 

Bannatyne, Sir William, 52, 79, 80, 184. 

Bannerman, John, 151. 

Barclay, Andrew, 151. 

, Charles, 102, 151. 

, George, 162 bit, 167. 

, William (Earl Marischal's Troop), 


.William (Lord Dumbarton's Regi- 
ment), 151. 

Bean, David, 160. 

Beatson, David, 122, 123, 144, 145. 

Belford. See Balfour. 

Bell, John, Elder (Earl of Mar's Regiment), 

114, 115, 133, 154, 156. 

, John, Yr. (Earl of Mar's Regiment), 

115, 154. 

John (Lord J. Douglas's Regiment), 


Berkeley, Charles. See Barclay. 

Bethune, George, 95. 

Bien. See Bean. 

Blair, Laird of. See Blair, William. 

, Sir Adam, Yr., of Carbery, 111, 135, 

142, 144. 

itatrick, 145. 

, William, of Blair, 100. 

Borthwick, Lt.-Col. William, 15, 21. 

, Surgeon William, 53, 115, 125, 154, 


Boyne, Laird of. See Ogilvy, Patrick. 

Brisbane, Matthew, 8, 141. 

Brown, John, 159. 

Thomas, 159. 

Bruce, Alexander, 122, 144 bis, 168. 

Andrew, of Earl's Hall, 110, 135, 


David, of Clackmanan, 95, 113, 135, 


, Major George, 7, 70. 

, Ensign George, 114, 134. 

, Henry, 115, 154, 156. 

John, 113,114, 134, 154. 

, Lieut. Robert, 95. 

, Ensign Robert (Lockhart's Regi- 
ment), 95. 

, Ensign Robert (Dumbarton's Regi- 
ment), 151. 

, Sir William, 53. 

Brullehau. Augustin Joseph, 159. 

Buccleuch and Monmouth, James Scott, Duke 
of. See Memoir in Part I., pp. 52-59. 
Part II., 46 Ins, 47; certificate by, 183. 

Bucham. See Buckholme. 

Buchan, ( ), 82. 

, George, 156. 

, James, 155 bis. 

, Thomas, 115, 154, 155, 165. 

, William Erskine, 8th Earl of, 141. 

Buckam. *.* Buckholme. 

Buckholme, George, 7, 74, 141. 

Burnett, William, of Barns, 113, 114, 130, 



Cairnes, Alexander, 114, 132, 154. 

Cairney. See Carney. 

Caithness, Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy, 

Earl of, 108. 
Campbell, ( ), 108. 
......... , ( ), of Duntroon, 163. 

......... , Alexander, 108. 

......... , Archibald, of Inveraw, 108. 

......... , George, 65. 

......... , James (Lord James Douglas's Regi- 

ment), 102. 

......... , James (Wauchope's Regiment), 159, 


......... , James, of Fordie, 166. 

.......... Sir James, of Lawers, 108 bis. 

......... , John, o! Airds, 108. 

......... , Joa, 102. 

Carnegie, James, of Finhaven, 22. 
......... , Robert, Lord, 48, 78. 

Carney, Sir Charles, 145, 147, 167. 
Carnwath, John Dalzell, 5th Earl of, 148. 
Carr, Archibald. See Kerr. 
......... , Charles. See Kerr. 

......... , Henry. See Kerr. 

Carse, Sir Mark, 110, 111, 135, 142. 
Carstairs, Arthur, 151. 
.......... William, 100. 

Cathcart, James, of Carbiestoun, 167. 
Charteris, Robert, 95, 154, 155. 
......... William, 147. 

Charters. See Charteris. 
Chawell, Robert, 102. 
Cleland, John, 135, 142, 143. 
.......... William, 20, 105, 122 bis, 144. 

Clerke, Claud, 95. 

Cockburn, John, 136, 142. 

......... .Major William, 5,65 ; his epitaph. 66: 

instructions to, 180. 

Colinion, Robert, 147. 
Colt, John, 156. 
Cornewall, Henry, 119. 
Cramond, Patrick, 57. 
Crauford, Major Hugh, 57. 
Crawford, Henry, 156. 
......... , Thomas, 95. 

Creichton, Francis, 136 Us, 142 
.......... John (Foot Guards), 25. 

......... , John (Scots Dragoons), 106, 122, 144. 

Crichton, Francis. See supra, 
.......... James, 147. 

......... , John, 155. 

.......... William, 18, 147. 

Cuningham, Alexander, 151. 
.......... William, 151. 

Cunningham, Henry, 159, 
Cunyngham, Adam, 151. 

Curror, Lt.-Col. George \ 

ci *-i tr L I * -A 

......... , Sir George, Knt. J 

J OW. 


Dalhousie, William Ramsay, 3rd Earl of, 113, 

Dalmahoy, Charles, 22. 

, James, 22, 147. 

, John, 6, 141. 

.William, 65. 

Dalyell, James. See Dalzell. 

, John, 159. 

, General Thomas, of Minna. See 

Memoir in Part I., pp. 17-28, 60-66 ; 

Part II., 46 quinqu, 47, 48, 49, 52, 55, 

82, 83 ; his " Articles of War," 84-94 ; 

122, 144, 165 ; his Pass, 191. 
Dalzell, Francis, 55. 

, James, 148, 149, 155. 

John (aftds. Sir John, bt. of Glenae), 

100, 113, 114, 126, 164. 

, Hon, John, 95. 

, Lieut. John, 128, 154. 

Sir Robert, bt., of Glenae, 100, 


, Ensign Robert, 114, 126, 154. 

, Genl. Thomas of Binns. See Dalyell. 

Davidson, Thomas, 151. 

, William, 28, 147. 

Defour, John, 151. 

Dewlie, Mathew, 76. 

Dick, Capt. Andrew, 70. 

Dobie, Robert, 22, 147. 

Douglas, Alexander, 141. 

Ensign Archibald, 25, 147, 149. 

, Lt.-Col. Archibald, 151. 

, Qr.-Mr. Archibald, 136, 142. 

, George (Foot Guards), 148 bit. 

, George (Lord Dumbarton's Regi- 
ment), 152. 

, Lord James, 102. 

, Sir James, of Kelhead, 135. 

, Ensign James, 148. 

, Lt-Genl. the Hon. James. See 

Memoir in Part I., pp. 78-87 ; Part 
II., 30, 95, 147, 165 bit, 166. 

, John, of Stonehonse, 167. 

, Corporal John, 59. 

, Joseph, 18. 

, Marquis of, James Douglas, 99. 

, Hon. Robert, 3. 

, Ensign Robert, 96. 

, Thomas (brother to the Laird of 

Cavers), 113, 130, 154, 165. 

, Lord William, 135, 136, 142. 

Major William, 144. 

, Adjt. William, 102. 

Qr.-Mr. William, 76 bit. 

, Corporal William, 76. 

Cornet William, 136, 142. 

Drnmlanrig, James Douglas, Earl of, 48, 76, 
135, 142, 168. 

Drummond, Major Harry, 57. 
, Henry, 122, 144, 145. 



Drummond cant. 

, Ensign John, 95. 

, Hon John, of Lundin, aftds. Earl of 

Melfort, 21, 36 */*, 42, 43, 47. 

, Sir John, of Machanie, 99, 163 ter. 

, Lieut. William (Ballantyne'a Com- 
pany), 79. 

, William (Artillery Commissary), 


, Lt.-Genl. William of Cromlix, aftds. 

Viscount Strathallan. See Memoir in 
Part I., pp. 70-77 ; Part II., 44 bis, 
46 bit, 48, 57, 163, 165 ; his Pass, 190 ; 
translation of the Czar Alexis's letter 
in favour of, 191-2. 

Dumbarton, George Douglas, 1st Earl of. 
See Memoir in Part I., pp. 67-69 ; Part 
II., 165. 

Dundas, Henry 105, 122. 

.James, 122, 144, 145. 

, William, 18 bit, 20. 

Dundasse. See Dundas. 

Dundee, John Graham, Viscount of. See 
Graham of Claverhouse. 

, John Scrymgeour, Earl of, 48, 74. 

Durie, Robert, 55, 95. 

Dury, Theodore (Second Engineer), 44, 166. 


Eglinton, Alexander Montgomery, Earl of, 


Elliott, John, 154. 
Elphinstone, Richard, of Calderhall, Yr., 99. 

, Sir Thomas, of Calderhall, 53. 

Ennerwick, William, 102. 

Erroll, John Hay, 12th Earl of, 99. 

Erskine, Sir Charles, of Cambo, bt., 31, 36. 

, Charles, 159. 

, George, 31. 

, John, 37, 114, 162. 


Farquharson, Charles, 156. 

Fendraught, Lewis Crichton, 4th Visct., 149. 

Ferguson, Robert, 76. 

Fleming, Hon. Charles (son of the Earl of 

Wigton), 113, 115, 125. 
, Hon. William (afuls. 6th Earl of 

Wigton), 36, 83. 

Fletcher, James, of Cranston, 135, 142. 
Forester, David, 159. 
Forrester, James Baillie, Lord, 51. 
Foules. See Fonlis. 
Foulis, Henry, 100. 

, James, of Colinton, Yr., 65. 

Fountain, James, 102. 

Fountaiue. See Fountain. 

Fraser, William (eldest son to the Master of 

Saltoun), 114, 129. 


Gairdner, James (Gunner), 41. 
Garioch, David, 144. 

William, 115, 154. 

Gaurden. See Gordon. 
Gordon, George, 151. 

, George, 1st Duke of, 163 bit. 

, James, 65. 

i John (Lord Dumbarton's Regt.), 151. 

, Capt. John (Wauchope's Regt.), 159, 


Lieut. John (Do.), 159 bis. 

Walter, 102. 

Graeme, George, 151. 

Graham, ( ), 169. 

, David (aftds. 2nd Viscount Dundee), 

111, 135 bit, 142. 

, Henry (Wauchope's Regt.), 159, 160. 

Henry (King's Regt. of Horse), 142. 

Lieut. James (Wauchope's Regt.), 

, Lieut. James (Lord James Douglas'i 

Regt.), 102. 

, Qr.-Mr. James, 110. 

, John, of Claverhouse (Viscount Dun- 
dee), Introduction xxiv., 110, 135, 142, 
165 bit. 

, John, of Inchbrakie, 104. 

, Lieut. John, 95, 100. 

, Patrick, of Inchbrakie, 104, 168. 

, , of do, Yr., 156. 

Cornet Robert, 110. 

, Robert, of Morphie, 135, 142. 

Thomas, 141. 

William, 111, 135 lit, 142, 143. 

Grant, George, 31. 

, James, 151. 

, John, 169. 

Griffith, Henry, 119. 

Gurden. See Gordon. 

Halket, Sir Charles, of Pitfirran, bt., 95. 

, James (aftds. Sir James), 49, 82. 

Halton, Laird of. See Hatton. 
Hamilton, Alexander, 27, 147, 149. 

, Gavin, 159. 

Lord George (aftds. Earl of Orkney), 


, George (Dumbarton's Regt), 151. 

, George (Wauchope's Regt.), 159. 

, Sir James, of Manor Elieston, 163. 

, John, 59. 

, Mathew, 53, 167. 

, Patrick, 100. 

, Sir Thomas, of Preston, 50. 

, Capt. Thomas, 30, 147. 

, Ensign Thomas, 147. 

William Douglas, 3rd Duke of, 48,50- 



Hatcher, Henry, 159. 

Hatton, Laird of. See Maitland, Charles. 

Hay, Hon. David, 8, 9, 141. 

Hon. James, 72. 

, Lieut.-Col. John, of Barro (Elder), 


Capt. John (Yr.), 20, 27, 147. 

, Cornet John, 99. 

Lewis, 145. 

, Patrick, 151. 

William, of Aberlady, 26, H7, 149. 

Haye, James, 102. 

Hayning-Eiddell. See Kiddell. 

Henderson, James (Earl of Dundee's Troop), 


, James (Foot Guards), 149. 

, Kobert, 95. 

Hey ford, Ant., 119. 

Holborn, Charles, 159. 

Holmes, George, 143. 

Home, ( ), of Wedderburn, 78. 

, David, of Woolstruther, 110, 135. 

, George, of Ford, 9, 28, 102, 141. 

James, 5th Earl of, 110. 

Hume, George. See supra. 

Sir James, knt., 78. 

, Patrick, 79. 

Humes. See Hume. 

Ingleis, James, 68. 

Inglis, ( ). See Inglis, Peter, 

, Capt. John (Earl of Airlie's Troop), 


, Capt. John (Scots Dragoons), 22, 105. 

, Peter, 123. 

Innes, ( ), 52. 

Arthur, 159, 160. 

, David, 160. 

James, 122, 144. 

, Major John, 74. 

John (son to the Laird of Innes), 113, 


, William, 26, 147. 

Innis, ( ), 61. 

Irvine, Christopher, M.D., 3, 5, 15, 63. 
Irving, Christopher. See Irvine. 
, James, 122, 144. 

Johnston, Robert, 63. 

Johnstone, Sir James, of Westerhal;, 68. 

, Sir John, bt., 159. 

Johnstoune, James, 68. 
Jessie, John, 53. 


Keath. See Keith. 

Keith, John, 53. 

, Sir John, of Keith's Hall, 53, 72, 99. 

, Robert, 27, 147 bis, 149. 

, Capt. William, 72. 

, Sir William, of Ludquhairn, 111, 135, 


Kellie, Alexander Erskine, 3rd Earl of, 17, 34. 

Kennaue, Walter, 82, 83. 

Ker, Lt.-Col., 50, 62. 

, George, 100. 

, Henry. See Kerr. 

, James, 141. 

Patrick, 70. 

Kerr, Archibald, 159. 

, Charles, 159. 

, Henry, 95,96. 

, Hon. John (son to the Earl of Lo- 
thian), 83. 

Kincardine, Alexander Bruce,2ndEarl of, 48, 70. 

King, (-), 114. 

King, Hans, 74. 

Kinghorn, Patrick Lyon, 3rd Earl of, 7. 

Kingston, Alexander Seton, 1st Viscount, 106. 

Kinnaird, Hon. George (son to Lord Kin- 
naird), 123. 

, James, 135, 142. 

Lalis, Patrick, 102. 
Lander, John, 105, 122. 

Capt. Lewis, 65. 

, Lieut. Lewis, 122, 123, 144, 145. 

Lauderdale, John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 

Duke of, 31, 35. 
Law, Lieut. James, 151. 

, Major, James, 83. 

, John, 102. 

Leids, John, 151. 

Leith, Alexander (Earl of Mar's Regt.), 115, 

154, 156. 
, Alexander (Earl of Dumbarton's 

Regt.), 151. 

, James, 15. 

Lennox and Richmond, Charles Fitxroy, 

Duke of, 37, 39, 162. 

, Charles Stuart, Duke of, 13, 31. 

Leslie, ( ), 10. 

Col. Ludovic, 80. 

, Patrick, 76. 

Leviston. See Livingston. 

Lewin, John, 95. 

Lindores, John Leslie, 4th Lord, 68. 

Lindsay, John, 135, 142. 

Linlithgow, George Liviugston, 3rd Earl. 

See Memoir in Part 1., pp. 29-34, and 

pp. 43-51 ; Part II., 13, 17, 19, 29, 

46 bis. 



Livingston, Capt. Alexander, of Beldonnie, 

24, 26, 37, 162. 
, Capt. Alexander (aftds. Earl of 

Calendar), 20, 147. 

, George, Lord, 8, 9, 19, 141. 

, John, 105, 122, 144, 146. 

Robert, 151, 152. 

, William, of Kilsyth, 144. 

Livingstone, Alexander (Earl of Mar's Kegt.), 


, Alexander (Foot Guards), 27, 147. 

,John, 114, 132, 154. 

Lockhart, James, 95. 

John, 102. 

Sir William, of Lee, 95, 97. 

Logie, William, of Bogheid, 72. 

Lorraine, James, 102. 

Lorrane. See Lorraine. 

Lothian, John, 29, 147, 149. 

Loudian. See Lothian. 

Lnmsdain, David, 70. 

Lumsden, James, of Mountquhany, 63, 95. 

Lundin, The Laird of. See Drummond, John. 

Lyon, Patrick (son to the Earl of Strathmore), 

26, 147. 


McAdam, David, 151. 
McArthur, Alexander, 108. 
Macdougal, Chris., 114, 130. 

, William (bro. to Maccarstoun), 95. 

Macgill, George (bro. to Visct. Oxfurd), 26, 


Mackarter. Sec McArthur. 
Mackay, JSneas, 159. 

, Hugh, of Seourie, 165. 

William, 102. 

McKenzie, Colin (uncle to the Earl of Sea- 

forth), 115 bis; 154. 

, Donald, 113, 133. 

Kenneth, of Suddie, 113, 114, 130, 


, Robert, 155. 

, Roderick, 142. 

Mackey. See Mackay. 

McRaken, James, 151. 

Madertie, David Drummond, 3rd Lord, 99. 

JUaine, Kdmunil, 119. 

, William, 30. 

Maitland, Charles, of Hatton (aftds. 3rd Earl 

of Lauderdale), 48, 65. 

, Charles, of Soutra, 35 note 1, 37, 162. 

, George, of Eccles, 100, 113. 

.James, Yr., 20, 21, 27, 29, 147 bis, 


, James, Elder, 25, 147, 148. 

, Lewis, 25, 100, 102. 

Maitland cont, 

, Robert (Lt.-Gov. of the Bass), 35. 

Mar, Charles Brskine, 21st Earl of, 31, 113, 
125, 154, 162. 

, John Erskine, 20th Earl of, 13, 31. 

Marischal, George Keith, 8th Earl, 48, 72. 
Maule, Col. the Hon. Harry, 51. 
Maxwell ( ), 169. 

, Alexander, 100. 

, Henry, 148. 

, James, 151. 

, John, 169. 

Robert, 159. 

, Robert, Master of, 68. 

, Thomas, 166. 

, Walter, 102, 154. 

Maxwell of Karrs ( ), 159. 
Mayne (or Maine), William, 147. 
Melville, Patrick, 16. 

, William, 161. 

Menteith, Charles, of Randiford, 95. 

Patrick, 95. 

Menzies, Duncan, 113, 114, 115, 125, 128, 
154 bis, 156. 

, James, of Culdares, 108 iw. 

Mercer, James, 18. 

Middleton, Andrew, of Pitgarvie, 53, 167. 

, James, 166. 

, John,' Earl of. See Memoir in Part I., 

pp. 5-10 ; Part II., 31 ; his resignation 
of his military posts, 174. 

Patrick, 18. 

, Robert, 148. 

William, 163*/.. 

Moncreiff, Alexander, 72. 

, Sir David, bt, 147. 

, Hugh, 22, 24. 

, James, 102. 

, Sir John, bt, 22. 

, Walter, 102. 

Monmouth and Bucclench, James, Duke of. 

See Buccleuch and Monmonth. 
Monro, Alexander, 151. 

, Andrew, 161. 

Sir George of Culcairne, Culrain, and 

Newmore. See Memoir of in Part I., 
pp. 36-42 ; Part II., 46 Inn, 100. 

, Hector, 100. 

John, 100. 

Montgomerie. See infra. 
Montgomery, Alexander, 156. 

, Alexander, Lord (aftds. 8th Earl of 

Eglinton), 10. 

, Hugh, 154. 

, James, 149. 

Hon. John, 142; his will, 188. 

W-'lliam, 95, 96. 

Montrose, James Graham, 3rd Marquis of, 7, 

104 bis. 
Moray. See Murray. 



Moulray. See Moutray. 
Moutray, James, 151. 
Mowat, Sir William, 151. 
Muirhead, Gavin, 95. 

, Major William of Lachop, 59, 182. 

Munro. See Monro. 
Murray ( ), 160. 

, Alexander, 61,62. 

, Arch., 159. 

, Lord Charles (aftds. Earl of Dun- 
more), 122, 144 bis. 

, Sir Charles, knt., 142Ai.s 168. 

, Charles (Earl of Dumbarton's Regt.), 

151 bis. 
, Charles (Lord James Douglas's 

Eegt.), 102. See Murray, Sir Charles. 

Lord Edward, 148. 

, George (Earl of Dumbarton's Regt.), 

.George (bro. to Thomaa Murray of 

Glendoiok), 24. 
.George of Pittencreif (bro. to Lord 

Elibank), 6, 8, 61, 62, 65. 141. 

, Sir James, 151. 

, Lord James, 151. 

Capt. James of Philiphaugh, 113. 

, Lt.-Col. James (Philiphaugh'suncle), 

22,24,28,29, 147, 148. 

, Corporal James, 61. 

, Capt. James (bro. to Sir Daviil 

Murray), 122, 144, 145. 

, Lieut. James, 145 M*. 

, John (Wauchope's Regt.), 159. 

, John (Lord James Douglas's Regt.), 


, John (Foot Guards), 149. 

, Hon. Sir Mungo, 3, 4, 5. 

, Sir Mungo, of Tibbermuir, 7,82*)*, 


, Peter, 159. 

, Capt. Robert (son of Sir Robert 

Murray), 27, 147. 

, Corporal Robert, 68. 

Ens. William, 95. 

, Sir William, bt,, of Stanhope, 61, 152. 


Naesmyth, James, of Posso, 136, 142. 

Nairne, Walter, 113. 

Napier, Archibald, 3rd Baron, 74. 

, Hon. John, 6. 

Nasmith. See supra. 

Newburgh, James Livingston, 1st Earl of, 

Nisbct, Robert, 115, 154. 

Ogilvy (or Ogilvie), Sir David of Clova, 63, 

, George, 63. 

, Sir Patrick, of Boyne, 100, 113. 

, Patrick, of Murie, 24, 100, 147. 

, William, 156. 

Oglethorpe, Theophilus, 119. 
Oliphant, Laurence, 149. 
, William, 148. 

Paterson, Andrew, of Dinmure, 10. 

Pearson, Alexander, 151. 

Perth, James Drummond, 4th Earl of, 37, 


Preston, David, 102. 
John, 102. 


Queensberry, William Douglas, 4th Earl, 1st 
Marquia and Duke of, 37 bis, 162 bis. 


Ramsay, James, 37, 162. 

, John, 156. 

Hon. William, 61. 

, William, Master of, 74. 

Ramsey, John, 159 bis. 

Ratray. See Rattray. 

Rattray ( ), 18. 

, Lieut.-Col. George, 145. 

, Cornet George, 145. 

Richmond, Duke of. See Lennox and Rich- 

Riddell, Andrew, 159. 

, John, of Hayning, 100. 

Robertson, Alan, 159. 

William, 151. 

Ronald, Patrick, 148, 1(53. 

Ross, Andrew, 122, 123, 144. 

, Hon. Charles, 142. 

, George, llth Lord, of Hawkhead. 25, 


, William, 12th Lord, of Hawkhead, 110, 

111, 135,136, 142. 

, William, Master of Ross. See mpra. 

Rothes, John Leslie, Earl (aftds. Duke) of. 
See Memoir in Part I., pp. 11-16 ; 
Part II., p. 10. 



Rutherford, Adam, 15. 

, Andrew, 151 bit. 

UuthvcD, Edward, 8. 

, Sir Francis, 110, 111, 135. 

, John, 151. 

, 1'atrick, 95. 

St. Clare. See Sinclair. 
Sandford ( ), 102. 
Sandilands, Alexander, 159. 

, William, of Hilderstonn, 95. 

Sdilezer. See Slezer. 
Scott, ( ), of Ardross, 155. 

, Andrew, 151. 

, Charles, 100. 

( ), of Voninstoun, 113. 

, Francis, 155. 

, James, 7, 141. 

, John, 155. 

, ( ), in Swanstoun, 113, 134. 

, Kobert, 65. 

, Thomas (Earl of Dumbarton's Regt.), 


, Thomas (Earl of Mar's Regt.), 154. 

Seaton. See Seton. 

Semple, Pierce, 102. 

Setoii, Alexander, 102. 

, James (son to Viscount Kingston), 


, James, of Touch, 100. 

, John, 96. 

Sewster, Robert, 9fi. 

Sharp, Walter, 115, 154, 156. 

, William, 114, 181, 154, 155. 

Sinclair, James, 95, 96. 

John, 159. 

Slezer, John (Chief Engineer and Lieut, of the 

Artillery), 43 tci; Hi6. 
Somerville, Robert, 28, 147. 
Stevenson, John, 29. 
Stewart ( ), 10. 

, Alexander, 114. 

, Hon. Archibald. See Stuart. 

, Francis. See Stuart. 

, George, 151. 

, Harry, 45. 

, James (Lockhart's Regt,), 95. 

, James (King's Ee^t. of Horse), 186, 


Stilt, John, 166. 
Stirling, Alexander, 102. 

, James, 100, 114, 115, 125, 154. 

Strachan, George, 160. 

Capt. John, 24, 100, 105, 122, 144. 

, Lieut. John, 151. 

Straiton, Alexander, Elder, 113, 127, 154. 

, ( ), Yr., 115, 154, 156. 

, Charles, 28, 113, 147. 

Henry, 28, 147, 148. 

John, 129, 148, 154, 155. 

, Robert, 31 ; his will, 187. 

Strathallan, William Drummond.lst Viscount. 

See Drummond, Lieut-General William 

of Cromlix. 

Strathmore, Patrick Bowes, 1st Earl of. See 

Kinghorn, Earl of. 
Straton. See Straiten. 
Stuart, Hon. Arch., 20, 21, 37 bit, 162 bit, 163. 

, Ensign Arch., 21, 147. 

, Fras., of Coldingham, 106 5?*, 122. 

, James. See Stewart. 

Sutherland, Alexander, 102. 
, David, 147. 

Thinly, James, 95. 

Thomson, Sir Alexander, 13, 15; his epitaph, 

16 ; his widow's will, 184. 

, Lieut. James, 95. 

, Sir James, 155. 

Thralkeld. See Threlkeld. 

Threlkeld, Isaac, 151. 

Touch, Laird of. See Seton, James. 

Touris, Robert, 102. 

Trotter, William, 113, 126, 154, 155. 

Turner, Sir James, 13, 15, 17, 122 ; letter from, 


Tyree ( ), 113. 


Urquhart, Adam, of Meldrum, 10, 110, 111, 

, Alexander, 30, 102. 

, James, 63, 142. 

Urrie, Col. William, 13, 15, 17 ; his will, 185. 

Vans, Patrick, of Bambarroch, 62. 
Veitch, Michael, of Dawick, 114, 130, 154. 


Wachop. See Waiichope. 
Wallace, John, 155. 

, Qr.-Mr. William, 82, 83. 

, Sir William, of Craigie, 142. 



Wauchope, Edward, 159. 

, Fras,, 159. 

, James, 141. 

,'John, 159. 

Wedderburne, John, of Gosford, 144 iw. 
Wemyss, James, General of the Artillery. See 

Introduction, xiii-xiv, Pt. II., 40, 41, 

White, Andrew, 37 Mi, 113, 128, 162 bit. 

.William, 115,154. 

Whiteford, John, 122, 144. 

Wigton, William Fleming, Eth Earl of, 36 hi*. 

Winchester, Ensign James, 163. 

, Major James, 163. 

Wmraham, (or Winram), Alexander, 95, 96, 

100, 102. 

Lieut.-Col. George, 76, 95, 100, 144, 

145, 163, 185. 

Winraham tout. 

, Ensign George, 27, 147. 

John, 19, 27, 28, 29, 147, 185. 

, Samuel, 29, 147. 

Thomas, 106 bis, 122 l>ii, 144,188. 

Wishart, Patrick, 18. 
Wood, Andrew, 114, 132, 154. 

James, 113, 125, 154, 155. 

Robert, 155. 

Young, John, 125. 
Robert, 143. 

[541. 1/09] 

Dalton, Charles (comp.) 
The Scots